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Unit 9 Pigskin English. Detailed Study of Paras 1-8 (1) How did the writer make his investigation? He sat down in front of a TV set and watched football.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 9 Pigskin English. Detailed Study of Paras 1-8 (1) How did the writer make his investigation? He sat down in front of a TV set and watched football."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 9 Pigskin English

2 Detailed Study of Paras 1-8 (1) How did the writer make his investigation? He sat down in front of a TV set and watched football games with a notebook and a pen in his hand when events like the Super Bowl were televised. He watched the football program attentively and listened to the commentators carefully, ready to take notes of instances of mangled English.

3 (2) Why did the writer focus on watching events like the Super Bowl? Because such events are now watched around the world; English is already the world' widely used language, the first or second language of almost a billion people. Countless millionns studying it avidly million people in China alone. Events like the Super Bowl are hypnotically not only as sport, but as lessons in American culture and in the English language. Also the writer assumed that language vandalism was most serious in an event like the Super Bowl.

4 (3) Point out the elliptical sentences in this part and expound their function."And the Super Bowl! The Visigoths festival! Language vandalism on an epic scale! No, even grander than epic-universal, because the Super Bowl is now seen around the people in 59 countries watched last year, seven million in Britain, God knows how many millions in the People's Republic of China." These elliptical sentences sound very forceful, effective, and rhythmical, emphasizing the = serious degree of language vandalism when the Super Bowl is televised and watched all over the world.

5 Language Work Pigskin English: English used in comments or reports about football games. The word pigskin means football in North America. co-anchor ν.to jointly preside over or take charge of radio or TV programs e.g.A middle-aged man and a beautiful young woman co-anchor the News Perspective program on STY

6 mangle vt. to damage sth. greatly almost beyond recognition; spoil ( a text, etc.); mutilate e.g. (1) Text was mangled by poor typesetting (2) After the accident they tried to find out who the people were, but the bodies were too badly mangled to be recognized. (3) The symphony was dreadfully mangled by the poor performance of the orchestra.

7 frontline n. a line of fighting which is closest to the enemy; the foremost part of an army under attack; the most important, advanced or responsible position e.g. (1) The frontline troops are fighting heroically against the enemy. (2) They are in the frontline of nuclear research.

8 horde: a large noisy and excited crowd of people e.g.: (1) A horde of students on bikes made crossing the road difficult. pillage vt. to rob (sb., a town, a village, etc.) of goods, crops, etc. with violence, as in war The pirates pillaged the ocean-liner of all its cargoes. e.g.: (1) Works of art were pillaged from that country during the first days of the invasion. rape vt. interfere with sth. violently; spoil; violate, assault e.g.: (1) The heavy pollution has raped the landscape. (2) The judge raped justice by declaring the innocent man guilty.

9 No, even grander than epic - universal, because the Super Bowl is now seen around the world.: Not only does language vandalism spread on an extremely large scale, but its influence is also felt worldwide because the Super Bowl is now watched all over the world.

10 titan n. a person of great size, strength, intellect, importance, etc. e.g. (1) The basketball players of the American Team are all titans, very tall, strong and nimble. hypnotically adv. In a state like deep sleep in which a person’s actions my be controlled by another person; in a state of hypnosis or similar condition; in an intoxicated state e.g. (1) The football fans were watching the finals hypnotically.

11 Events like the Super Bowl are watched hypnotically not only as sort but as lessons in American culture--- and English.: TV viewers watch events like the Super Bowl extremely attentively not only as a sports program but also as a lesson in American culture and English.

12 Detailed Study of Paras 5-8 (1) Why is John Madden of CBS regarded as the clear Most Valuable Mouth in that league? Because as a football commentator he readily supplies concrete and vivid metaphors at proper moments.

13 (2) What do the viewers hear when watching events like the Super Bowl? The viewers hear sheer verbal energy; energy in decibels a relentless barrage of words; a collision of words as fierce as the crunch of linesmen, when the smack of their action occasionally interrupts the torrential talk. Words shouted, words bellowed, words screamed; voices raised to be heard above a crowd the commentators can't hear because they are inside a glass booth - in short a pandemonium of words.

