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EGYPT 1 Photo – National Geographic

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1 EGYPT 1 Photo – National Geographic (3:30) (2:11) (3:25)

2 Please....

3 Vagabonds Tramping Through East Africa

4 Elephant Dung Paper handmade by Rocky & Sandi Tatia Discovery Center Tsavo, Kenya Elephant Dung Paper made as part of a project with Kent State University, teaching native people to create gift items from indigenous materials Elephant Dung Paper made as part of a project with Kent State University, teaching native people to create guest books, notebooks, address books and other gift items from indigenous materials. Participants collected the dung from the local area, dried it, mixed it with a binding agent (mud and paste), rolled it into thin sheets, dried the sheets, and bound the sheets into books.

5 AFRICA GAME VIEWING Africa Adventure Company: Adventure Company: Our website: website:

6 SOUTHAFRICA ANGOLA ZIMBABWE Week 1: living in Africa EAST AFRICA Week 2: Zimbabwe Week 3: Tanzania (1) Week 4: Tanzania (2) Week 5: Kenya Week 6: Egypt TANZANIA KENYA EGYPT WEEK 6: EGYPT

7 TODAY’S TOPICS Geography, History & Statistics Nile Cruise 7 EGYPT Nile Nile Cairo Cairo Aswan Aswan Edfu Edfu Luxor Luxor West Bank West Bank Abu Simbel Abu Simbel Giza Giza

8 EGYPT GEOGRAPHY & GEOLOGY

9 EGYPT GEOGRAPHY

10 EGYPT

11 Mediterranean Sea SUDAN LIBYA 660 miles 600 miles EGYPT GEOGRAPHY Surrounded by 5 countries GAZA STRIP ISRAEL RedSea SAUDI ARABIA Physical Dimensions Disputed Areas 390,000 sq miles (1.45X Texas)

12 EGYPT GEOGRAPHY Great Sand DesertGreat Sand Desert Nile River (Longest river on planet at 4,130 miles) Mt. Sinai (7,497ft) Green means lower level on map Nile River Delta Isthmus of Suez Suez Canal Asia Afric a This makes Egypt a transcontinental nation Physical Highlights

13 EGYPT GEOGRAPHY Population Distribution People per sq km Approx. 99% of population uses only 5.5% of total land area

14 EGYPT GEOLOGY Egyptian Geology

15 EGYPT FLAG & HISTORY

16 EGYPTIAN FLAG RED symbolizes early struggle against the monarchy WHITE symbolizes the bloodless nature of its former Revolution BLACK symbolizes end of oppression Tricolor is based on the Arab Liberation Flag; also used by Iraq, Syria & Yemen Egypt's national emblem, the Eagle of Saladin is centered in the white band (symbol of Arab Nationalism)

17 KEY HISTORY TERMS 1.Upper/Middle/Lower Egypt Lower Egypt Lower Egypt is from Cairo to the Mediterranean Upper Egypt Upper Egypt is between the Sudan and Cairo Upper Egypt Upper Egypt has been broken up into a Middle Egypt & Upper Egypt Middle Egypt Middle Egypt stretches upstream from the Qena Bend to Memphis UPPER EGYPT MIDDLE EGYPT LOWER EGYPT Cairo Sudan to south

18 KEY HISTORY TERMS 2.Old/Middle/New Kingdoms Old Kingdom Old Kingdom period, c. 2700–2200 BC Middle Kingdom Middle Kingdom period, c BC New Kingdom New Kingdom period, c BC

19 KEY HISTORY TERMS 3.Intermediate Periods 1 st Intermediate 1 st Intermediate c BC 2 nd Intermediate 2 nd Intermediate c BC 3 rd Intermediate 3 rd Intermediate c BC If Old Kingdom Middle Kingdom If Old Kingdom period ended c.2200 BC and the Middle Kingdom started c BC, what’s in between? WHOA! “period of disunity and relative cultural decline”

