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Green Plans/Strategies. Sustainable Development as Integration Science & Technology Politics Society/Nation Integrating strategy/plan Environment Economy.

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Presentation on theme: "Green Plans/Strategies. Sustainable Development as Integration Science & Technology Politics Society/Nation Integrating strategy/plan Environment Economy."— Presentation transcript:

1 Green Plans/Strategies

2 Sustainable Development as Integration Science & Technology Politics Society/Nation Integrating strategy/plan Environment Economy

3 An International Framework l Creating conventions and protocols to govern the international commons l Establishing principles and practices of sustainable development for implementation at national and local levels

4 The International Framework: Agenda 21 Preamble l Agenda 21 addresses the pressing problems of today and also aims at preparing the world for the challenges of the next century. It reflects a global consensus and political commitment at the highest level on development and environment cooperation. Its successful implementation is first and foremost the responsibility of Governments. National strategies, plans, policies and processes are crucial in achieving this. International cooperation should support and supplement such national efforts. In this context, the United Nations system has a key role to play. Other international, regional and subregional organizations are also called upon to contribute to this effort. The broadest public participation and the active involvement of the non-governmental organizations and other groups should also be encouraged.

5 Other Important Agreements for the International Framework for SusDev l Biodiversity: Convention on Biological Diversity 1992 l Climate Change: Convention on Climate Change 1992; Kyoto Protocol 1997 l Desertification: UN Convention to Combat Desertification in those Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification, Particularly Africa 1994 l Endangered Species: Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna (CITES) 1973 l Hazardous Waste: Basel Convention on the Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Waste and their Disposal 1989 l Heritage: Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage 1927 l Others: Ozone (Montreal Protocol 1987); Oceans (Law of the Sea 1982); Wetlands (Ramsar 1973); l International Development Goals (OECD 1997) Millenium Development Goals (UN 2000)

6 Agenda 21 - Table of Contents Preamble Section 1 : Social and Economic Dimensions Section 2 : Conservation and Management of Resources for Development Section 3 : Strengthening the Role of Major Groups Section 4 : Means of Implementation

7 Agenda 21 - Table of Contents ChapterParagraphs 1. Preamble SECTION I. SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC DIMENSIONS 2. International cooperation to accelerate sustainable development in developing countries and related domestic policies 3. Combating poverty 4. Changing consumption patterns 5. Demographic dynamics and sustainability 6. Protecting and promoting human health conditions 7. Promoting sustainable human settlement development 8. Integrating environment and development in decision-making

8 SECTION II. CONSERVATION AND MGT OF RESOURCES FOR DEVELOPMENT 9. Protection of the atmosphere 10. Integrated approach to the planning and management of land resources11. Combating deforestation 12. Managing fragile ecosystems: combating desertification and drought 13. Managing fragile ecosystems: sustainable mountain development 14. Promoting sustainable agriculture and rural development 15. Conservation of biological diversity 16. Environmentally sound management of biotechnology 17. Protection of the oceans, all kinds of seas, including enclosed and semi-enclosed seas, and coastal areas and the protection, rational use and development of their living resources 18. Protection of the quality and supply of freshwater resources: application of integrated approaches to the development, management and use of water resources 19. Environmentally sound management of toxic chemicals, including prevention of illegal international traffic in toxic and dangerous products 20. Environmentally sound management of hazardous wastes, in hazardous wastes 21. Environmentally sound management of solid wastes and sewage-related issues 22. Safe and environmentally sound management of radioactive wastes

9 SECTION III. STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF MAJOR GROUPS 23. Preamble 24. Global action for women towards sustainable and equitable development 25. Children and youth in sustainable development 26. Recognizing and strengthening the role of indigenous people and their communities 27. Strengthening the role of non-governmental organizations: partners for sustainable development 28. Local authorities' initiatives in support of Agenda 21 29. Strengthening the role of workers and their trade unions 30. Strengthening the role of business and industry 31. Scientific and technological community 32. Strengthening the role of farmers

10 SECTION IV. MEANS OF IMPLEMENTATION 33. Financial resources and mechanisms 34. Transfer of environmentally sound technology, cooperation and capacity-building 35. Science for sustainable development 36. Promoting education, public awareness and training 37. National mechanisms and international cooperation for capacity-building in developing countries 38. International institutional arrangements 39. International legal instruments and mechanisms 40. Information for decision-making

11 Agenda 21: National Plans l 8.7. Governments, in cooperation, where appropriate, with international organizations, should adopt a national strategy for sustainable development based on, inter alia, the implementation of decisions taken at the Conference, particularly in respect of Agenda 21. This strategy should build upon and harmonize the various sectoral economic, social and environmental policies and plans that are operating in the country. The experience gained through existing planning exercises such as national reports for the Conference, national conservation strategies and environment action plans should be fully used and incorporated into a country-driven sustainable development strategy. Its goals should be to ensure socially responsible economic development while protecting the resource base and the environment for the benefit of future generations. It should be developed through the widest possible participation. It should be based on a thorough assessment of the current situation and initiatives.

