4 handmade by Rocky & Sandi Tatia Discovery Center Tsavo, Kenya Elephant Dung Paperhandmade by Rocky & SandiTatia Discovery CenterTsavo, KenyaElephant Dung Paper made as part of a project with Kent State University, teaching native people to create guest books, notebooks, address books and other gift items from indigenous materials. Participants collected the dung from the local area, dried it, mixed it with a binding agent (mud and paste), rolled it into thin sheets, dried the sheets, and bound the sheets into books.
5 AFRICA GAME VIEWING Africa Adventure Company: www.africa-adventure.com Our website:
6 EAST AFRICA WEEK 6: EGYPT Week 6: Egypt Week 5: Kenya Week 4: Tanzania (2)TANZANIAANGOLAWeek 3: Tanzania (1)Week 2: ZimbabweZIMBABWESOUTHAFRICAWeek 1: living in Africa
7 Geography, History & Statistics EGYPTTODAY’S TOPICSNileCairoAswanEdfuLuxorWest BankAbu SimbelGizaGeography, History & StatisticsNile Cruise
11 Surrounded by 5 countries EGYPT GEOGRAPHY600 milesMediterranean SeaGAZASTRIP660 milesISRAELLIBYASAUDIARABIA390,000 sq miles(1.45X Texas)Surrounded by 5 countriesRedSeaTexas has an area of 268,820 squareThe Hala'ib Triangle (مثلث حلايب in Arabic, transliterated Muthāllath Ḥalāʾib) is an area of land measuring 20,580 square kilometres (7,950 sq mi) located on the Red Sea's African coast. The area, which takes its name from the town of Hala'ib, is created by the difference in the Egypt–Sudan border between the "political boundary" set in 1899 by the Anglo-Egyptian Condominium, which runs along the 22nd parallel north, and the "administrative boundary" set by the British in 1902, which gave administrative responsibility for an area of land north of the line to Sudan, which was an Anglo-Egyptian client at the time. With the independence of Sudan in 1956, both Egypt and Sudan claimed sovereignty over the area. Since the mid-1990s, Egypt has exercised de facto effective administration of the area as part of the Red Sea Governorate, following the deployment of Egyptian military units there in the 1990s, and has been actively investing in it. The description of the area as a "triangle" is a rough generalization. Only the southern 290 kilometres (180 mi) demarcation, which follows latitude 22, is a straight line. While the whole area is north of the 22 degree line, a smaller area south of latitude 22, referred to as Bir Tawil, joins the Hala'ib Triangle at its westernmost point along the latitude line – neither Sudan nor Egypt claim Bir Tawil.The area is sometimes referred to in Egypt as the "Sudan Government Administration Area" or SGAAIn February 1958, two years after Sudanese independence, with Sudan planning to hold elections in the Triangle, President Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt sent troops into the disputed regionAlthough both countries continued to lay claim to the land, joint control of the area remained in effect until 1992, when Egypt objected to Sudan’s granting of exploration rights for the waters off the Triangle to a Canadian oil company. Negotiations began, but the company pulled out of the deal until sovereignty was settledIn January 2000, Sudan withdrew its forces from the area, effectively ceding control of the border zone to Egypt, whose forces have occupied and administered the area sinceIn 2004 Sudanese president Omar Al-Bashir claimed that despite his nation's withdrawal in 2000, and Egypt's de facto control of the Triangle, the area still rightfully belonged to Sudan which had "never relinquished" it. we have recently renewed our complaint to the (UN) Security CouncilDecember 2009, the Sudanese presidential assistant Musa Mohamed Ahmed was barred from entering the border area.November 29, 2010, an open letter was sent to the President of Sudan by Muhammad Al-Hassan Okair (Toyota) complaining of the siege of Hala'ib, the fact that its inhabitants live within barbed wire and that anything from Sudan is refused entry on the premise that Hala'ib is Egyptian and that the tribes' camels are not allowed to travel and graze for pasture in the ancestral landsDisputed AreasSUDANPhysical Dimensions
