Presentation on theme: "Introduction & Chapters One and Two"— Presentation transcript:
1Introduction & Chapters One and Two Instructor: Kevin SextonCourse: U.S. Political SystemsSoutheast Missouri State University
2POLITICS What is it? Where/When Does it Take Place? Who Engages in it? WHO GETS WHAT, WHERE, WHEN AND HOW.Where/When Does it Take Place?ANYTIME AND ANYPLACE TWO OR MORE HUMAN BEINGS INTERACT.Who Engages in it?ALL HUMAN BEINGS!
3ALL PEOPLE ENGAGE IN POLITICS Anytime two or more people interact there are decisions being made as it relates to who will get what, when they will get it, where they will get it and how they will get it.Example:If two students need to get into a class and there is onlyseat available. One student calls the professor before the firstclass meeting and one student does not call. Both students showup at the first class meeting.WHO GETS THE LAST SEAT?The professor must decide who gets into the class and who does not.Is this a political decision?
4ALL PEOPLE ENGAGE IN POLITICS (CONTINUED) Example:A husband and a wife are sleeping in the middle of the night.ANY POLITICS HERE?Who gets to sleep on the left side of the bed?Is the temperature set on 72 degrees or 65 degrees?Ceiling fan on or ceiling fan off?LOTS OF POLITICS!!!!
5Governmental Politics This is the type of POLITICS that many people think of when they think ofPOLITICS. As we have seen on the previous slides this not the only type,or even the most prevalent type of POLITICS.BUT….It is the primary type of POLITICS that will be discussed, exploredand studied in this course this semester.
6Governmental Politics Defined The process through which societymakes its governing decisions.OR…How a country, state, county, city or othergovernmental unit decides who, gets what,where when and how.
7In this class we will be looking at how different and individuals attempt to impact the decisionsthat the various governments in theUnited States makes.In other words, we will look at how the groups andindividuals in the United States try to impactPUBLIC POLICY.Which is basically any decision made by any level ofgovernment. Some are major decisions while manyare rather minor decisions.Examples:Should we go to war against Iraq?and/orShould the households in Cape Girardeau be allowed to useAny trashcan they want, or should the city provide them?
8Government What is it? What is it purpose? The Institutions, processes, and rules that are specifically designedto facilitate control of a particular area and its inhabitants.What is it purpose?In order to understand and determine the purpose of government we mustlook at the work of a 17th Century Philosopher named John Locke.
9John Locke (1632-1704) English Philosopher Wrote the Two Treatises of Government (1690)Held that people had inalienable rights.These rights existed even before there were any governments.Life, Liberty and PropertySince these rights existed before governments did, it is the people that CREATE GOVERNMENTS.Even more importantly – only the people had the AUTHORITYto create governments.Therefore it is the responsibility of the government to, first and foremost preserve the rights of the citizens that created it.
10John Locke and Self-Interest The belief that all men are Self-Interested was a major point made by John Locke and other major philosophers.
11Regulate the SELF INTEREST of people. GovernmentWhat is it?The Institutions, processes, and rules that are specifically designedto facilitate control of a particular area and its inhabitants.What is it purpose?CONTROL A PARTICULAR GEOGRAPHIC AREAHow Do They Accomplish This?Provide PUBLIC GoodsAND/ORRegulate the SELF INTEREST of people.
12What Does Government Do? They Provide, or ensure the provision of PUBLIC GOODS.PUBLIC GOOD:Items, goods or rights that benefit all, but in which there is little or noprofit. Therefore, very few if any group is willing to provide them. Manyare necessary for the proper conduct of a society. Some examples includeclean water, protection, safety, green space (parks) and public transportation.Since there are few groups willing to provide them the government is usuallythe only group to provide them, and if the government is not directlyproviding the good or item, they are involved in the regulation of that goodor items provision.
13Three Types of Governments Government by ONE – (autocracy)Government by a FEW – (oligarchy)Government by MANY – (democracy)
14Government by One AUTOCRACY Emperors, kings or dictators. Generally must have the support of the military or policeforces to maintain control.Examples of governments (past and present)Great Britain (prior to the Magna Carta )Japan (prior to and during WWII)Cuba, China and Iraq (prior to war)
15Government by a Few ARISTOCRACY OR OLIGARCHY Aristocracy – leaders are chosen based on their birth-rightRoyal families, and Holy-FamiliesOligarchy – leaders are chosen based on wealth, militarypower or membership in a political party.Generally, must have support of military or police forcesto maintain control.South Africa is best example of a modern Oligarchy
16Government by Many DEMOCRACY The U.S. is a representative democracy. Government receives its right to govern from thepeople.DIRECT DEMOCRACY – ALL citizens participate in All decision making. (Pure Democracy).REPRESENTATIVE DEMOCRACY – citizens choose people who decide what government actions take place.The U.S. is a representative democracy.
17Core Values ANY PROBLEMS WITH THESE FOUR CORE VALUES? There are several core values that most people will say are at the heartOf what the United States is ALL ABOUT. Here are the most often sitedof those:LIBERTYINDIVIDUALISMEQUALITYSELF-GOVERNMENTANY PROBLEMS WITH THESEFOUR CORE VALUES?
18Core Values Do any of these core values conflict with each other? Liberty & Individualism versus Equality?OrLiberty and Self-GOVERNMENT?What do we do when these core valuescome into conflict with each other?COMPROMISE OR ENGAGE IN POLITICS.
19Power versus Authority What is the major difference(s) between thethree types of governments?Some maintain control due to the fact that they have thePOWER to do so.AND….AUTHORITY to do so.WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE?
20DefinitionsPower is the ability of people or groups of people to control governmental actions.Many times oligarchies and monarchies use the power of the military and/or police to control the governmental actions.The Soviet Union used power to maintain controlPre-War Iraq was controlled by the secret policeMost times, when given the chance the people of a country controlled in this way will throw off or overthrow the government that is controlling through the use of military or police POWER.
21DefinitionsAuthority is the recognized right of a person or group of people to control governmental actions.Only the people of a country can recognize the right ofa government to control them.This recognition must not be based purely on thePOWER that the person or group has.It must be based on the legitimate CHOICE of thepeople being governed.
22Theories of Power & Authority Within The United States. Basic theories of power in the United States Political System.PluralismElitismBureaucratic RuleMajoritarianismHyper-Pluralism
23Pluralism The idea that POWER in the United States is shared by many different people, and groups of people.This idea also states that the vast number of peoplethat share power adds greatly to our government.
24Elitism The idea that POWER in the United States rests in the hands of just a few people or a small groupof people. Some people feel it is this fact that hasmade this country so effective since its birth. Otherpeople feel it is this fact that has caused many of theproblems that our country has and continues toface since its birth.
25Majoritarianism The idea that that the majority of people make the decisions in the country. Not only in elections, butalso policy decisions.
26Bureaucratic Rule The theory that it is the unelected administrators That have all the power in our government.
27Hyper- Pluralism The idea that POWER in the United States is shared by too many different people, and groups of people.This idea also states that the vast number of peoplethat share power greatly inhibits the operation ofour government.
28Where Will WE Go This Semester The AUTHORITY that the Constitution has given to our POLITICAL SYSTEM, and how the use of POWER within that POLITICAL SYSTEM is addressed by our country will be the center of our study this semester.With that in mind……..Remember that ALL people are self interested, and it is a primary responsibility of the government to protect the rights of it citizens from the self-interest of others.