12 Local Strategies (Local Agenda 21) Agenda 21: Chapter 28 LOCAL AUTHORITIES' INITIATIVES IN SUPPORT OF AGENDA 21 PROGRAMME AREA Basis for action 28.1. Because so many of the problems and solutions being addressed by Agenda 21 have their roots in local activities, the participation and cooperation of local authorities will be a determining factor in fulfilling its objectives. Local authorities construct, operate and maintain economic, social and environmental infrastructure, oversee planning processes, establish local environmental policies and regulations, and assist in implementing national and subnational environmental policies. As the level of governance closest to the people, they play a vital role in educating, mobilizing and responding to the public to promote sustainable development.

13 28.3. Each local authority should enter into a dialogue with its citizens, local organizations and private enterprises and adopt "a local Agenda 21". Through consultation and consensus-building, local authorities would learn from citizens and from local, civic, community, business and industrial organizations and acquire the information needed for formulating the best strategies. The process of consultation would increase household awareness of sustainable development issues. Local authority programmes, policies, laws and regulations to achieve Agenda 21 objectives would be assessed and modified, based on local programmes adopted. Strategies could also be used in supporting proposals for local, national, regional and international funding. 28.4. Partnerships should be fostered among relevant organs and organizations such as UNDP, the United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (Habitat) and UNEP, the World Bank, regional banks, the International Union of Local Authorities, the World Association of the Major Metropolises, Summit of Great Cities of the World, the United Towns Organization and other relevant partners, with a view to mobilizing increased international support for local authority programmes. An important goal would be to support, extend and improve existing institutions working in the field of local authority capacity-building and local environment management.

14 Accepted Principles More Important than Framework Specifics public trust doctrine precautionary principle inter-generational equity intra-generational equity subsidiarity principle polluter pays principle (PPP) user pays principle (UPP)

15 Problems with Early SusDev National Plans l Many were not integrated into mainstream strategic planning; l Many were “wish lists” lacking clear objectives and achievable targets; l Narrow base of participation and without key stakeholders; l Did not support existing processes, strategies, and capacities and tried to build parallel structure; l Many (developing countries) were not led by the country, but by external agencies; l In some developing countries different external agencies pushed competing strategies

16 Key Principles based on Experience l People centred l Consensus on long term vision l Comprehensive and integrated l Targeted with clear budgetary priorities l Based on comprehensive and reliable analysis l Incorporate monitoring, learning, and improvement l Country-led and nationally owned l High-level government commitment and influential leading institutions l Building on existing mechanisms and strategies l Effective participation l Link national and local levels l Develop and build on existing capacity

17 Linear Process of Strategy Making Set of Objectives Social, Economic, Environmental Set of Processes Participation, Communications, Analysis, Debate, Investment, Capacity- building, Monitoring Coordination System Strategy for Sustainable Development Requires balance Requires co-ordination

18 Cyclical Process of Strategy Making Communication Participation Coordination Information Learning Plans and investment Empowerment & capacity building Mainstreaming SD, controls and incentives Monitor strategy mechanisms Monitor SD outcomes Assessment of issues and debate priorities Consensus on vision and priority goals

19 The Netherlands Approach l From 1989 National Environmental Policy Plan revised every 4 years l Dialogue between government, industry, civil society, public l Cabinet established interdepartmental body led by Prime Minister to develop strategy l All policies embedded in susdev concepts (2001) l Experiments in integration of economic, socio-cultural, environmental aspects of government investments l Each ministry must overview its contribution to susdev annually in annual budget l Inventory made of susdev initiatives of municipalities, provinces, business, citizens. l Visions, baseline analysis, targets and timelines, triggers, action plans, institutional plans, indicators set l Covenant approach with industrial sectors

20 Sectors and Community

21 Sustainable Development as Integration Science & Technology Politics Sector/Community Integrating plan/strategy Environment Economy

22 Sector and Community Comparison l Community focuses on interrelations of people and institutions within an area l Sector focuses on the interrelations of people within an interdependent set of activities l In both stakeholders share responsibilities and participation l Both require building of social capital and other capacities l Need to integrate technology, economy and politics l Strategy Framework: Vision, participation, issue analysis, targets, implementation plans, indicators and evaluation l External linkages and interdependencies

23 SusDev by Sectors

24 Sector: Definition l Within a larger system (society, economy, industry), a sector is a distinct subsystem of related components

25 Why Sectors? l Allows you to deal with the integrated complexity of the susdev challenge at a reasonable level.

26 ‘$50,000 lure’ for minibus LPG switch 1.What physical infrastructure is under development? 2.What land-use considerations are required? 3.What kind of social decisions are being made? 4.Who is involved? 5.Are the decisions being made in a atmosphere of cooperation or conflict?