20 KEY HISTORY TERMS 4.Dynasties Egypt 1st dynasty (c – 2890 BC) 2nd dynasty (2890–2686 BC) 3rd dynasty (2686–2613 BC) 4th dynasty (2613–2498 BC) 5th dynasty (2498–2345 BC) 6th dynasty (2345–2181 BC) 7th and 8th dynasties ( BC) 9th dynasty (2160–2130 BC) 10th dynasty (2130–2040 BC) 11th dynasty (2134–1991 BC) 12th dynasty (1991–1803 BC) 13th dynasty (1803–1649 BC) 14th dynasty (1705–1690 BC) 15th dynasty (1674–1535 BC) 16th dynasty (1660–1600 BC) 17th dynasty (1650–1549 BC) 18th dynasty (1549–1292 BC) 19th dynasty (1292–1186 BC) 20th dynasty (1186–1069 BC) 21st dynasty (1069 – 945 BC) 22nd dynasty (945 – 720 BC) 23rd dynasty (837 – 728 BC) 24th dynasty (732 – 720 BC) 25th dynasty (732 – 653 BC) 26th dynasty (672 – 525 BC) Achaemenid dynasty (525 – 404 BC) 28th dynasty (404 – 398 BC) 29th dynasty (398 – 380 BC) 30th dynasty (380 – 343 BC) Achaemenid dynasty (343 – 332 BC) Argead dynasty (332 – 309 BC) Ptolemaic Dynasty (305 – 30 BC) Julio-Claudian Dynasty (27 BC – 68 AD) Flavian Dynasty (69 – 96) Nervan-Antonian Dynasty (96 – 192) Severan Dynasty (193 – 235) Constantinian dynasty (303 – 336) Valentinian Dynasty (364 – 457) House of Theodosius from 379 Leonid dynasty (457 – 518) Justinian Dynasty (518 – 602) Sassanian Dynasty Heraclian Dynasty (602 – 695 and 705 – 711) Rashidun Caliphate Umayyad Caliphate Abbasid Caliphate Mamelukes Ottoman Sultanate Muhammad Ali Dynasty (1805–1953) “a sequence of rulers considered members of the same family. Dynasty is also used to refer to the era during which a family reigned, as well as events, trends and artifacts of that period…”

21 KEY HISTORY TERMS 5.Divisions of Historical Egyptian Time

22 BRIEF EGYPT HISTORY c. 10th millennium BC, a culture of hunter-gatherers and fishers is established in Egypt c BCE-Sahara starts to form; tribal peoples migrated to the Nile River where they developed a settled agricultural economy and more centralized society c BCE-Neolithic culture rooted in the Nile Valley; several pre-dynastic cultures developed independently in Upper and Lower Egypt c BCE-earliest known evidence of Egyptian hieroglyphic inscriptions appeared 3150 BCE-Unified kingdom was founded by King Menes; leading to a series of dynasties that ruled Egypt for the next 3000 years!

23 BRIEF EGYPT HISTORY c BCE-first foreign ruling dynasty in Egypt; Semitic Hyksos c BCE, start of New Kingdom, began with the 18 th Dynasty; this dynasty sees the maximum expansion of Egypt Well known Pharaohs, including Hatshepsut, Thutmose III, Akhenaten and his wife Nefertiti, Tutankhamun and Ramesses II are from New Kingdom Period 343 BCE-Last native ruling dynasty during the Pharaonic epoch; Falls to the Persians after the last native Pharaoh is defeated in battle 332 BCE-Ptolemaic Kingdom takes control; Alexandria becomes capital city and center of Greek culture and trade

24 1st century-Christianity brought to Egypt by Saint Mark the Evangelist Arabs 639 CE-Egypt invaded and conquered by Muslim Arabs; Cairo becomes seat of Califate; Arabs remain in control for next 600 years Mamluks c CE-Mamluks take control; Egypt linked the Red Sea, India, Malaya, and East Indies Ottoman Turks 1517-Ottoman Turks conquer Egypt after which it becomes a province of the Ottoman Empire and remains connected to the Ottomans till 1914 Napoleon Bonaparte 1798-Napoleon Bonaparte conquers Egypt; holds it for 2 yrs. Four years of anarchy follows Mohamed Ali 1805 Mohamed Ali (known as “Founder of Modern Egypt”) takes control and holds it for 43 yrs! BRIEF EGYPT HISTORY