12 This makes Egypt a transcontinental nation EGYPT GEOGRAPHYNile River Delta500030001500AsiaAfricaIsthmus of SuezSuez CanalThis makes Egypt a transcontinental nationMt. Sinai(7,497ft)Green means lower level on mapGreat Sand DesertGeographyTopography of EgyptMain article: Geography of EgyptAt 1,001,450 square kilometers (386,660 sq mi), Egypt is the world's 30th-largest country. In land area, it is about the same size as all Central America, twice the size of Spain, four times the size of the United Kingdom, and the combined size of the US states of Texas and California. It lies between latitudes 22° and 32°N, and longitudes 24° and 36°E.Nevertheless, due to the aridity of Egypt's climate, population centres are concentrated along the narrow Nile Valley and Delta, meaning that about 99% of the population uses only about 5.5% of the total land area. Egypt is bordered by Libya to the west, Sudan to the south, and by the Gaza Strip and Israel to the east. Egypt's important role in geopolitics stems from its strategic position: a transcontinental nation, it possesses a land bridge (the Isthmus of Suez) between Africa and Asia, traversed by a navigable waterway (the Suez Canal) that connects the Mediterranean Sea with the Indian Ocean by way of the Red Sea.Apart from the Nile Valley, the majority of Egypt's landscape is desert. Winds create prolific sand dunes that peak at more than 100 feet (30 m) high. Egypt includes parts of the Sahara Desert and of the Libyan Desert. These deserts that protected the Kingdom of the Pharaohs from western threats were referred to as the "red land" in ancient Egypt.Towns and cities include Alexandria, the second largest city; Aswan; Asyut; Cairo, the modern Egyptian capital and largest city; El-Mahalla El-Kubra; Giza, the site of the Pyramid of Khufu; Hurghada; Luxor; Kom Ombo; Port Safaga; Port Said; Sharm el Sheikh; Suez, where the Suez Canal is located; Zagazig; and Al-Minya. Oases include Bahariya, el Dakhla, Farafra, el Kharga and Siwa. Protectorates include Ras Mohamed National Park, Zaranik Protectorate and SiwaIn 1982, after the Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty of 1979, Israel withdrew from the entirety of Sinai. Today, Sinai has become a tourist destination due to its natural setting, rich coral reefs, and biblical history. Mount Sinai is one of the most religiously significant places in Abrahamic faiths.Nile River(Longest river on planet at 4,130 miles)Physical Highlights
13 EGYPT GEOGRAPHY Population Distribution 500030001500People per sq kmApprox. 99% of population uses only 5.5% of total land areaPopulation Distribution
16 EGYPTIAN FLAG RED symbolizes early struggle against the monarchy WHITE symbolizes the bloodless nature of its former RevolutionBLACK symbolizes end of oppressionTricolor is based on the Arab Liberation Flag; also used by Iraq, Syria & YemenEgypt's national emblem, the Eagle of Saladin is centered in the white band (symbol of Arab Nationalism)The flag of Egypt (Egyptian Arabic: علم مصر, IPA: [ˈʕælæm ˈmɑsˤɾ]) is a tricolour consisting of the three equal horizontal red, white, and black bands of the Arab Liberation flag dating back to the Egyptian Revolution of The flag bears Egypt's national emblem, the Eagle of Saladin centered in the white band.SymbolismThe Free Officers who toppled King Farouk in the Revolution of 1952 assigned specific symbolism to each of the three bands of the Arab Liberation flag. The red band symbolises the period before the Revolution, a time characterized by the struggle against the monarchy, and the British occupation of the country. The white band symbolizes the bloodless nature of the Revolution itself. The black band symbolises the end of the oppression of the Egyptian people at the hands of the monarchy, and foreign imperialism.Egypt's use of the Arab Liberation flag inspired its adoption by a number of other Arab states. The same horizontal tricolour is used by Iraq, Syria, and Yemen (and formerly Libya), the only difference being the presence (or absence) of distinguishing national emblems in the white band.