27 Sectors as Systems Network and interrelations l Upstream and downstream interrelations l Horizontal interrelations l Interrelations with citizens, government, businesses, NGOs, certifying authorities l Regulatory and cultural framework Environmental impacts l Direct and indirect impacts: local/global, temporal l Life-cycle impacts l Interactions with rest of system: cumulative and synergistic effects

28 Sector Examples l Agriculture l Forestry l Mining l Fisheries l Materials (metals, plastics, cement, chemicals, nanotechnologies) l Energy l Transportation (air, land, water) l Construction/Building mgt l Water/sewage l Tourism l Education l Finance/Banking/ Insurance l Retail and wholesale l Health l Governance/participation l Elderly, youth, gender Life cycle approach

29 Your Sector Includes Resource Extraction Materials Processing Parts Manufacture Product Assembly Distribution Consumption Materials Collection Recycling Physical Infrastructure, Landuse, Social Infrastructure Material & Energy Inputs Pollution Outputs Minimize

30 Sector Initiatives l Most incremental and build on existing practices, organizations and cultures l Introducing systems based approach with life cycle assessment l Leadership of individuals, particular firms, government departments, and NGOs important l Experimentation with pilot projects l Need to overcome technological, economic and cultural barriers

31 The Netherlands Sector Approach Themes (issues) Target groups (sectors) Indicators Covenants of stakeholders Market and technology Product Life-cycle Policy Program Monitoring and Evaluation

32 Netherlands: Target groups, themes and indicators l The government targets an industry or group of industries that have problems in common that have to be solved. The most important target groups are agriculture, traffic and transportation, manufacturing industry, energy, refineries, building trades, and consumer and retail trade. The major common problems that they have to solve are identified and called themes. Agriculture, for example, has the themes of acidification, eutrophication, and toxic substance dispersion. Indicators are chosen to allow the severity of the problem (theme) and advances in solving it to be measured accurately and concisely. The indicators for agriculture are, respectively, ammonia emissions for acidification, phosphate emissions for eutrophication, and pesticide use for toxic substance dispersion.

33 Netherlands: Covenants l The national government brings together provincial and municipal governments, business representatives, industry association representatives, environmentalists and occasionally labor to discuss the severity of the problem and what needs to be done to solve it. Improvement targets and timetables are established. These targets and timetables are set for short, medium and long-term efforts because the changing the system requires incentives and deadlines that allow firms to realistically achieve the improvement goals. Companies are expected to put action plans into effect, monitor the results and make the information open to the public.

34 Netherlands: Market and technology l The covenant approach works so well because it allows the market to motivate companies to improve their environmental performance and to innovate in the design or use of environmental technologies. l The targets allow the companies to plan for the future in their own way and are not forced to adopt existing technologies. l Therefore, companies do not have to change technologies and practices all the time as regulation become tougher, but can devise technologies and practices that actually give them an advantage over the competition. l Thus a company is motivated to find both the most advantageous environmental technology and to do it in the most efficient manner for their business.

35 Netherlands: Product Life-cycle Policy l Covenants are encouraged to provide information about each product as it moves through the lifecycle. l Thus companies at each stage of the product cycle gain improved information about how to design and use products received from downstream. l The Netherlands balances this policy with the fact that are a small trade dependent country selling and buying goods from many countries that have less strict regulations than them, and also selling and buying goods to countries like Germany and Sweden which in some sectors will have tougher environmental regulations.

36 Netherlands: Program Evaluation l The programs are evaluated on an ongoing basis by the national government, paid consultants and environmentalists. The program is also more thoroughly reviewed on 5 and 10-year intervals to point out significant problems.

37 Target Group Performance Indicators Target GroupThemeIndicator AgricultureAcidification Eutrophication Toxic substance dispersion Ammonia emissions Phosphate emissions Pesticides Traffic and Transportation Climate change Acidification Disturbance of local environment CO2 emissions Nitrogen emissions Noise and odor IndustryClimate Change Acidification Solid Waste CO2 emissions SO2 emissions NOX emissions Industrial and chemical waste

38 Target Group Performance Indicators Target GroupThemeIndicator EnergyClimate Change Acidification Solid Waste CO2 emissions SO2 emissions NOX emissions Fly ash and slag Radioactive waste RefineriesClimate change Acidification Toxic substance dispersion CO2 emissions SO2 emissions Hazardous substances emissions

39 Target Group Performance Indicators Target GroupThemeIndicator Building tradeClimate change Toxic substances dispersion Solid waste CO2 emissions CFC emissions Creosote and hazardous substances C&D waste Consumer and retailClimate change Acidification Solid Waste CO2 emissions NO2 emissions Household and white good waste

40 Covenant Process Knowledge Base Preparation Implementing plan at branch level Detailed Development Declaration of intent (integrated environmental target plan) Implementing plans Drafting company environmental plans Phased plan & guidelines Monitoring and enforcement Implementation Homogenous Sectors Heterogeneous Sectors