25 1875-Ali family sells their Suez Canal shares to the British Government; British & French appointed to Parliament to monitor finances Foreign involvement leads to local uprising; British/French invade; Egypt becomes British protectorate; British involvement till first modern revolution; UK government issues a unilateral declaration of Egypt's independence on 22 February 1922; Republic Ali captures Saudi Arabia, Syria, Sudan and parts of Ethopia 1840-increasing power of Ali alarms European powers; they intercede in Ali’s forays 1847-Ali dies; string of family successions follow; debt increases to point that Egypt can borrow no more; Europe steps in

26 BRIEF EGYPT HISTORY 1956-Nasser assumes power as President 1956 nationalizes the Suez Canal prompting the 1956 Suez Crisis 1967 Six Day War, Israel invades and occupies Egypt's Sinai Peninsula and the Gaza Strip years later President Nasser dies and succeeded by Anwar Sadat 1972-Sadat switches Egypt's Cold War allegiance from the Soviet Union to the United States, expels Soviet advisors; launches the Infitah economic reform policy, while clamping down on religious and secular opposition 1977-Sadat makes historic visit to Israel; leads to 1979 peace treaty in exchange for Israeli withdrawal from Sinai. Fundamentalist military soldier assassinates Sadat in Cairo in He is succeeded by Hosni Mubarak

27 BRIEF EGYPT HISTORY In 2003, Movement launched to oppose Mubarak regime and to establish democratic reforms/greater civil liberties January 2011, widespread protests began against Mubarak's government; February 2011-Mubarak resigns Feb 2011-VP Omar Suleiman announces Mubarak stepped down/military assume short term control nation's affairs; Celebrations breaks out in Tahrir Square February 2011, high level military command announces that both the constitution and the parliament have been dissolved November 2011, Egypt held its first parliamentary election since the previous regime had been in power; in July 2012, new president Mohamed Morsi elected August 2012, Prime Minister announces new 35 member cabinet; 28 newcomers including four from the influential Muslim Brotherhood

28 BRIEF EGYPT HISTORY FACTS mid-14th-century Black Death kills 40% of the population; Egypt suffers six famines between 1687 and 1731 Ali focused on ridding Egypt of the Ottomans, increasing education, medical study, port development, military restructuring, infrastructure development and improving economic basis of the country Ali’s 16 yr old son conquers Saudi Arabia w/20,000 troops; dies 2 years later 1820 campaign was successful, but power of the Saudis not broken. They continued to harass Ottoman and Egyptian. Consequently, another sons, Ibrahim, is dispatched to finally rout the Saudis. After a two-year campaign, Saudis were crushed and most of the Saudi family was captured. The family leader, Abdullah ibn Saud, was sent to Istanbul, and executed Ali annexes Northern Sudan (1820–1824), Syria (1833), and parts of Arabia and Anatolia 1822-cultivation of cotton in the Nile Delta is developed; cotton was brought from the Sudan 1841-European powers, fearful, forced him to return most of conquests to Ottomans, but keeps Sudan

29 ADDITIONAL NOTES The first two ruling dynasties of a unified Egypt set the stage for the Old Kingdom period, c. 2700–2200 BC., which constructed many pyramids, most notably the Third Dynasty pyramid of Djoser and the Fourth Dynasty Giza Pyramidsfirst two ruling dynastiesOld KingdompyramidsThird Dynastypyramid of DjoserFourth DynastyGiza Pyramids Eighteenth Dynasty and relocated the capital from Memphis to Thebes Eighteenth DynastyMemphisThebes Middle Kingdom c BC, reaching a peak during the reign of Pharaoh Amenemhat III Middle Kingdom Amenemhat III New Kingdom c. 1550–1070 BC began with the Eighteenth Dynasty, marking the rise of Egypt as an international power that expanded during its greatest extension to an empire as far south as Tombos in Nubia New Kingdominternational powerTombosNubia last ruler from the Ptolemaic line was Cleopatra VII, who committed suicide following the burial of her lover Mark Antony who had died in her arms (from a self- inflicted stab wound), after Octavian had captured Alexandria and her mercenary forces had fled.PtolemaicCleopatra VIIMark AntonyOctavian

