2 Modern Theory of Evolution Much of Darwin’s theory of evolution is still widely accepted among the scientific community.
3 A brief history of evolution Contrary to popular belief, Darwin was not the first person to describe the concept of evolution, but he was the one who gave it its driving force.
4 PREDARWIN VIEWS: PLATO: PLATO: Greek philosopherPhilosophy of idealism which held that there are 2 coexisting worlds: an ideal eternal real world and an illusionary imperfect world that humans perceive with their senses.
5 PLATO:Went wrong: when he said that only ideas were absolute, he viewed physical world as not genuinely real...Did Not know God.
7 ARISTOTLE:Greek philosopher, Father of Biology.Recognized that organisms range from relatively simple to very complex, all living organisms could be arranged on a scale of increasing complexity.Since their were no vacancies, no mobility along the ladder of life was possible...species are fixed and do not evolve.
8 ARISTOTLE:• Problem; The only scientific error was that Aristotle searched for the meaning of living nature only. God was left out of the picture.
9 He was convinced that species were fixed and unchanging.• CAROLUS LINNAEUSSwedish physician and botanist, developed binomial nomenclature. Father of TaxonomyHe was convinced that species were fixed and unchanging.•
10 CAROLUS LINNAEUSHe wanted to impose order on the large number of Plants and AnimalsHe epitomized the attitudes of the 17th through 19th centuries.... For the greater glory of God
11 CAROLUS LINNAEUSNote: His taxonomic system became a focal point in Darwin's argument for evolution.
12 GEORGE CURVIER Founder of paleontology He stood against the theories of evolution.He believed that it was only logical that God would use the same basic plans for many different animals and plants when he created them.
13 Comparative AnatomyThe bodies of man and animals have certain basic similarities in their overall designs.• Note: Evolutionists interpret similarities of comparatives as proof for evolution.
14 comparative anatomyHowever comparative anatomy: furnishes evidence of a single Creator.Comparative anatomy shows that the bodies of man and animals have a basic similarity in their overall design.It furnishes some damaging evidence against evolution ex the similarities between such structures as the squid eye and the human eye.
15 CHARLES LYELL:leading geologist of Darwin's time.Believed that the geological processes occurring now have always been occurring at the same rate.. .theory of Uniformitarianism
16 Problem:The geological processes do not occur at the same rate all over the world today, or even from year to year in the same region.
17 This theory is refuted by 2nd 2nd PETER 3:3—6 "their shall come in the last days scoffers...saying all things continue as they were from the beginning of the creation. For this they willingly are ignorant of, that by the world of God the heavens were of old, and the earth standing out of the water and in the water: Whereby the world that then was, being overflowed with water, perished."
19 JEAN BAPTISTS LAMARK• Felt that animals exercised the needed parts of their bodies, strengthening some traits and causing others to degenerate...enhanced traits could be passed on to their offspring...called use disuse theory
20 Jean Baptiste Lamarck (early 1800’s) proposed: “The inheritance of acquired characteristics”He proposed that by using or not using its body parts, an individual tends to develop certain characteristics, which it passes on to its offspring.
21 “The Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics” Example:A giraffe acquired its long neck because its ancestor stretched higher and higher into the trees to reach leaves, and that the animal’s increasingly lengthened neck was passed on to its offspring.
22 CHARLES DARWIN Was born on February 12, 1809 in Shrewsbury, England. Studied medicine at the University of Edinburg, but left without a degree.Enrolled at Chris college at Cambridge University to study for clergy....received his degree in 1831.
23 Charles DarwinSet sail from England December 1831 on the ship "the HMS Beagle" as the ships Naturalist.Due to seasickness, Darwin spent most of his time ashore while the ship's crew surveyed the coast....believed that he was infected with either yellow fever or dengue fever here...which caused health problems later in life.
24 From 1831 to 1836 Darwin served as naturalist aboard the H. M. S From 1831 to 1836 Darwin served as naturalist aboard the H.M.S. Beagle on a British science expedition around the world.He observed much variation in related or similar species of plants and animals that were geographically isolated from each other.These observations were the basis for his ideas.
26 Charles DarwinCollected thousands of specimen's including 13 types of finches from Galapagos Islands...some were unique to individual islands, while others were found on two or more islands that were close together.
28 —Charles Darwin from "The Origin of Species“, 1859 Darwin presumed that populations of individuals changed over time, and, in 1844, he developed the concept of the driving force for evolution. It wasn’t until many years later that he published his idea.“I have called this principle, by which each slight variation, if useful, is preserved, by the term Natural Selection.”—Charles Darwin from "The Origin of Species“, 1859Influenced by Charles Lyell who published “Principles of Geology”.
