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Foreign Policy in the Early Republic. What’s needed for an effective Foreign Policy? First and foremost: a clear sense of sovereignty First and foremost:

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Presentation on theme: "Foreign Policy in the Early Republic. What’s needed for an effective Foreign Policy? First and foremost: a clear sense of sovereignty First and foremost:"— Presentation transcript:

1 Foreign Policy in the Early Republic

2 What’s needed for an effective Foreign Policy? First and foremost: a clear sense of sovereignty First and foremost: a clear sense of sovereignty Second: a clear view of the nation’s goals in international affairs and how much or how little interaction is needed Second: a clear view of the nation’s goals in international affairs and how much or how little interaction is needed Third: continuous analysis of the world scene and the attitudes of other countries (which might be allies or enemies) Third: continuous analysis of the world scene and the attitudes of other countries (which might be allies or enemies) Fourth: the means by which the nation can meet its own goals/expectations and defend against the aggression/non-compliance of other nations Fourth: the means by which the nation can meet its own goals/expectations and defend against the aggression/non-compliance of other nations Fifth: leadership that makes all of the above come together Fifth: leadership that makes all of the above come together BY THE END OF JEFFERSON’s TERMS, THE U.S. STILL DID NOT MEET ANY OF THESE CRITERIA.

3 Early Successes War for Independence & Treaty of Paris: The United States wins the war and secures recognition of its independence from Great Britain—at least on paper. Pinckney Treaty (1795)— Spain agrees to allow the US to use the Mississippi River & New Orleans for trade. Battle of Fallen Timbers (1794) & Greenville Treaty (1795)— Victory over Native American tribes, allowing US to expand into the Northwest Territory Louisiana Purchase (1803)— Jefferson purchased an area west of the Mississippi, doubling the size of the US Battle of Tippecanoe (1811)— Military draw between US and Native Americans, but temporarily makes IN safer

4 Early Failures Jay’s Treaty— got some concessions from Britain regarding forts in the NW Territory, but left the problem of impressment = British seizing US ships and sailors on the Atlantic, claiming them as British (ex: Chesapeake Affair) XYZ Affair— US diplomats sent to France were treated with very little respect Barbary War — Pirates continuously seized American ships, demanding ransom War between England & France prevents American overseas trade. US tried different pressure tactics (like the Embargo Act of 1807), but these negatively affected US.

5 Successes of the War of 1812 #1) Emergence of strong LEADERSHIP with “clear” rationale inspires adequate/successful military effort POLITICAL: POLITICAL: President Madison, determined President Madison, determined MILITARY: MILITARY: Adm. Perry at Lake Erie Adm. Perry at Lake Erie Wm. Henry Harrison at Battle of Thames Wm. Henry Harrison at Battle of Thames Andrew Jackson at Horseshoe Bend, in Florida, and later at New Orleans Andrew Jackson at Horseshoe Bend, in Florida, and later at New Orleans Fort McHenry’s 1000-man defense: “restored dignity and self worth to the Americans,” acc. to historian Anthony Pitch (NPR interview) Fort McHenry’s 1000-man defense: “restored dignity and self worth to the Americans,” acc. to historian Anthony Pitch (NPR interview)NPR #2) Britain Fully Acknowledges US Sovereignty the Treaty of Ghent, 1814

6 US Emerges as a World Power (and then exercises right of abstention) Rush-Bagot Treaty, 1817 Rush-Bagot Treaty, 1817 Rush-Bagot Treaty Rush-Bagot Treaty 1 st disarmament treaty, w/Br – no warships on Grt Lakes, 49 th parallel set as border through Rockies Negotiated by Minister JQAdams, Sec’y Monroe and successor Rush Barbary Wars, 1815 Barbary Wars, 1815 Barbary Wars Barbary Wars Commodore Stephen Decatur gains free access to Mediterranean Adams-Onis Treaty, 1819 Adams-Onis Treaty, 1819 Florida sold by Spain to US, before US took by force! (a diplomatic cure for the illegal actions of Jackson) Monroe Doctrine, 1823 Monroe Doctrine, 1823 See next page for cartoons 

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