41 HK’s Transportation Sector Comparatively high level of sustainability because: l Low private car ownership (5.2 %) l Relatively few roads l 89% of all passenger trips by public transport l High level of access, convenience, affordable l Modal competition and railway self financing

42 HK’s Transportation Sector Problems: l Roadside pollution high, particularly NOX and RSPs from diesel l Traffic noise l Pressure on land and habitat from expanding road and rail networks l High latent demand for cars l Roads planned with little regard for interrelations with other aspects of public space (pedestrianization, neighbourhood division, aesthetics) l Public participation limited to post conceptualization-engineering consultations (little real change possible) l Railways subsidized by government land grants for development; roads paid for by government (therefore bus companies, logistics companies subsidized

43 Transportation Policies Infrastructure (Highways dept) l Comprehensive Transport Study 3 (2000) began to integrate SusDev into transport planning l “Emphasis on rail” but road predominant expansion (5X) l “Predict and provide” approach instead of demand management l Little concern for social well- being, noise, air pollution or other issues of sustainability l Environment, Transport and Works bureau now links environment and transport Vehicles and Fuels (EPD) Low sulfur fuels Euro engines (with replacement of buses) LPG taxis and minibuses No control over mainland fuels being used in HK Tunnel fees but no electronic road pricing

44 UK Sustainable Transport Policy l Integrate land use and transport policies to minimize transport and increase use of less-damaging modes l Remove air quality threats to human health l Improve quality of life by reducing dominance of cars and trucks and providing other modes l Halt loss of land used for conservation, scenic, or amenity purposes l Reduce GHGs l Reduce impact on non-renewable resources l Reduce noise

45 Indicators HONG KONG Direct l Average travel distance l Average network speed l Cost of freight transport Indirect l AQ based on air quality objectives l Toxic air pollution based on acceptable risk l Per capita C02 l Total C02 ALTERNATIVE l Per capita km buses and trains; footway length; avg. travel speed, disabled facilities; prv. cars; traffic accidents; fatalities; income proportion; roadside API l Access to goods, services, activities, destinations l Impact/kilometre l Kilometer/GDP

46 Indicators l Don’t connect with guiding principles completely (e.g. GP of safety and pedestrian facilities don’t have indicators) l Measures means rather than goals (e.g. network speed rather than ease of access to services)

47 HK’s Municipal Solid Waste Strategy

48 The Immediate Problem: landfills filling up

49 The Underlying Problem: high consumption and waste habits

50 Strategic Objective

51 Targets

52 Implementation

53 Indicators?


55 HK’s SusDev Strategy for Travel and Tourism Subsectors l Food and Beverage : restaurants, fast food shops, bars, etc. l Hotels and hostels l Travel and transport : travel agents, tour operators, airport/airline services and companies specializing in mass transportation l Retailers : clothing, footwear, foodstuff, alcoholic drinks, consumer and durable products l Events and leisure facilities : entertainment facilities, theme parks, museums, art galleries, cultural facilities, other leisure activities.

56 HK’s SusDev Strategy for Travel and Tourism Stage 1 l Review of Agenda 21 for the travel and tourism industry l Stakeholders baseline study l International benchmarking l Comparative assessment and Analysis Stage 2 l Development of draft integrated strategy for the T&T industry l Stakeholder consultation l Formulate an environmentally sustainable development strategy Stage 3 l Devise implementation plan l Strategy dissemination

57 HK’s SusDev Strategy for Travel and Tourism Participation l Initial consultation with stakeholder groups l Focus groups with stakeholders l Roundtable discussions yearly

58 HK’s SusDev Strategy for Travel and Tourism Four Priority Areas: 1.Environmental management in industry firms and associations 2.Sustainable training, education & awareness 3.Facilitating exchange of information and technology 4.Landuse planning and new tourism product development

59 HK’s SusDev Strategy for Travel and Tourism Implementation l Action Plans for government departments, government tourist organizations and representative trade organizations l Guidelines for industry members l Charters for signing members to observe

60 Gothenburg’s “Green” Product Development l 2 programs to eliminate toxic chemicals in urban environment, reduce load on sewage system, aquatic environment l Products used in industry and by consumers l “Chemical Sweep”: identify hazardous products and develop, test, and market alternatives l “Clean Lubricants: develop, test, and market alternatives

61 Gothenburg’s “Green” Product Development l Used authority from Swedish National Act on Chemical Products (users required to switch to alternative to hazardous chemicals when available) to interest users l Municipality brought together manufacturers and users in cooperative effort to stimulate product development l Service approach: offering advice and technical assistance; engaged manufacturers and users l Focused on specific products:cleaners, batteries, pesticides, cutting fluids, diesel fuels l Companies were highly aware and receptive because of fears of regulations and potential for competitive advantage

62 “Chemical Sweep” Program: switching to available alternatives l Education, information and promotional campaign to spread information about hazardous chemicals and substitution regulation: mass media advertisements, brochures, displays, stickers, exhibitions and trade fairs l Use of specific chemicals in different sectors assessed through survey and list of affected products and users compiled l Users were notified of their hazardous chemical use and of alternatives, and of regulations l Encouraged to switch to alternatives l Follow-up visits to see how many had changed