29 Darwin’s dilemmaIt was a letter Darwin received on June 18, 1858, that precipitated the publishing of The Origin of Species.Alfred Russell Wallace, exploring in Asia, had come to the same conclusion as Darwin.
30 Origin of Species The Origin of Species published 1859) Within a few years after publication, many biologist were convinced that evolution was a fact.
32 Bishop Samuel Wilberforce “…tell me, is it on your grandfather’s or grandmother’s side that you are descended from an ape.”-Bishop Samuel Wilberforce to Darwin defender, Thomas Huxley
33 Huxley was a passionate defender of Darwin's theory -- so passionate that he has been called "Darwin's Bulldog".“If…the question is put to me would I rather have a miserable ape for a grandfather or a man highly endowed by nature and possessed of great means and influence and yet who employs these faculties and that influence for the mere purpose of introducing ridicule into a grave scientific discussion I unhesitatingly affirm my preference for the ape.”-Huxley’s responseThomas Henry Huxley
34 Charles Darwin Two main points: 1. Species were not created in their present form, but evolved from ancestral species.2. Proposed a mechanism for evolution: NATURAL SELECTION
35 DARWIN'S ERROR:Darwin did not reject biblical creation; he knew nothing about it.Even though he studied for the ministry at Cambridge, it is obvious from his writings that he did not have a clue as to what the Bible actually taught requiring Special Creation...that those imperfections of nature were the result of the fall, and the world is not now the way God originally made it.
36 DARWIN'S ERROR:Darwin was made susceptible to many of his errors by the fact that some Christians had been reading their own preconceived hypothesis into the book of Genesis.Darwin's observations of nature showed him that these statements were false, and Darwin mistakenly thought that these came from the Bible and therefore dismissed the Bible as being in error on the subject.
37 DARWINS EVIDENCE: Geology: theory of Uniformitarianism Comparative Anatomy: Homologous structuresTaxonomyEmbryonic evidence: Closely related organisms go through similar stages in their embryonic development. The pharyngeal arches of human embryos never act as gills, they are a stage of development and are just embryonic pouches that later develop into the thymus gland, middle ear canal and parathyroid gland.
38 DARWINS EVIDENCE:Molecular biology: An organisms hereditary background is reflected in its genes and their protein products. Due to the complexity of the cell and its chemical processes made it unlikely to support evolution after more knowledge was gained about cellular processes.
39 EFFECT OF EVOLUTION:In the Descent of Man, Darwin appears to be endorsing voluntary eugenics, but does not advocate coercion:
40 EFFECT OF EVOLUTION:We must therefore bear the undoubtedly bad effects of the weak surviving and propagating their kind; but there appears to be at least one check in steady action, that the weaker and inferior members of society do not marry so freely as the sound; and this check might be indefinitely increased by the weak in body or mid refraining from marriage, though this is more to be hoped for than expected" Darwin , Descent of Man p 502• .
41 EugenicsSome 20th century evolutionists have taken Darwin's ideas much further
43 Natural SelectionIndividuals with favorable traits are more likely to leave more offspring better suited for their environment.Also known as “Differential Reproduction”Example:English peppered moth (Biston betularia)- light and dark phases
44 Natural Selection:Darwin said that nature, in the form of the total environment selected “ those characteristics that made an organism better able to survive.Ex: English pepper moth:• In England the air was cleaner and pepper moths were mostly light colored with only a few dark colored ones. The light blended on the birch and lichen., the black did not...so birds saw the black moths and moth the light. As pollution darkened the environment, dark moth population increased and light moth population decreased
45 Reply:There were both light and dark pepper moths present from the beginning. No new kinds of moths appeared. Only the ratios shifted. Both dark and light moths can interbreed, thus are the same species. Survival of the fittest is not evolution. It does not explain how new life forms change from one into another or can suddenly appear.
46 "Survival of the fittest“ The survival and reproduction of individuals w/ certain advantageous characteristicsThis is not evolution and is accepted by both evolutionist and creationist
47 Adaptive RadiationDarwin discussed emergence of numerous species from a common ancestor.Ex. Galapagos finches:13 different types of finches in the Galapagos islands. Lead Darwin toconclude the finches shared a common ancestor.
54 Reply:. No classification system can show intermediate forms...only existing species.. With regard to the horse series, it is a collection of unrelated mammals that share a similar overall body plan.
55 Ex Horse series:Problems with horse series: Eohippus had 18 pr of ribs, but its descendant Orohippus had only 15 pr of ribs, Pliohippus had 19pr of ribs while modern horses have 18 pr of ribs. Thus a jumping back and forth with ribs disappearing and reappearing like magic..