30 EGYPT DEMOGRAPHIC & ECONOMIC STATISTICS

31 ANGOLAS. AFRICAZIM’WETANZ’AKENYAEGYPTUSA SIZE (X Texas)2X ½ X1.4X0.8X1.4X14X DEMOGRAPHICS population (million) people/sq mile indiginous tribes95%80%98% 99%1% European extraction 2%9%1% -72% (Indian/Asian/other) 3%11%1% 27% median age (years) life expectancy (2008) life expectancy (1990) ENGLISH? (official)noyes noyes RELIGIONS Christian88%80%85%30%78%10%73% Tribal7%15%14%35%10%-- Hindu/Jewish/Muslim5% 1%35%12%90%7% EDUCATION literacy (adults)40-65%96%92%78%88%70%99% primary (% complete)35%77%50%62%58%50%> 90% ECONOMY (CIA) per capita GDP (T$)$9 T$10 T$0.5 T$1.5 T$1.8T$6.6T$49T GDP: mining11%6%20%4%--1%15% GDP: oil/gas85% -- *7%8% GDP: tourism 12%9%16%11% 2% NATURAL RESOURCES arable land3%12%8%4%9%3%18% oil reserves (MB)9, *421,000 gas reserves (Tril ft 3) *77272 diamond res (B ct) > coal reserves (B tons) otherfishplatium goldtea,coftextilescoal ANGOLAS. AFRICAZIM’WETANZ’AKENYAEGYPTUSA STATISTICAL COMPARISON

32 ANGOLAS. AFRICAZIM’WETANZ’AKENYAEGYPTUSA SIZE (X Texas)2X ½ X1.4X0.8X1.4X14X DEMOGRAPHICS population (million) people/sq mile indiginous tribes95%80%98% 99% european extraction 2%9%1% - (mixed, Indian/Asian) 3%11%1% median age (years) life expectancy (2008) life expectancy (1990) ENGLISH? (official)noyes noyes RELIGIONS Christian88%80%85%30%78%10%73% Tribal7%15%14%35%10%-- Hindu/Jewish/Muslim5% 1%35%12%90%7% EDUCATION literacy (adults)40-65%96%92%78%88%70%99% primary (% complete)35%77%50%62%58%50%> 90% ECONOMY (CIA) per capita GDP (T$)$9 T$10 T$0.5 T$1.5 T$1.8T$6.6T$49T GDP: mining11%6%20%4%--1%15% GDP: oil/gas85% -- *7%8% GDP: tourism 12%9%16%11% 2% NATURAL RESOURCES arable land3%12%8%4%9%3%18% oil reserves (MB)9, *421,000 gas reserves (Tril ft 3) *77272 diamond res (B ct) > coal reserves (B tons) otherfishplatium goldtea,coftextilescoal ANGOLAS. AFRICAZIM’WETANZ’AKENYAEGYPTUSA STATISTICAL COMPARISON

33 OLDER & LONG LIVED GAS RESERVES EGYPT

34 ANGOLAS. AFRICAZIM’WETANZ’AKENYAEGYPTUSA SIZE (X Texas)2X ½ X1.4X0.8X1.4X14X DEMOGRAPHICS population (million) people/sq mile indiginous tribes95%80%98% 99%1% European extraction 2%9%1% -72% (Indian/Asian/other) 3%11%1% 27% median age (years) life expectancy (2008) life expectancy (1990) ENGLISH? (official)noyes noyes RELIGIONS Christian88%80%85%30%78%10%73% Tribal7%15%14%35%10%-- Hindu/Jewish/Muslim5% 1%35%12%90%7% EDUCATION literacy (adults)40-65%96%92%78%88%70%99% primary (% complete)35%77%50%62%58%50%> 90% ECONOMY (CIA) per capita GDP (T$)$9 T$10 T$0.5 T$1.5 T$1.8T$6.6T$49T GDP: mining11%6%20%4%--1%15% GDP: oil/gas85% -- *7%8% GDP: tourism 12%9%16%11% 2% NATURAL RESOURCES arable land3%12%8%4%9%3%18% oil reserves (MB)9, *421,000 gas reserves (Tril ft 3) *77272 diamond res (B ct) > coal reserves (B tons) otherfishplatium goldtea,coftextilesuranium ANGOLAS. AFRICAZIM’WETANZ’AKENYAEGYPTUSA STATISTICAL COMPARISON Let’s compare the USA!