17 KEY HISTORY TERMS Upper/Middle/Lower Egypt Lower Egypt is from Cairo to the MediterraneanUpper Egypt is between the Sudan and CairoUpper Egypt has been broken up into a Middle Egypt & Upper EgyptMiddle Egypt stretches upstream from the Qena Bend to MemphisLOWER EGYPTCairoMIDDLE EGYPTUPPER EGYPTSudan to south
18 KEY HISTORY TERMS Old/Middle/New Kingdoms Old Kingdom period, c. 2700–2200 BCMiddle Kingdom period, c BCNew Kingdom period, c BC
19 “period of disunity and relative cultural decline” KEY HISTORY TERMSIf Old Kingdom period ended c.2200 BC and the Middle Kingdom started c BC, what’s in between?WHOA!Intermediate Periods1st Intermediate c BC2nd Intermediate c BC3rd Intermediate c BCA second period of disunity heralded the arrival of the first foreign ruling dynasty in Egypt, that of the Semitic Hyksos“period of disunity and relative cultural decline”
20 KEY HISTORY TERMS Dynasties Egypt1st dynasty (c – 2890 BC)2nd dynasty (2890–2686 BC)3rd dynasty (2686–2613 BC)4th dynasty (2613–2498 BC)5th dynasty (2498–2345 BC)6th dynasty (2345–2181 BC)7th and 8th dynasties ( BC)9th dynasty (2160–2130 BC)10th dynasty (2130–2040 BC)11th dynasty (2134–1991 BC)12th dynasty (1991–1803 BC)13th dynasty (1803–1649 BC)14th dynasty (1705–1690 BC)15th dynasty (1674–1535 BC)16th dynasty (1660–1600 BC)17th dynasty (1650–1549 BC)18th dynasty (1549–1292 BC)19th dynasty (1292–1186 BC)20th dynasty (1186–1069 BC)21st dynasty (1069 – 945 BC)22nd dynasty (945 – 720 BC)23rd dynasty (837 – 728 BC)24th dynasty (732 – 720 BC)25th dynasty (732 – 653 BC)26th dynasty (672 – 525 BC)Achaemenid dynasty (525 – 404 BC)28th dynasty (404 – 398 BC)29th dynasty (398 – 380 BC)30th dynasty (380 – 343 BC)Achaemenid dynasty (343 – 332 BC)Argead dynasty (332 – 309 BC)Ptolemaic Dynasty (305 – 30 BC)Julio-Claudian Dynasty (27 BC – 68 AD)Flavian Dynasty (69 – 96)Nervan-Antonian Dynasty (96 – 192)Severan Dynasty (193 – 235)Constantinian dynasty (303 – 336)Valentinian Dynasty (364 – 457)House of Theodosius from 379Leonid dynasty (457 – 518)Justinian Dynasty (518 – 602)Sassanian DynastyHeraclian Dynasty (602 – 695 and 705 – 711)Rashidun CaliphateUmayyad CaliphateAbbasid CaliphateMamelukesOttoman SultanateMuhammad Ali Dynasty (1805–1953)Dynasties“a sequence of rulers considered members of the same family. Dynasty is also used to refer to the era during which a family reigned, as well as events, trends and artifacts of that period…”
21 Divisions of Historical Egyptian Time KEY HISTORY TERMSDivisions of Historical Egyptian Time
22 BRIEF EGYPT HISTORYc. 10th millennium BC, a culture of hunter-gatherers and fishers is established in Egyptc BCE-Sahara starts to form; tribal peoples migrated to the Nile River where they developed a settled agricultural economy and more centralized societyc BCE-Neolithic culture rooted in the Nile Valley; several pre-dynastic cultures developed independently in Upper and Lower Egyptc BCE-earliest known evidence of Egyptian hieroglyphic inscriptions appeared3150 BCE-Unified kingdom was founded by King Menes; leading to a series of dynasties that ruled Egypt for the next 3000 years!
23 BRIEF EGYPT HISTORYc BCE-first foreign ruling dynasty in Egypt; Semitic Hyksosc BCE, start of New Kingdom, began with the 18th Dynasty; this dynasty sees the maximum expansion of EgyptWell known Pharaohs, including Hatshepsut, Thutmose III,Akhenaten and his wife Nefertiti, Tutankhamun and Ramesses II are from New Kingdom Period343 BCE-Last native ruling dynasty during the Pharaonic epoch; Falls to the Persians after the last native Pharaoh is defeated in battle332 BCE-Ptolemaic Kingdom takes control; Alexandria becomes capital city and center of Greek culture and trade
24 BRIEF EGYPT HISTORY1st century-Christianity brought to Egypt by Saint Mark the Evangelist639 CE-Egypt invaded and conquered by Muslim Arabs; Cairo becomes seat of Califate; Arabs remain in control for next 600 yearsc CE-Mamluks take control; Egypt linked the Red Sea, India, Malaya, and East Indies1517-Ottoman Turks conquer Egypt after which it becomes a province of the Ottoman Empire and remains connected to the Ottomans till 19141798-Napoleon Bonaparte conquers Egypt; holds it for 2 yrs. Four years of anarchy follows1805 Mohamed Ali (known as “Founder of Modern Egypt”) takes control and holds it for 43 yrs!