57 George Gaylord Simpson , world's foremost evolutionary paleontologistsaid, "The uniform, continuous transformation of Hyracotherium into Equus, so dear to the hearts of generations of textbook writers never happened in nature." (George G. Simpson, Life Of The Past, p.119)
58 George Gaylord Simpson Simpson, after stating that nowhere in the world is there any trace of a fossil that would close the considerable gap between Hyracotherium ("Eohippus"), which evolutionists assume was the first horse, and its supposed ancestral order Condylarthra, goes on to say "This is true of all the thirty-two orders of mammals…The earliest and most primitive known members of every order already have the basic ordinal characters, and in no case is an approximately continuous sequence from one order to another known. In most cases the break is so sharp and the gap so large that the origin of the order is speculative and much disputed." (Tempo and Mode in Evolution, G. G. Simpson,1944, p 105)
59 Coelacanths:Thought to have been the transitional species between fish and amphibians..
60 Evolutionist say that living fossils, like the coelacanth, ginkgo, and horseshoe crab, are examples of organisms that are relatively unchanged from their distant ancestors. Exterior of a horseshoe crab, an example of a living fossil.
62 Reply:1938 a coelacanth was caught off the coast of the Indian ocean. It was discovered to live deep within the ocean, rarely above 500 feet of surface, thus could not crawl onto land. No resemblance to amphibian anatomy internal or external
63 horseshoe crabhorseshoe crab, an example of organisms that are relatively unchanged from their distant ancestors…then where is the “evolution”???????
64 Archaeopteryx:Often presented as an evolutionary link between a small dinosaur (maniraptoran) and modern birds.
67 Reply;Even if the fossil proves that Archaeopteryx and theropod dinosausrs were so much alike that birds would have to be reclassified as subtype of dinosaurs (is possible), this still does not imply birds evolved.It only indicates that God created dinosaurs and birds with very similar design characteristics.
68 Cladistic TaxonomyCladistic taxonomy classifies organisms according to the order in time that branches arise along a phylogenetic tree, (a visual model of the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms) with out considering the degree of divergence..
69 Cladistic TaxonomyThe product is a cladogram.; a diagrammatic tree consisting of a series' of dichotomous forks. Each branch point is defined by novel homologies unique to the various species on that branch.
70 Cladistic TaxonomyCladistics is favored by some evolutionary biologist because it makes describing evolution the goal of taxonomy.Probably the most serious drawback to cladistic terminology is its use as a rhetorical tool by evolutionists.Ex using cladistic terminology can make it more difficult to argue that mammals did not evolve from fish, for example, because by cladistic definition mammals are fish.
72 Reply:A major difficulty in cladistics is finding characteristics that are appropriate for each branch point.Despite these problems, the growing acceptance of cladistics in biology has had a few positive effects:Instead of looking at fossil and dreaming up hypothetical ancestors, many cladists now use cladograms for careful comparisons of fundamental traits— then try to group similar animals together.
73 Reply:Cladograms can be used by creationists as a tool to more objectively discern similarities and differences between animal species.
74 Geological Time-Evolutionist believe the earth to be 4.5 billion years oldAs a result of these large numbers, scientists have named large chunks of time based on dominant events of the time.
75 -a. Darwin, however, explained evolution c. Evolutionist say the fossil record seems to support thisConstantTimeSuddenChangesChange**Known as: Punctuated Equilibrium-a. Darwin, however, explained evolutionas a gradual accumulation of variations**Known as: GradualismTimeChange
76 The fossil recordWhen asked to provide evidence of long-term evolution, most scientists turn to the fossil record.Within this context, fossil horses are among the most frequently cited examples of evolution
79 The prominent Finnish paleontologist Bjorn Kurten wrote . : 'One's mind inevitably turns to that inexhaustible textbook example, the horse sequence. This has been cited -- incorrectly more often than not -- as evidence for practically every evolutionary principle that has ever been coined.' This cautionary note notwithstanding, fossil horses do indeed provide compelling evidence in support of evolutionary theory." (The Fossil Record And Evolution: A Current Perspective, B. J. MacFadden Horses, Evol. Biol. ISBN: 22: , 1988, p. 131)
80 Supposed Evidence from Comparative Anatomy Comparative Anatomy- the study of structural similarities and differences between living things
81 Homologous Structures- parts of different organisms that have similar structure, but different forms and functionsExample: human arm and hand, whale flipper, cat leg, bat wing, bird wing
82 Homologous Structures- same structure: different function
88 Note comparative anatomy: furnishes evidence of a single Creator. Comparative anatomy shows that the bodies of man and animals have a basic similarity in their overall design because of the one creator.