63 “Chemical Sweep” Program: developing alternatives l Some firms couldn’t switch because alternatives not available l Worked with several firms in a sector (and across sectors) on pilot projects to develop alternatives l Functional and ecological assessment of products monitored and documented l Car Wash Detergent: l 8 products tested by Chemical Sweep, Env. Protection office, Local gov’ts, Petro Dealers Nat. Assoc., 2 car wash companies l Green products performed better, new class of product created l 100% uptake by local car wash companies l Rechargeable Batteries (15% cadmium to.0025%) l Tests showed less toxic suitable for mobiles, video cameras, shavers l Importers and general public informed l New product models with less toxic battery introduced

64 “Clean Lubricants” Program: developing alternatives l Administered by Municipal Solid Waste Agency; two employees l Focus on hydraulic fluids l Manufactures invited to put forward green products (6 chosen) l Local users asked to participate in one year blind field test (excavators, trucks with lifts, garbage trucks) l Clean lubricants performed well functionally and ecologically l Manufacturers spurred to develop more clean lubricants

65 Gothenburg Green Products Lessons l Legislation as starting point, but must be followed up with proactive education etc. l Municipality can have big influence if programs are designed properly l Enormous amount of concern and competence in sector that can be harnessed cooperatively

66 Sector/Community Case Study Websites l European Academy of the Urban Environment: SURBAN - database on sustainable urban development in Europe l l International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives (ICLEI): Case Studies l l Sustainable communities network l l Federation of Community Municipalities: Center for Sustainable Community Development l ?lang=e ?lang=e l Sustainable Tourism Net: l

67 Our Sector Analysis: scope l Focus on environmental sustainability l Or environmental linkage to social, economic or political aspect of sustainability l Or an issue dealt with in a systematic manner

68 Our Sector Analysis: means l Baseline conditions: descriptive of environmental, social, political, and economic characteristics; and of stakeholder awareness and capacities l Issue and gap analysis l Alternatives generation l Indicators and monitoring system l Stakeholder feedback l Integration with community

69 Scoping a Sector l Branch of society: citizens, government, business, NGOs l Division of branch: industry, service, citizen group,government level/administrative division, type of NGO l Smaller divisions: community/subgroup, government bureau/department, industrial or service grouping, NGOs

70 Baseline State and Impacts Checklist Environmental l Air l Land l Water l Noise l Biodiversity l Landscape and seascape Economic l Jobs l Per capita income l Asset values l Entrepreneurial ism and opportunities Social l Services (e.g. health, education, recreation) l Housing l Cultural continuity l Volunteerism l Elderly l Equity l Etc. Political l Government activities in area (policies, regulations) l Political parties l Other interest groups l Issues l Conflicts

71 Baseline Information l Observation l Printed materials, government publications l Talking to stakeholders

72 Environmental Sources l Air, land, water, noise quality, and conservation l Biodiversity and Habitats; l Fish

73 Area Mapped for Area (ha) % Each Habitat Type Cover Type High Value Ecological Habitat† Fung Shui Forest106.30.1 Montane Forest123.40.1 Lowland Forest18318.316.5 Mixed Shrubland15196.513.7 Freshwater/ Brackish Wetland130.10.1 Natural Watercourse803.90.7 Mangrove343.10.3 Intertidal Mudflat656.10.6 Seagrass Bed5.40.0 Subtotal3568332.1 Medium Value Ecological Habitat† Plantation or Plantation /Mixed Forest417.00.4 Shrubby Grassland24674.822.2 Fishpond/Gei wai1031.70.9 Sandy Shore†179.60.2 Rocky Shore94.20.1 Cultivation3838.33.5 Subtotal3023627.2 Hong Kong Habitats

74 Area Mapped for Area (ha)% Each Habitat Type Cover Type Low Value Ecological Habitat† Bare Rock or Soil5101.84.6 Grassland21572.719.4 Modified Watercourse2384.12.1 Artificial Rocky/Hard Shoreline315.40.3 Golf Course/Urban Park1398.31.3 Quarry168.60.2 Subtotal3094127.8 Negligible Value Ecological Habitat Rural Industrial Storage/Containers1379.21.3 Landfill404.30.4 Others12656.311.4 Subtotal1444013.0 Hong Kong Habitats


76 Society Sources l City Planning Consultants 1998? Study on South East New Territories Development Review Strategy Final Report. Hong Kong: HKSAR Planning Department. l Projection of population distribution (2002-2011) and Area of HK by district: Planning Department -> look for "Information Services", then "Planning Statistics" l Land Usage in different parts of HK: Town Planning Board - --> go for "e-staturary plans" l Demographic and social characteristics, economic characteristics, labor/employment, household characteristics, housing characteristics, GDP/GNP, etc, by district or the whole territory: Census & Statistics Department Or, the Government's InvestHK website - --> look for "Key Statistics" l Property types (residential, office, industrial, shop, large deals) and valuations at or Estate agents e.g. Centaline at:

77 Interest Groups/NGOs: Sources l Good list of links at: al/link_greengroups.html al/link_greengroups.html /link_greengroups.html l Sai Kung Association

78 Politics Sources l Environmental Regulations and Guidelines ent.html ent.html l Legco Panel on Environment and pending bills ml; ml; l Links to relevant government departments; l Sai Kung District Council

79 Stakeholders, Awareness and Capacities Checklist Environmental l Groups l Interests l Sector specific awareness l Financial and organizational capacities l Inter-group cooperation Economic l Businesses l Business groups l Labor groups l Environmental awareness l Change and fiscal capacities Social l Community and external interest groups l Environmental awareness l Leadership l Organizational capacities Political l Government levels and Departments l Environmental awareness l Spending capacities l Participation systems l Policies and enforcement

80 Community Sustainable Development

81 Why SusDev at the Community Level? l Deal with environmental problems in a holistic manner l Deal with contradictions between stakeholder expectations l Avoid top-down planning and colonization l Enable people to deal with their own environmental impacts directly

82 The subsidiarity principle The subsidiarity principle seeks to reverse the inefficiencies and environmental damage done by centralized planning and decision- making. It requires that decisions should be made by the communities affected or on their behalf, by the authorities closest to them. As appropriate, decisions should rest either at the national rather than international level or at the local rather than the national level. This has been the basic principle governing the devolution of planning systems worldwide, and it is intended to encourage local ownership of resources and responsibility for environmental problems and their solutions.

83 Why Participation? l Set priorities based on various stakeholder needs, but with focus on community l Enable the development of long-term, comprehensive solutions l Obtain information and foster support

84 (Int. Council for Local Environmental Initiatives) ICLEI Elements of Community Planning l Local government and partners: organize for service delivery l Partnerships: engagement of residents, key institutional partners, interest groups or other stakeholders that represent values and needs of community l Community-based issue analysis: involves 1) engaging stakeholders to learn needs, local issues, educate, obtain support, set priorities and 2) technical assessments of ecology, infrastructure etc. l Action Planning: establishing 1) goals; 2) targets and triggers; 3) strategies and commitments l Implementation and Monitoring: 1) changing procedures, reorganizing work tasks, assigning responsibilities and funding; 2) documentation during implementation and recurrent measurement of impacts after l Evaluation and Feedback: assessment of impacts of changes for both internal and external uses

85 Partnerships Establish an organizational structure for planning by service providers and users. Establish a shared community vision. Community-based Issue Analysis Identify issues that must be addressed to achieve community vision. Assess priority problems and issues in detail. Action Planning Agree on goals, targets and triggers, and create strategies and commitments to achieve targets. Formalize into plan. Implementation and Monitoring Create partnership structures for implementation and mgt for municipal compliance. Monitor activities, changes Evaluation and Feedback Periodic performance evaluations using target-based indicators. Repeat issue analyses; celebrate achievements. Who are your partners in service delivery? What services do people want? What is the capacity of existing service systems? Are they sustainable? How do service systems impact society, economy, and environment? When and how can sustainable service systems be established? Targets Measurable commitments to be achieved in a specific time. How will plans be monitored and evaluated? Triggers Commitment to a specified action at a future date and/or response to future conditions. When will further planning be required? How will partners and users participate in implementation and evaluation? Elements of Community Planning


87 Experts’ Role Functions l Technical knowledge l Participation promotion and facilitation l Political and administrative knowledge Decision-Making Tools l Environmental, social, economic evaluation l Indicators l Industry knowledge l Alternative management & technologies (environment, industry, services, residences,transportation, etc.) l Trend, risk and options analysis

88 Stakeholder Participation Who l Citizens l Business l Government l NGOs and other groups l Visitors Where l Sustainability plan initiation l Sustainability plan design l Operation of plan l Monitoring and enforcement l Evaluation of plan

89 Cultivation of Participation l Public forums l Scenario generation and envisioning l Collective brainstorming l Focus groups l Networks and partnerships l Adaptive management

90 Influences on Participation Positive l Specific focus l Multi-party comprehension of problem l Solutions in context l Innovativeness and flexibility l Conflict resolution skills l Use of facilitator l Capacity building l Deliberate diversity l Financial resources l Commitment to communication l Sense of ownership l Wide participation l Trust, transparency, & accountability l Leadership and clarity l North-south dimension l Added value and specific projects l Experts ‘on tap’ Negative l Hidden agendas l Inequality, competitiveness and intolerance l Sectoralism l Excessive dependence on external aid/expertise l Inadequate administrative support l Problem avoidance l Mutual distrust l Different jargons l Poor methodology l Sharp changes to structure l Excessive complexity l Over-reliance on experimental approaches