25 BRIEF EGYPT HISTORYAli captures Saudi Arabia, Syria, Sudan and parts of Ethopia1840-increasing power of Ali alarms European powers; they intercede in Ali’s forays1847-Ali dies; string of family successions follow; debt increases to point that Egypt can borrow no more; Europe steps in1875-Ali family sells their Suez Canal shares to the British Government; British & French appointed to Parliament to monitor financesForeign involvement leads to local uprising; British/French invade; Egypt becomes British protectorate; British involvement till 19541919-first modern revolution; UK government issues a unilateral declaration of Egypt's independence on 22 February 1922; Republic 1954
26 BRIEF EGYPT HISTORY 1956-Nasser assumes power as President 1956 nationalizes the Suez Canal prompting the 1956 Suez Crisis1967 Six Day War, Israel invades and occupies Egypt's Sinai Peninsula and the Gaza Stripyears later President Nasser dies and succeeded by Anwar Sadat1972-Sadat switches Egypt's Cold War allegiance from the Soviet Union to the United States, expels Soviet advisors; launches the Infitah economic reform policy, while clamping down on religious and secular opposition1977-Sadat makes historic visit to Israel; leads to 1979 peace treaty in exchange for Israeli withdrawal from Sinai. Fundamentalist military soldier assassinates Sadat in Cairo in He is succeeded by Hosni Mubarak
27 BRIEF EGYPT HISTORYIn 2003, Movement launched to oppose Mubarak regime and to establish democratic reforms/greater civil libertiesJanuary 2011, widespread protests began against Mubarak's government; February 2011-Mubarak resignsFeb 2011-VP Omar Suleiman announces Mubarak stepped down/military assume short term control nation's affairs; Celebrations breaks out in Tahrir SquareFebruary 2011, high level military command announces that both the constitution and the parliament have been dissolvedNovember 2011, Egypt held its first parliamentary election since the previous regime had been in power; in July 2012, new president Mohamed Morsi electedAugust 2012, Prime Minister announces new 35 member cabinet; 28 newcomers including four from the influential Muslim Brotherhood
28 BRIEF EGYPT HISTORY FACTS mid-14th-century Black Death kills 40% of the population; Egypt suffers six famines between 1687 and 1731Ali focused on ridding Egypt of the Ottomans, increasing education, medical study, port development, military restructuring, infrastructure development and improving economic basis of the countryAli’s 16 yr old son conquers Saudi Arabia w/20,000 troops; dies 2 years later1820 campaign was successful, but power of the Saudis not broken. They continued to harass Ottoman and Egyptian. Consequently, another sons, Ibrahim, is dispatched to finally rout the Saudis. After a two-year campaign, Saudis were crushed and most of the Saudi family was captured. The family leader, Abdullah ibn Saud, was sent to Istanbul, and executedAli annexes Northern Sudan (1820–1824), Syria (1833), and parts of Arabia and Anatolia1822-cultivation of cotton in the Nile Delta is developed; cotton was brought from the Sudan1841-European powers, fearful, forced him to return most of conquests to Ottomans, but keeps Sudan
29 ADDITIONAL NOTESThe first two ruling dynasties of a unified Egypt set the stage for the Old Kingdom period, c. 2700–2200 BC., which constructed many pyramids, most notably the Third Dynasty pyramid of Djoser and the Fourth Dynasty Giza PyramidsEighteenth Dynasty and relocated the capital from Memphis to ThebesMiddle Kingdom c BC, reaching a peak during the reign of Pharaoh Amenemhat IIINew Kingdom c. 1550–1070 BC began with the Eighteenth Dynasty, marking the rise of Egypt as an international power that expanded during its greatest extension to an empire as far south as Tombos in Nubialast ruler from the Ptolemaic line was Cleopatra VII, who committed suicide following the burial of her lover Mark Antony who had died in her arms (from a self- inflicted stab wound), after Octavian had captured Alexandria and her mercenary forces had fled.