35 ANGOLAS. AFRICAZIM’WETANZ’AKENYAEGYPTUSA SIZE (X Texas)2X ½ X1.4X0.8X1.4X14X DEMOGRAPHICS population (million) people/sq mile indiginous tribes95%80%98% 99% european extraction 2%9%1% - (mixed, Indian/Asian) 3%11%1% median age (years) life expectancy (2008) life expectancy (1990) ENGLISH? (official)noyes noyes RELIGIONS Christian88%80%85%30%78%10%73% Tribal7%15%14%35%10%-- Hindu/Jewish/Muslim5% 1%35%12%90%7% EDUCATION literacy (adults)40-65%96%92%78%88%70%99% primary (% complete)35%77%50%62%58%50%> 90% ECONOMY (CIA) per capita GDP (T$)$9 T$10 T$0.5 T$1.5 T$1.8T$6.6T$49T GDP: mining11%6%20%4%--1%15% GDP: oil/gas85% -- *7%8% GDP: tourism 12%9%16%11% 2% NATURAL RESOURCES arable land3%12%8%4%9%3%18% oil reserves (MB)9, *421,000 gas reserves (Tril ft 3) *77272 diamond res (B ct) > coal reserves (B tons) otherfishplatium goldtea,coftextilesuranium ANGOLAS. AFRICAZIM’WETANZ’AKENYAEGYPTUSA STATISTICAL COMPARISON

36 DIVERSE LONGEVITY ENGLISH LITERATE WEALTHY RESOURCES! BIG USA

37 NILE RIVER

38 THE NILE Longest river on planet at 4,130miles; used to be 870 miles longer; blocked by volcanic flows Runs through 10 countries of Sudan, South Sudan, Burundi, Rwanda, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Tanzania, Kenya, Ethiopia, Uganda and Egypt Drainage basin of 1,256,591 sq mi; approx 10% of the area of Africa Peak flow is approx. 290,000 cu ft/second (late August/Early September) (more on this later…)

39 Has two major tributaries, White Nile & Blue Nile; they join near Khartoum, Sudan White Nile is longer and starts in the Great Lakes region of East Africa 90% of Nile water and 96% of sediment load transported by the Nile originates in Ethiopia Of the 90% Nile water, the Blue Nile supplies 65% Blue Nile is the source of most of the water and fertile soil; begins at Lake Tana, Ethiopia THE NILE

40 THE BLUE NILE

41 EAST AFRICAN RIFT THRU ETHIOPIA 250 mile long canyon! Let’s go back and look at the Nile in more detail…. in more detail…. Flows into Sudan

42 THE NILE (1000 cu km)

43 >70in 35in < 1in Rainfall/yr THE NILE Almost ZERO rain annually Massive amounts of evaporation reduces output to the Mediterranean (1000 cu km)

44 Elevation (ft above sea level) Distance from Mediterranean (mi) THE NILE Very high gradient (meaning it drops very fast in relatively short distance) Very low gradient Low gradient

45 NILE SUMMARY In summary, Without the Nile there would not be any delta; (the delta provides 2X as much agricultural land as the rest of Egypt) Without the Nile, there would not have been agriculture and without agriculture, there would be no people Without the Nile there may not have been any Egyptian Civilization! Geology created the Nile therefore Geology is responsible for this early Civilization! So, let’s started Vagabonding Around Egypt, first Cairo…

46 CAIRO

47 CAIRO

48 48 CAIRO

49 CAIRO SIGHTSEEING Tahrir Square Mohamed Ali Mosque Cairo Tower Egyptian Museum Coptic Museum To Pyramids Airport Khan Al-Khalili Market