91 Problems with Community Approach l Planning system and government structure l Alienation in society and lack of sense of place l Continued role of experts and management of expert-stakeholder interface l Time and money considerations

92 Environmental Citizen Responsibilities l Change everyday habits l Be responsible consumers l Engage in public debate l Keep officials accountable l Work with others l Environmental literacy

93 Community Planning in Hong Kong l No local government in HK l Planning top-down, executive led l District councils have limited power, don’t get involved in planning, involve people l Plans satisfy territorial development rather than local needs



96 Chief Executive’s instructions Planning study and drawing up Plan circulated to gov’t dept.s for comments Submission to Metro Planning Committee (MPC) OR …..Rural/New Territories Committee (RNTC) Presentation to District Council Resubmission to MPC/RNTPC Gazzetted for public inspections TPB Submission and hearing C.E approves or disapproves. Hong Kong’s Planning Process Public Input

97 Planning System in HK Territorial Development Strategy Sub-regional Plans Outline Zoning Plans & Development Permission Area Plans Outline Development Plan Layout Plan Plans gazzetted and objections entertained

98 Western District Development Strategy (WDDS) l Oldest neighborhood, many unique features and problems l Opportunity for unique upgrading respecting traditions l WDDS focused on land reclamation, MTR station, private sector led redevelopment for 50,000 l Residents left up in air about completion, relocation, sustainability of businesses and way of life l No alternatives provided

99 The Wanchai Experiment l Goal: foster community engagement in the design of their neighbourhood l Focus: on the social aspects of sustainability and making participation a prerequisite for sustainability

100 Stakeholder Identification By: walking around the neighborhood, talking to people, and study of baseline resources l The elderly l Housewives l Teenagers l Business people l Visitors and tourists

101 Engaging People l Photo exhibition workshops l Focus groups l Talking to key individuals/leaders l Face-to-face surveys l Proposal workshop

102 Wanchai Engagement Results IssueProposals Community space e.g. redevelop Southhorn playground, public square, community centre Pedestrianisation, market streets and markets e.g. Pedestrianize market streets and landscape Traffic congestion Difficult to control, but pedestrianize and rationalize buses Local character Conserve old bldgs, ‘chinese’ services and features in new bldgs Tourism appeal Info centre, signage, cultural trail, experiences, appearance upgrading Elderly and marginalized Housing required for street sleepers Sensory Qualities Individual and collective action

103 Santa Monica l Small city (80,000) in Los Angeles (on the beach) l Started with Agenda 21 plan in 1994 l Focused on targets and indicators dealing with 1) resource conservation; 2) Transportation; 3) Pollution Protection; and Community and Economic Development l Achieved many successes (next slide) l Not “there” yet, new “Sustainable City”plan in 2003


105 Sustainable City Plan: Partnerships l 2001 formation of Sustainable City Working Group: community stakeholders including elected and appointed officials, City staff, and representatives of neighborhood organizations, business community, and other community groups. l Working Group met numerous times to discuss many issues related to sustainability of community l Previous plan and early drafts were revised based on large amount of public input

106 Sustainable City Plan: Community Based Issue Analysis Evaluated long-term sustainability against threats to: l Natural resources and natural environment l Human and social capital: connectedness among people in the community and their education, skills and health l Financial and built capital: manufactured goods, buildings, infrastructure, information resources, credit and debt.

107 Sustainable City Plan: Action Planning l Guiding principles l Goal areas with specific goals for community visions l Targets l Indicators: systems and programs l Goal/Indicator matrix

108 Guiding Principles l The concept of sustainability guides City policy l Protection, preservation and restoration of the natural environment is a high priority of the City l Environmental quality, economic health and social equity are mutually dependent l All decisions have implications to the long-term sustainability of Santa Monica l Community awareness, responsibility, participation and education are key elements of a sustainable community l Santa Monica recognizes its linkage with the regional, national, and global community l Those sustainability issues most important to the community will be addressed first and the most cost effective programs and policies will be selected l The City is committed to procurement decisions which minimize negative environmental and social impacts l Cross-sector partnerships are necessary to achieve sustainable goals

109 Goal Areas l Resource conservation l Environmental and public health l Transportation l Economic Development l Open space and land use l Housing l Community education and civic participation l Human dignity

110 Sustainable City Plan: Implementation and Monitoring l City’s Task Force on Environment lead initiation l Sustainable City Steering Committee with broader stakeholder representation will oversee implementation l At City administrative level, a Sustainable City Implementation Group makes existing and new programs and policies consistent with sustainability goals within respective departments and across departments l Two teams will coordinate with community stakeholder groups

111 Sustainable City Plan: Evaluation and Feedback l Every two years, the Sustainable City Steering Committee and Sustainable City Implementation Group make and indicator report l Used by City council, City Staff and community members to judge progress of plan l Provide basis for decision-making on changing policies and actions











122 Goal Indicator Matrix

123 Huangbaiyu Village Tour: Exploring Sustainable Design Slideshow/

124 Southeast False Creek is envisioned as a community in which people live, work, play and learn in a neighbourhood designed to balance the highest possible levels of social equity, livability, ecological health and economic prosperity, so as to support their choices to live in a sustainable manner.

