Presentation on theme: "Clubbing Masculinities, Drugs and Crime Tammy L. Anderson, Ph.D. Associate Professor Department of Sociology and Criminal Justice University of Delaware."— Presentation transcript:
Clubbing Masculinities, Drugs and Crime Tammy L. Anderson, Ph.D. Associate Professor Department of Sociology and Criminal Justice University of Delaware ABSTRACT This paper explores how the culture of an event/party, and how it is organized socially, permits displays of masculinity that both attach men to and liberate them from mainstream standards and are tied to diverse drugs and crime outcomes. The study is based on the observation of more than 33 diverse EDM and HH club events and interviews with 26 male and 25 female clubbers. This fieldwork yielded four types of masculinities- loyalists, showmen, regular guys, and macho men. They vary substantially in content and possess divergent connections to drugs and crime. These identity-based drugs and crime links appear differentially across club events, and do not conform to popular culture race and class stereotypes. *Project funded by NIJ Grant No. 2004-IJ-CX-0040, with additional support from the University of Delaware with additional support from the University of Delaware
Objectives This paper explores the contextual influences on nightlife masculinities so that we can better understand their relationship to crime both inside and outside of clubs and bars- 21 st century hotspots of criminal activity. Questions include: This paper explores the contextual influences on nightlife masculinities so that we can better understand their relationship to crime both inside and outside of clubs and bars- 21 st century hotspots of criminal activity. Questions include: What exactly do we know about the masculine identities men possess and perform in public spaces? What are the contextual influences on them? What criminal consequences result from public masculine identity work? What is the role of substance abuse in masculine identity work and crime? What is the role of substance abuse in masculine identity work and crime?
Theoretical Premises Social Context is an under-studied, meso-level unit of criminological inquiry, yet it is a strong influence on behavior. Social context shapes individual and group identities and behavior (classic and contemporary interactionism). Gender is an identity performance that will vary by social context and differently motivate action (Connell, Butler). Alcohol and drugs facilitate identity work (Anderson), producing a new connection to crime. Clubbing provides opportunity for crime in two ways: 1. crime and victimization at the event itself 2. making contacts with people there which lead to C and V later.
Project Methodology Multi-faceted ethnographic approach with grounded theory In-depth interviews with 51 diverse (race, gender, scene) clubbers Follow-up (2 and 6 months) e-mail surveys Direct observation of 33 club events Personal identity statement and direct clubbing experience by males. Male identity attributions and direct clubbing experience by females.
Table 1. Respondent Race and Sex Breakdown __________________________________________________________________________________________ Sex /Race WhiteBlack Asian HispanicTotal # __________________________________________________________________________________________ Male910 4 326 Female711 6 125 _________________________________________________________________________________________ Total #1621 10 4 51 __________________________________________________________________________________________
Table 2. Social Class Indicators by Race and Sex. ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Educational Attainment Educational Attainment Race / SexMean Age Mean Inc.* High School Some College B.A./M.A.*** ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ White Male26.6$27,000 3 5 1 White Female25.2$26,520 2 3 2 Black Male 26$29,000 2 5 2 Black Female22.2$25,860** 2 5 5 Asian Male28.5$55,900 1 2 1 Asian Female25.4$34,500 21 3 Hisp. Male26.3$35,250 21. Hisp. Female25$4,800 1.. ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Totals25.3$36,820 15 22 14 ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ *Income data is annual, and was provided for 45 of the 50 respondents. Six respondents were unemployed and not earning an income at the time of the interview. The mean figures do not include data for those six. ** The mean income for black females may be artificially inflated due to one respondent earning $69,000 a year. If she is excluded, the mean income for this category drops to $18,600. *** One respondent had a graduate degree - a black female with a Master’s in computer science. Four others were pursuing advanced degrees - 2 Asian females, 1 black female, and 1 white male.