38 THE NILELongest river on planet at 4,130miles; used to be 870 miles longer; blocked by volcanic flowsRuns through 10 countries of Sudan, South Sudan, Burundi, Rwanda, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Tanzania, Kenya, Ethiopia, Uganda and EgyptDrainage basin of 1,256,591 sq mi; approx 10% of the area of AfricaPeak flow is approx. 290,000 cu ft/second (late August/Early September) (more on this later…)The Nile (Arabic: النيل, an-Nīl; Ancient Egyptian: Iteru & Ḥ'pī; Coptic Egyptian: ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲱ, P(h)iaro; Amharic: ዓባይ?, ʿAbbai) is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, generally regarded as the longest river in the world. It is 6,650 km (4,130 miles) long. It runs through the ten countries of Sudan, South Sudan, Burundi, Rwanda, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Tanzania, Kenya, Ethiopia, Uganda and Egypt.The northern section of the river flows almost entirely through desert, from Sudan into Egypt, a country whose civilization has depended on the river since ancient times. Most of the population and cities of Egypt lie along those parts of the Nile valley north of Aswan, and nearly all the cultural and historical sites of Ancient Egypt are found along riverbanks.The drainage basin of the Nile covers 3,254,555 square kilometres (1,256,591 sq mi), about 10% of the area of Africa. The Nile basin is complex, and because of this, the discharge at any given point along the mainstem depends on many factors including weather, diversions, evaporation and evapotranspiration, and groundwater flowFormerly Lake Tanganyika drained northwards along the African Rift Valley into the White Nile, making the Nile about 1,400 kilometres (870 mi) longer, until blocked in Miocene times by the bulk of the Virunga Volcanoes.Before the placement of dams on the river the yearly discharge varied by a factor of 15 at Aswan. Peak flows of over 8,212 m3/s (290,000 cu ft/s) occurred during late August and early September, and minimum flows of about 552 m3/s (19,500 cu ft/s) occurred during late April and early May
39 THE NILEHas two major tributaries, White Nile & Blue Nile; they join near Khartoum, SudanWhite Nile is longer and starts in the Great Lakes region of East Africa90% of Nile water and 96% of sediment load transported by the Nile originates in EthiopiaOf the 90% Nile water, the Blue Nile supplies 65%Blue Nile is the source of most of the water and fertile soil; begins at Lake Tana, EthiopiaThe Nile has two major tributaries, the White Nile and Blue Nile. The White Nile is longer and rises in the Great Lakes region of central Africa, with the most distant source still undetermined but located in either Rwanda or Burundi. It flows north through Tanzania, Lake Victoria, Uganda and South Sudan. The Blue Nile is the source of most of the water and fertile soil. It begins at Lake Tana in Ethiopia at WikiMiniAtlas12°02′09″N 037°15′53″E / °N °E / ; and flows into Sudan from the southeast. The two rivers meet near the Sudanese capital of Khartoum.Above Khartoum the Nile is also known as the White Nile, a term also used in a limited sense to describe the section between Lake No and Khartoum. At Khartoum the river is joined by the Blue Nile. The White Nile starts in equatorial East Africa, and the Blue Nile begins in Ethiopia. Both branches are on the western flanks of the East African Rift.Ninety percent of the water and ninety-six percent of the transported sediment carried by the Nile originates in Ethiopia, with fifty-nine percent of the water from the Blue NileBelow the Aswan High Dam, at the northern limit of Lake Nasser, the Nile resumes its historic course.North of Cairo, the Nile splits into two branches (or distributaries) that feed the Mediterranean: the Rosetta Branch to the west and the Damietta to the east, forming the Nile Delta.The Nile ends in a large delta that empties into the Mediterranean Sea
41 EAST AFRICAN RIFT THRU ETHIOPIA THE BLUE NILE250 mile long canyon!EAST AFRICAN RIFT THRU ETHIOPIALet’s go back and look at the Nilein more detail….Flows into SudanLake Tana-lake is approximately 84 kilometers long and 66 kilometers wide, with a maximum depth of 15 meters, and an elevation of 1,840 meters
43 THE NILE Almost ZERO rain annually (1000 cu km)>70in35in< 1inRainfall/yrAlmost ZERO rain annuallyMassive amounts of evaporation reduces output to the Mediterranean
44 Elevation (ft above sea level) Distance from Mediterranean (mi) THE NILE60004500Elevation (ft above sea level)3000250020001500500Distance from Mediterranean (mi)Very high gradient (meaning it drops very fast in relatively short distance)Low gradientVery low gradient