125 South East False Creek l 32 ha of old industrial land 2,353 units for 4,949 people in public land, maybe, 8,575 in private lands range of parks and recreation along the waterfront; shoreline improvements; seaside pedestrian-bicycle route; re-establishment of wildlife habitat; private and community gardens encouraged.

126 Guiding Principles 1.Implementing Sustainability: SEFC should promote the implementation of sustainable development principles in an urban setting. 2.Stewardship of Ecosystem Health: The SEFC plan should improve the health of the False Creek Basin and encourage resource conservation and waste reduction. 3.Economic Viability and Vitality: SEFC development should ensure viability without subsidy and encourage a vibrant and vital community. 4.Social and Community Health: SEFC should be a livable, complete community supporting social networks and enhances quality of life for all in the neighbourhood.

127 Urban Agriculture Study


129 Urban Agriculture Study Results



132 South East False Creek Indicators and Targets southeast/odp/pdf/sustainabilityindica tors.pdf

133 What are the Challenges to creating community in Sai Kung? Political system Group differences Leadership Resources

134 Indicators “What gets measured, gets managed” l Why: accountability, monitoring and assessment, targets, participation, commitments l Measured by (who): government, industry, public, NGOs l Measured by (what): physical, monetary, policies and other values l Measured at (where):national, local, sector levels l Applications: environmental, social, economic, political l Types: set, combined (index), framework (accounting; pressure, state, response), decoupling l Created by: experts, stakeholders, government, public l Requirements: representative, analytically sound, easily understood, practical, show trends l Problems: weightings, valuations, integration, movement l

135 Indicators and Monitoring System l Develop a small set of indicators for whole sector l Develop a system for evaluation of progress

136 HK SusDev 21 Guiding Principles


138 HK SusDev 21 Indicators




142 Target Group Performance Indicators Target GroupThemeIndicator AgricultureAcidification Eutrophication Toxic substance dispersion Ammonia emissions Phosphate emissions Pesticides Traffic and Transportation Climate change Acidification Disturbance of local environment CO2 emissions Nitrogen emissions Noise and odor IndustryClimate Change Acidification Solid Waste CO2 emissions SO2 emissions NOX emissions Industrial and chemical waste Netherlands Sector Indicators

143 Target Group Performance Indicators Target GroupThemeIndicator EnergyClimate Change Acidification Solid Waste CO2 emissions SO2 emissions NOX emissions Fly ash and slag Radioactive waste RefineriesClimate change Acidification Toxic substance dispersion CO2 emissions SO2 emissions Hazardous substances emissions

144 Target Group Performance Indicators Target GroupThemeIndicator Building tradeClimate change Toxic substances dispersion Solid waste CO2 emissions CFC emissions Creosote and hazardous substances C&D waste Consumer and retailClimate change Acidification Solid Waste CO2 emissions NO2 emissions Household and white good waste

145 OECD Pressure, State, Response Model







152 Issue and Gap Analysis Determination of main environmental issues by l Identifying problems raised in baseline studies (e.g. by issues such as ecosystem health, presence/absence of awareness, pollution levels, regulations and enforcement, participatory systems, activities elsewhere in similar sectors or Pressure-State-Response). l Identifying concerns of stakeholders (concerns about problems and conflicts with other stakeholders). l Benchmarking against other sustainable development models (comparable sectors, communities, and natural conditions) l Research!!!

153 Alternatives Generation l Importation of successful models l Development of new approaches based on new technologies, regulations, participation, overcoming conflicts, business approaches etc. l Sector specific and system wide changes

154 Stakeholder Feedback l Return to stakeholders and ask opinions of your suggestions (feasibility re: stakeholder conflicts, technologies, regulations, awareness, etc; complexity or completeness) l Inquire about willingness to participate, pay, lead

155 Integration with Community l Consider cumulative and synergistic impacts with environment, society,economy, and politics l Areas of overlap of sector governance/initiatives l Need for mutual support l Need for overall policy, regulatory, infrastructure, cultural changes

156 Community Indicators l From your sector l Others necessary for the community

157 Long Term and Interim Visions of Sustainability for Sai Kung l Environment: local and global aspects? l Society, Economics and Politics? l What major changes are needed? l What strategies? l How does your sector fit into the vision?

158 Your Final Report l Introduction: a vision of Sai Kung and how your sector fits into it l Baseline conditions: l Relevant to your sector and its role in SK l Reworked to integrate everything learned through semester l Issue and gap analysis l With explanation of how you analyzed the issues l Alternatives generation l Including modifications based on stakeholder feedback (and acknowledging this input) l Indicators and monitoring system l Conclusion: l Integration with community/responsibility to vision l References l Footnotes, endnotes or scientific notation

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