Table 3. Hip-Hop Respondent Demographic and Social Class Indicators. ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Educational Attainment Educational Attainment Race / Sex #Mean Age Mean Inc. High School Some College B.A./M.A. ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ White Male 326.3$23,000 1 2. White Female 228.5$38,000. 1 1 Black Male 726$28,000 1 4 2 Black Female 923.7$26,830*. 4 5 Asian Male 226.5$60,000** 1. 1 Asian Female 525.4$34,500 11 3 Hisp. Male 1 29$50,000.1. Hisp. Female 125$4,800 1.. ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Totals 3026.3$33,140 5 13 12 ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ *The mean income for black females may be artificially inflated due to one respondent earning $69,000 a year. If she is excluded, the mean income for this category drops to $18,400. ** Mean income for the Asian male category is based on data from one respondent only.
Table 4. EDM Respondent Demographic and Social Class Indicators. ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Educational Attainment Educational Attainment Race / Sex #Mean Age Mean Inc. High School Some College B.A./M.A. ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ White Male 626.8$29,600 2 3 1 White Female 524$23,650 2 2 1 Black Male 326.7$32,500 1 2. Black Female 219.5$20,000* 1 1. Asian Male 129.5$57,500. 2. Asian Female 125$24,000 1.. Hisp. Male 2 24$20,500** 11. ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Totals 2125$29,700 8 11 2 ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ * Mean income for the black female category is based on data for one respondent only. ** Mean income for the Hispanic male category is based on data for one respondent only.
Table 5. Direct Observation of Events by Type. ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Event Type Commercial 1 HH 2 Commercial EDM 3 Underground 4 HH Underground EDM Mash-ups 5 ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Weeklies 6 61 5 1. Monthlies 7 21 4 3 2 Superstar One-offs 9 23. 1 2 ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Totals 105 9 5 4 ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Commercial refers to large events at clubs that replicate and appeal to mainstream music interests, styles, and forms and are marketed to as many clubbers as possible. These parties are primarily focused on profit, not any musical genre or scene. HH = Hip Hop. EDM = Electronic Dance Music (techno, house, trance, break beat, drum and bass, etc.). Underground refers to smaller parties held at smaller clubs for those loyal to or interested in music that is not commercially available or played in conventional outlets. Mash-ups are a new music scene developing around a DJ mixing together vastly different genres of music (reggae, HH, pop, house, rock) to a slower, groove-friendly beat. Weeklies are named parties held on a particular day every week, usually from 9pm until 2am. They tend to draw smaller crowds and are heavily populated by scene insiders and/or enthusiasts. Monthlies are named parties held once a month–usually on a weekend and from 9pm until 2-3am. They tend to draw slightly larger crowds, have more status, and are populated by scene enthusiasts and some “outsiders.” Superstar one-offs are one-time events that often obtain special permits to run past normal bar hours. They feature a superstar DJ or DJs and are typically held at large clubs to accommodate large crowds that are very diverse.
Clubbing Contexts Underground Parties Commercial Club Events Small crowds (50 – 200), weekends and week nights, scene insiders or music loyalists, music appreciation, dancing, benign hooking up objective, casual attire, moderate alcohol, moderate to heavy drugs, artsy, non-sexual and intimate vibe Large crowds (200+), weekends, routine clubbers- few scenesters, courtship, getting loaded, dancing, club chic or MTV fashion knock-offs, heavy alcohol, moderate drugs, sexual and status- oriented vibe with weak solidarity.
Masculine Identity Loyalists Music scene insiders who choose events based on the music and the DJs or MCs skills/music. Favor underground events, seldom attend commercial ones. Demonstrate ascendant masculinity first and foremost- expert knowledge of music. Appearance/style- comfort, disregard for fashion, androgynous or muted masculinity (especially EDM but also HH). Reject hyper-masculinity.