14 Language Work decibel n. a unit for measuring the relative loudness of sound e.g. (1) This engine, a new model, makes about 65 decibels of noise. (2) The screen shows the decibel count at this intersection. relentless adj. continuing in a severe or determined way e.g. (1) The law is relentless in punishing offenders. (2) The politician was driven by a relentless urge for power. (3) The chief symptom of anorexia is a relentless pursuit of thinness by starving.

15 barrage n. heavy continuous gunfire directed onto a particular area to restrict enemy movement; (fig.) a large number of questions, criticisms, etc. delivered quickly one after another e.g. (1) They launched barrages of up to 40 rockets at a time. (2) The orator was under a barrage of questions. (3) The worker lodged a barrage of complaints

16 collision n. crash, instance of colliding; instance of one object or person striking against another; conflict or clash of opposing aims, ideas, opinions, etc. e.g (1) The liner was in collision with an oil-tanker. (2) The two ships came into collision. crunch n. a loud short sound made when sth. is crushed e.g. (1) There was a crunch as he bit the apple. (2) The woods were silent apart from the crunch of our feet in the snow. (3) When it comes to the crunch (=when the crunch comes)

17 linesman n. an assistant helping the referee in certain games, esp. in deciding whether or where a ball crosses one of the lines; an umpire's or referee's assistant who decides whether a ball falls within the playing area or not E.g.(1) The linesman claimed the ball was out, but the umpire decided it was in.

18 smack n. a slap, (sound of) a blow given with the open hand; loud sound of the lips being parted e.g. (1) The man gave his child a smack on the bottom. (2) His lips made a greedy smack as he cut into the steak. (3) The player gave the ball a hard smack with his bat. v. She smacked him with her open hand. e.g. (1) He smacked the book angrily on the table.

19 torrential talk : (a metaphorical expression) rapid talk as swift as a torrent; quick talk with words uttered rapidly like a violently rushing stream of water e.g. (1) The kids were scared at the angry, torrential talk by their teacher who is usually very amiable.

20 bellow vi. to make a deep loud noise like a bull; roar, esp. with pain; shout, say loudly or angrily e.g. (1) He bellowed with pain when the tooth was pulled out. (2) The bull bellowed angrily. (3) The weaving machines were so noisy that the workers had to bellow at each other to be heard.

21 a glass booth: a small enclosure or compartment made of glass for a specific purpose e.g. (1) When the police arrived, the man in the glass booth was more dead than alive. pandemonium n. a wild and noisy disorder or confusion e.g. (1) Pandemonium broke out whel1 the news was announced. (2) Pandemonium reigned in the classroom until the teacher arrived.

22 First, sheer verbal energy; energy in decibels - -- a relentless barrage of words; a collision of words as fierce as the crunch of linesmen, when the smack of their action occasionally interrupts the torrential talk. Words shouted, words bellowed, words screamed;... in short a pandemonium of words.

23 Football can be dull and television has made it duller by stretching a game into hours and hours of fragments to accommodate commercials and promotions. : A football game can be boring and monotonous, and television has rendered it more boring and more monotonous by extending it into many hours of short parts in order to insert commercials and promotion.

24 accommodate commercials and promotions: to provide or supply TV ads and cater to advertising campaigns; to meet or satisfy the need of commercials and promotions Things interesting for two hours may be intolerable for four. : Things interesting for two hours only are not likely to be bearable if they are stretched to last for four hours.

25 First, millions and millions of people across the world hear a continuous stream of forcefully uttered words; a clash of words as loud and harsh as the grating voices of linesmen, when the utterances they occasionally make interrupt the commentators' incessant talk. All they hear are words uttered loudly, words uttered in a deep voice, words uttered at a high pitch;... in short they hear a wild and noisy disorder or confusion of words.

26 razzle-dazzle n. (confusion caused by) very noisy and noticeable activity which attracts attention e.g. (1) The graduating students are on the razzle- dazzle. (2) As is always with the playwright, surface razzle- dazzle is combined with serious argument. v. e.g. (1) He razzle-dazzled girls in basketball.