89 Comparative Embryology Structurally different species show common patterns in embryological developmenta. presence of gill slits, 2-chambered hearts, tailsb. the longer the embryos show similarities, the more closely related the species
93 Ernest Haekel1860s German Darwinist Ernst Haeckel made some drawings to illustrate the distorted view that embryonic development supported evolution. Haeckel faked his drawings.The embryos are not nearly as similar as he made them out to be; furthermore, Haeckel was very selective in his choice of embryos.
94 Ernest HaekelHaeckel used mammals from the same order and omitted embryos from 2 orders including kangaroos and platypuses.He also omitted the 2 classes of vertebrates that include lampreys and sharks. and amphibians that include frogs because they didn’t embryonically support evolution
95 Ernest HaekelHaeckel’s fakery was exposed by his own contemporaries, who accused him of fraud, yet his drawings are still used in modern biology books
96 C. Evidence from DNA1. Each individual organism has its own specific DNA structure (DNA fingerprint)2. The closer the structure of DNA between organisms (species), the closer the evolutionary relationship Ernest Haekel
97 DNASince experience shows that intelligence is the only presently acting cause of information, we can infer that intelligence is the best explanation for the information in DNA.When philosopher Stephen Meyer Published this inference in a biology journal, with supporting scientific evidence, Darwinist tried to ruin the career of the journal’s editor
98 Artificial SelectionThe selective breeding of domesticated plants and animals by man.Question: What’s the ancestor of the domesticated dog?Answer: WOLFQuestion: Did evolution occurAnswer: No, no new species..still a dog
99 MacroevolutionThe origin of taxonomic groups higher than the species levelChange from one species to another.
100 Microevolution Evolutionist say: A change in a population’s gene pool over a secession of generations.Evolutionary changes in species over relatively brief periods of geological time.Response: no its just adaptation to the environment…. We are ok with adaptation
101 Five Mechanisms of Microevolution 1. Genetic drift:Change in the gene pool of a small population due to chance.2. Gene Flow:The gain or loss of alleles from a population by the movement of individuals or gametes.
102 Five Mechanisms of Microevolution 3. Mutation:Change in an organism’s DNA that creates a new allele.4. Non-random mating:The selection of mates other than by chance.5. Natural selection:Differential reproduction.
103 Speciation The evolution of new species. Microevolution: adaptation..no new animal
104 CoevolutionEvolutionary change, in which one species act as a selective force on a second species, inducing adaptations that in turn act as selective force on the first species.Example:Humming birds and plants with flowers with long tubesDid a new animal form or did adaptation occur ?
105 Observation and Inference Let’s do a little exercise…
106 What is the size and nature of the organisms? Were the tracks made at the same time?How many animals were involved?Can you reconstruct the events that occurred?
107 The following summer some more digging revealed more of the track The following summer some more digging revealed more of the track. What additional information have you gained that allows you to refine your answers?
108 Were the tracks made at the same time? How many animals were involved?Can you reconstruct the events that occurred?In what direction did the animals move?Did they change speed or direction?
109 In the final summer of the excavation one last part of the footprint trail was uncovered. Does this section provide additional information to refine your hypothesis?
110 So what happened?What part of your hypothesis is observation? What part is inference(act of reasoning from factual knowledge or evidence) ? What part is conjecture?(guesswork
111 This is how science is done. Except guesswork must be testable based on the scientific method…Evolution is not testable
112 Modern Primates : divided into 2 groups 1. Prosimians:lemurs, lorries, pottos, tarsiers, bush baby, aye aye2. Anthropoids:monkeys, apes, humans, had color vision, rounded skull, diurnal, stereoscopic vision, social organization
114 2 kinds of Monkeys: 1. Old world monkeys: Catarrhine group Means narrow nose groupLack prehensile tail and have callous buttocksArboreal and terrestrial2. New world Monkeys: Platyrrhine groupMeans broad nose groupHave prehensile tail and no callous buttocksArboreal
115 Primate Characteristics Limber shoulder joints allowing for Brachiation (swinging)Dexterous hands for hanging and manipulating food.Sensitive fingers with nails, not claws
116 Primate Characteristics Eyes close together on front of face giving overlapping field of vision for depth perception (needed for brachiation)Excellent eye hand coordinationParental care
117 Hylobates: gibbons Pongo: orangutans Gorilla Pan: chimpanzee 4 Groups of apes:Hylobates: gibbonsPongo: orangutansGorillaPan: chimpanzee
119 Differences between man and ape: Man regulates body temperature by eccrine (sweat) glands, apes do not.respiratory anatomy: man has a 1 descended larynx, apes do not.apes have vibrisae (whiskers), man does not.
120 Differences between man and ape: Differences in the musculature, especially the hands.Skull differences: including teeth arrangement with humans having a parabolic tooth arrangement (u shaped arch) and apes having a slightly rectangular tooth arrangement