Masculine Identity Regular Guys Go clubbing because it’s what their urban age-group does. Primary motivation: have fun, hang with buddies, meet and talk with opposite sex. Favor commercial events but often attend underground ones with loyalist friends. Can be easily converted to underground consumers. Mid-range on ascendant and hyper-masculine identities- can fluctuate given the social context and peer network. More conscious about style, yet no specific image conveyed- desire to fit in and appeal to opposite sex
Masculine Identity Showmen A special type of ascendant masculinity based in dancing expertise. Travel in crews to dance at events. Can become a source of entertainment. Favor underground events, but will attend commercial ones as they present opportunities to dance (dance floor, space, talent). Masculinity contests in dance showmanship. Mostly congenial and based in respect, mutual admiration. Causal style or dress to accommodate dancing Expert dancing attracts female attention, thus courtship can be an ulterior motive.
Masculine Identity Macho Men A masculine identity performance anchored in hyper-masculinity: power image, physical dominance, sexual pre-occupation. Selects club venues by image of crowd or popularity of bar. Prefer commercial events and seldom attend underground ones. Spillover to underground events if they run late. Motivation for clubbing is sexual conquest and intoxication. Purposeful masculine style- rough and tough. Aggressive pursuit of females, sometimes solo but often with cajoling by similarly-identified male peers. Eager to intimidate, yet easily threatened.
The Social Contexts of Clubbing Underground EDM Parties Loyalists most common followed by regular guys and showmen. Moderate alcohol (beer) Moderate to high drug use (drugs vary by genre) Main crime- illicit drug use/sales Main consequence- drug sick, overdose Underground Hip Hop Parties Loyalists most common followed by regular guys and showmen. Moderate to high alcohol (beer and liquor) Moderate drug use (marijuana) Main crime- illicit drug use/sales, graffiti Main consequence- vandalism, minor physical altercations among males. Commercial EDM Parties Macho men and regular guys most common, followed by showmen. Heavy alcohol, moderate drugs (cocaine, prescription drugs, ecstasy). Main crime- illicit drug use/sales, theft, spiked drinks, physical altercations. Commercial Hip Hop Parties Macho men and regular guys most common, few loyalists and showmen. Heavy alcohol, moderate drugs (marijuana, OTC cold medicines ). Main crime- physical altercations, minor to major sexual assault, stalking and verbal harassment.
Theoretical Points Continued The social context of an event/party (it’s vibe and social organization), permits displays of masculinity while shaping them at the same time. The social context of an event/party (it’s vibe and social organization), permits displays of masculinity while shaping them at the same time. HH and EDM parties, types of social contexts, set parameters and standards for masculine identification (feminine id as well). HH and EDM parties, types of social contexts, set parameters and standards for masculine identification (feminine id as well). Masculine identities are subsequently negotiated and often require intoxication for successful accomplishment. Masculine identities are subsequently negotiated and often require intoxication for successful accomplishment. Certain combinations of contextual norms and features and masculine performance will result in crime and victimization, especially when accompanied by drug and alcohol consumption. Certain combinations of contextual norms and features and masculine performance will result in crime and victimization, especially when accompanied by drug and alcohol consumption.
Theoretical Contributions Contextual Facilitators - vibe and social organization - as contribution to Goldstein. Toward a new framework linking personal identity and environmental/contextual factors- Contextual factors: opportunity via social and physical organization and event vibe. Contextual factors: motivations. Masculine identity performance influenced by the club event’s vibe and social organization. Different types of clubbers have different motives- scene insiders versus outsiders.
Theoretical Contribution #1 In contexts where sex is defined as an ultimate expression of masculine power, sexual and physical aggression will take place. To the extent that males do or do not possess hyper-masculinities in everyday life, they will feel pressured to perform these masculinities when they enter contexts defined this way. Alcohol will often be used to enable an identity performance. Thus, if alcohol is used to achieve a hyper-masculinity fitted to a sexualized social context, then identity creation becomes another way in which drugs and crime are related.
Theoretical Contribution #2 Anderson’s identity/context link- situational creation of personal identities requires intoxication to pull off roles and behaviors germane to that context, which may lead to crime (physical and sexual assault). The key is that substances are used first to achieve an identity consistent with the setting, which may later motivate criminal action. This is the case with nightclubs, masculine identity, alcohol and assault. It could also be the case for acts of criminal bravado in other hyper- masculine venues (workplaces, street criminal networks, football games and their aftermath).