27 It is like colorizing old movies to make them compelling, after chopping them into seven –minute segments... : It is like making old movies more colorful to render them extremely exciting, and more attractive, after cutting them into seven-minute fragments... in the two-shots so comically close together...:.. with the two sportscasters staying so ridiculously close to each other...

28 Detailed Study of Para 9-19 Why are football commentators even more popular than television newsmen?

29 Because of three reasons: first, football commentators do not seem to be creating the speech of their fans but reflecting it. Second, they seldom mangle the English language when they make comments. You have to go out of your way to look for really glaring examples. Third, these commentators speak very regular, colloquial American English, filled with ‘ 'lots a", "gotta", "musta", "woulda", which is nonstandard in grammar but often used informally by Americans who use stan- dard grammar otherwise. It is the language of the beer commercials that sustain the games. Speaking it is like hanging up the business suit and putting on jeans for the weekend. And it is very much the language that John Madden speaks in the Super Bowl.

30 Language Work USA Today fosters that by devoting a special column to TV sports coverage, rating commentators for “best lines, “worst line, etc.: USA Today encourages or promo9tes the competition for Most Valuable Mouth by devoting a special column to TV sports coverage, appraising commentators for “best lines, “worst line, etc.

31 reach-for-it metaphors: metaphors that are within easy reach; metaphors that can be readily understood The word reach-for-it is coined by the writer from the verb phrase reach for, which means to stretch one's arm with the intention to get or touch sth. e.g. (1) The cowboy reached for his gun and said to the thief, "Hands up!"

32 alimony n. a regular amount of money that a court of law orders a person, usu. a man, to pay to his partner after a divorce He refused to pay any alimony to his ex-wife.

33 "It's like paying alimony and then waiting for the rabbit to die" This sentence is a case of simile. It probably means: An instant-replay decision is made with the intention to delay the time and wait for the weak team to be defeated.

34 Madden on Jim MacMahon: "He doesn't worry about the horse being blind. He's going to load the wagon.": Madden made a comment on Jim MacMahon: "The blindness of the horse does not worry him. He is going to load the wagon and make the horse pull it anyway." The implication of this comment is that as far as Jim MacMahon "is concerned,the end, winning the game, justifies the means, fair or foul.

35 lick v. (inf) to defeat easily in a competition, fight, etc. e.g. (1)If you lick me, you may take what money I have. (2) No one expected last-year's champion to be licked in the first round. bizarre adj. strange in appearance or effect; grotesque; eccentric e.g. (1) The story has a certain bizarre interest. (2)These are bizarre patterns. bizarre clothing (3)He became increasingly bizarre in speech.

36 In short, despite its impact on the rest of American life, television is not leveling out regional dialects.: To be brief, in spite of its strong influence on the rest of American life, television is not eliminating regional dialects. You have to go out of your way to look for really glaring examples.: You have to make special efforts to look for really gross examples for mangled English.

37 Trumpy (NBC): “It appears Miami ‘s weakness is defending the run.”: Trumpy (National Broadcasting Company ) commented: “It appears that Miami’s weakness is defending the run.” In this comment is an example of mangled English, i.e., the noun defense is used as a verb by Trumpy.

38 Vermeil (CBS): "It's hard on young players technique-wise and mentally-wise," and, "In..: football you teach people to be a team guy.": Both quotations are glaring examples of mangled English. Possibly, more standard versions could be: "It's hard for young players with respect to technique and intelligence." and "In college football you teach players how to be a good guy on the team."

39 Much more common is that these commentators speak very regular, colloquial American English filled with "lotsa", "gotta", "musta", "woulda".: These sportscasters more often speak very proper, colloquial American English, full of "lotsa" (= lots of), "gotta" (= [have] got a or [have] got to), "musta" (= must have), "woulda" (= would have).

40 It is nonstandard in grammar but often used informally by Americans who use standard grammar otherwise. It is the language of the beer commercials that sustain the games. Speaking it is like hanging up the business suit and putting on jeans for the weekend.: This sort of English does not live up to standard grammar, but it is often used on informal occasions by Americans who employ standard grammar on other, more formal occasions. It is the language of - advertisements that sponsor or financially support the games being televised. Speaking you feel free, uninhibited, and casual.