45 So, let’s started Vagabonding Around Egypt, first Cairo… NILE SUMMARYIn summary,Without the Nile there would not be any delta; (the delta provides 2X as much agricultural land as the rest of Egypt)Without the Nile, there would not have been agriculture and without agriculture, there would be no peopleWithout the Nile there may not have been any Egyptian Civilization!Geology created the Nile therefore Geology is responsible for this early Civilization!So, let’s started VagabondingAround Egypt, first Cairo…The Nile has two major tributaries, the White Nile and Blue Nile. The White Nile is longer and rises in the Great Lakes region of central Africa, with the most distant source still undetermined but located in either Rwanda or Burundi. It flows north through Tanzania, Lake Victoria, Uganda and South Sudan. The Blue Nile is the source of most of the water and fertile soil. It begins at Lake Tana in Ethiopia at WikiMiniAtlas12°02′09″N 037°15′53″E / °N °E / ; and flows into Sudan from the southeast. The two rivers meet near the Sudanese capital of Khartoum.Above Khartoum the Nile is also known as the White Nile, a term also used in a limited sense to describe the section between Lake No and Khartoum. At Khartoum the river is joined by the Blue Nile. The White Nile starts in equatorial East Africa, and the Blue Nile begins in Ethiopia. Both branches are on the western flanks of the East African Rift.Ninety percent of the water and ninety-six percent of the transported sediment carried by the Nile originates in Ethiopia, with fifty-nine percent of the water from the Blue NileBelow the Aswan High Dam, at the northern limit of Lake Nasser, the Nile resumes its historic course.North of Cairo, the Nile splits into two branches (or distributaries) that feed the Mediterranean: the Rosetta Branch to the west and the Damietta to the east, forming the Nile Delta.The Nile ends in a large delta that empties into the Mediterranean Sea
58 TEMPLE OF EDFUWas known in Greco-Roman times as Apollonopolis Magna, after the chief god Horus-ApolloIt is one of the best preserved temples in EgyptDedicated to the falcon god Horus, was built in the Ptolemaic period between 237 and 57 BCE
64 HATSHUPSET Hatshepsut translated means “Foremost of Noble Ladies” Fifth pharaoh of the Eighteenth dynasty of Ancient EgyptRegarded by Egyptologists as one of the most successful pharaohs, reigning longer than any other woman of an indigenous Egyptian dynasty
67 ABU SIMBELConstruction of Abu Simbel complex started in approx BCE and lasted for about 20 years, until 1244 BCETwin temples were originally carved out of the mountainside during the reign of Pharaoh Ramesses II as a lasting monument to himself and his queen NefertariHowever, the complex had to be relocated in its entirety in 1968, on an artificial hill made high above the Aswan High Dam reservoirNew location is 215 feet higher and 600 feet back from the temple’s original locationThe entire temple was cut up into 20 ton blocks, blocks numbered, relocated and re-assembled at this new locationConstruction time was 4 years and cost $40 million
69 PYRAMID OF GIZA Each base side is 755.9 ft long Mass of the pyramid is estimated at 6.5 million tonsBuilding the pyramid in 20 years would involve installing approximately 880 tons of stone every dayIt consists of an estimated 2.3 million blocksCompleting the building in 20 years would involve moving an average of more than 12 of the blocks into place each hour, day and nightAvg. opening of joints is only 1/50th of an inch wide!Oldest and largest of the three pyramids in the Giza NecropolisOldest of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, and the only one to remain largely intactEgyptologists believe that the pyramid was built as a tomb for fourth dynasty Egyptian Pharaoh Khufu (Cheops in Greek) over a 10 to 20-year period concluding around 2560 BCEAt 481 feet the Great Pyramid was the tallest man-made structure on earth for over 3,800 years!
79 Travel is fatal to prejudice, bigotry, and narrow-mindedness… Broad, wholesome, charitable views of men and things cannot be acquired by vegetating in one little corner of the earth all one's lifetime. ~Mark Twain
80 Explore. Dream. Discover.” “Twenty years from nowyou will be more disappointed by the things you didn’t do than by the ones you did do. So throw off the bowlines, sail away from the safe harbor. Catch the trade winds in your sails.Explore. Dream. Discover.”– Mark Twain
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