50 EGYPT PEOPLE

51 NILE CRUISE

52 52 NILE CRUISE ITINERARY MAP

53 ASWAN

54 54 NILE CRUISE BOAT

55 55 ASWAN

56 TEMPLE OF EDFU

57 57 NILE CRUISE ITINERARY MAP

58 Was known in Greco-Roman times as Apollonopolis Magna, after the chief god Horus-Apollo It is one of the best preserved temples in Egypt Dedicated to the falcon god Horus, was built in the Ptolemaic period between 237 and 57 BCE 58 TEMPLE OF EDFU

59 LUXOR

60 60 NILE CRUISE ITINERARY MAP

61 61 TEMPLE OF LUXOR

62 WEST BANK

63 63 NILE CRUISE ITINERARY MAP

64 Hatshepsut translated means “Foremost of Noble Ladies” Fifth pharaoh of the Eighteenth dynasty of Ancient Egypt Regarded by Egyptologists as one of the most successful pharaohs, reigning longer than any other woman of an indigenous Egyptian dynasty 64 HATSHUPSET

65 ABU SIMBEL

66 66 NILE CRUISE ITINERARY MAP

67 Construction of Abu Simbel complex started in approx BCE and lasted for about 20 years, until 1244 BCE Twin temples were originally carved out of the mountainside during the reign of Pharaoh Ramesses II as a lasting monument to himself and his queen Nefertari However, the complex had to be relocated in its entirety in 1968, on an artificial hill made high above the Aswan High Dam reservoir New location is 215 feet higher and 600 feet back from the temple’s original location The entire temple was cut up into 20 ton blocks, blocks numbered, relocated and re-assembled at this new location Construction time was 4 years and cost $40 million ABU SIMBEL

68 PYRAMIDS OF GIZA

69 PYRAMID OF GIZA Oldest and largest of the three pyramids in the Giza Necropolis Oldest of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, and the only one to remain largely intact Egyptologists believe that the pyramid was built as a tomb for fourth dynasty Egyptian Pharaoh Khufu (Cheops in Greek) over a 10 to 20-year period concluding around 2560 BCE At 481 feet the Great Pyramid was the tallest man-made structure on earth for over 3,800 years! Each base side is ft long Mass of the pyramid is estimated at 6.5 million tons Building the pyramid in 20 years would involve installing approximately 880 tons of stone every day It consists of an estimated 2.3 million blocks Completing the building in 20 years would involve moving an average of more than 12 of the blocks into place each hour, day and night Avg. opening of joints is only 1/50th of an inch wide!

70 PYRAMID OF GIZA

71 71 Permissible to enter the Pyramid and make your way to the King’s burial chamber Only 300 Tickets per day sold Open from 8am till 1pm We made it!! We bid farewell toWe bid farewell to wonderful Egypt…wonderful Egypt… PYRAMID OF GIZA

72 ENDING

73 THANKS!

74 - Lynn & Chuck for computer support computer support - Carol for classroom support support - Aubrey for providing ‘Ask the Geologist’ ‘Ask the Geologist’ ‘Geology in the News’ ‘Geology in the News’ on the website on the websiteTHANKS!

75 REMEMBER… GEOLOGY ROCKS 75 EGYPT THANK YOU!

76 All class material either is or will be on 1) the University’s website and on 2) Our website at: ANY QUESTIONS?? 76 KENYA

77 REFERNCES https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/eg.html Emo_Private_Day_Tours-Cairo.html m/photo htm edhttp://www.thebanmappingproject.com/atlas/index_kv.asp?tombID=undefin ed (nice details on valley of the king tombs) ges/GoldandElSoukry.aspx Ayman_Ahmed_Private_Tour_Guide-Cairo.html Giza.htm

78 songs videos

79 Travel is fatal to prejudice, bigotry, and narrow-mindedness… and narrow-mindedness… Broad, wholesome, charitable views of men and things cannot be acquired by vegetating in one little corner of the earth all one's lifetime. Broad, wholesome, charitable views of men and things cannot be acquired by vegetating in one little corner of the earth all one's lifetime. ~Mark Twain

80 “Twenty years from now you will be more disappointed by the things you didn’t do than by the ones you did do. So throw off the bowlines, sail away from the safe harbor. Catch the trade winds in your sails. Explore. Dream. Discover.” – Mark Twain


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