41 “There are things you have to like about Schroeder... This Gary Clark is something … I’ll guarantee ya' he's loosenin' up this defense... That's what it's all about. : “ Schroeder possesses something special that you have to like,.. This Gary Clark is really somebody… I can assure you that he is relaxing this defense... That is what it is all about."

42 Leaving anxious language students in Singapore aside for the moment, is such language influencing American speech, corrupting standard usage, undoing the work of our schools? Even if we do not take into consideration the anxious language students in Singapore for the time being, is such language affecting American speech, mangling widely accepted usage, and nullifying the teaching of language in our schools ?

43 residue n. what remains after a part or quantity is taken or used; what is left over e.g. (1)Residues of pesticides can build up in the soil. (2)The farmers use crop residues as fuel. finicky adj, (derog.) too fussy about food, clothes, etc.; needing much attention to details. e.g.(1) She is a finicky eater and dresser. (2) This job is too finicky for me. the frontier suspicion: the mistrust cherished by people since the frontier days

44 There is still in this culture a residue of the frontier suspicion that a man too finicky with words, who talks like the schoolmarm, is not quite masculine. Relaxed, untutored speech is associated with outdoor jobs that seem more virile. Football is an easy way to bridge the gap. : There still exists in American culture some remnants of the frontier suspicion that a man, who is too fussy about words and who talks like the schoolmistress, does not have all the qualities thought to be typical of men. Uneducated speech that does not show any anxiety, tenseness or worry is closely connected with outdoor jobs that seem to have or show more typically masculine strength or energy. Football is an easy way to narrow the distance in-between.

45 The truth is that we all move up- and down-markets, so to speak, in our language. Language is the great excluder and includer and most of us unconsciously play it both ways: keeping some people at a distance with one form of talk, ingratiating ourselves with others by adopting theirs. : Actually, it can be said that we all use our language to appeal to or satisfy either people in the upper social classes or those in the lower social classes. Language can function to both exclude and include people, and most of us unconsciously employ language both ways, i.e. keeping some people at a distance with one form of talk, and seeking common ground with others) adopting their form of talk.

46 prickly adj. (inf) easily angered, irritable, touchy e.g.(1) Heat sometimes causes a prickly rash on the skin. (2)He is a bit prickly today. consummate adj. perfect; complete in every way e.g.(1) He acted Hamlet with consummate skill. (2) She believed that with him she would live a life of consummate happiness, even in poverty. penchant n. a liking for, an enjoyment of, or a habit of doing sth., esp. sth. that others may not like

47 There are football voices that would please the prickliest English teacher: NBC's Ahmad Rashad talking about "the consummate tight end", and Dick Enberg talking about "this penchant for the close game" are using elegant English. : Some sportscasters' speech would delight the most fault- finding English teacher. NBC's Ahmad Rashad talking about the "consummate tight end" (the perfect evenly contested end), and Dick Enberg talking about "this penchant for the close game" (this inclination for the close game) are speaking graceful English.

48 interception n. intercepting, stopping or catching sb. or sth. in motion before he or it can reach a destination; instance of intercepting E.g.(1)Many people hold that the interception of telephone calls and private mail is illegal. (2) The player tried to intercept the football, but the interception was a failure.

49 Detailed Study of Para 20 (1) Does the writer think that newsmen are entitled to belittle sportscasters? No, he does not think that newsmen have the right to be belittle sportscasters. (2)What does the writer think of football commentators? He thinks that football commentators do not speak any worse than newsmen and that they have the added advantage of knowing what they are talking about.

50 Language Work Newsmen tend to look down a little on the sportscasters. But to be honest I doubt the network football commentators are much harder on the language than a lot of TV newsmen left to ad-lib for more than a few minutes. : News reporters are inclined to show a little contempt for the sportscasters. But to be frank, I do not believe that the network football commentators use the language any less elegantly than a lot of TV newsmen when they have to improvise for more than a few minutes


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