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1 South Pierce Fire & Rescue Training Division Presents.

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Presentation on theme: "1 South Pierce Fire & Rescue Training Division Presents."— Presentation transcript:

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2 1 South Pierce Fire & Rescue Training Division Presents

3 2 EVAP Emergency Vehicle Accident Prevention

4 3 Lesson Topics 1. Legal Aspects 2. Concepts of Defensive Driving 3. Important Physical Forces 4. Driving Conditions & Contingencies 5. Vehicle Control Tasks 6. Apparatus Inspections 7. Written Exam 8. Rodeo & Driving Course

5 4 Legal Aspects of Emergency Vehicle Operations Lesson Objectives Identify the Wash. State Statutes which apply to operators of emergency vehicles. Identify the Wash. State Statutes which apply to operators of emergency vehicles. Identify and explain which situations represent a “true emergency”. Identify and explain which situations represent a “true emergency”. Explain CDL requirements. Explain CDL requirements. Explain “who” is responsible for safe driving. Explain “who” is responsible for safe driving. Explain why accurate driver qualification records are necessary. Explain why accurate driver qualification records are necessary.

6 5 Legal Aspects State government regulations. State government regulations.  Revised Codes of Washington  Washington Administrative Code Local ordinances. Local ordinances.  E.g., Speed limits Department policies. Department policies.  Policy Book

7 6 Department Policy Operations-District Apparatus 4210P-1 Page 1

8 7 Staff shall meet the following qualifications prior to operating a district apparatus Be approved by the district’s vehicle insurance company. Be approved by the district’s vehicle insurance company. Be a minimum of 18 years of age. Be a minimum of 18 years of age. Possess a valid Washington State drivers license. Possess a valid Washington State drivers license. Have and maintain an acceptable driving record. Have and maintain an acceptable driving record. Be a staff member of the district a minimum of six months. Be a staff member of the district a minimum of six months. Meet the district medical requirements. Meet the district medical requirements. Maintain a current EVAP certification. Maintain a current EVAP certification. Be trained and qualified on the apparatus. Be trained and qualified on the apparatus.

9 8 Three Principles of Emergency Vehicle Operations Emergency Vehicle operators are subject to all traffic regulations unless a specific exemption is made. Emergency Vehicle operators are subject to all traffic regulations unless a specific exemption is made. Exemptions are legal only in the emergency mode. Exemptions are legal only in the emergency mode. Even with an exemption, operators can be found criminally or civilly liable in an accident. Even with an exemption, operators can be found criminally or civilly liable in an accident.

10 9 The Law Applies To Me:

11 10 There are laws on the books which allow us to operate Emergency Vehicles and give us some freedom of action the general public does not have. Yet, there are in each section catch phrases which place the ultimate liability on our shoulders. So therefore, the laws as written apply to each and everyone of us.

12 11 BIG PRINT, gives it to you. You may: Park or stand your vehicle irrespective of all laws to the contrary. Park or stand your vehicle irrespective of all laws to the contrary. Proceed past red lights and stop signs. Proceed past red lights and stop signs. Exceed the maximum speed. Exceed the maximum speed. Disregard regulations governing the direction of movement of traffic or turning in specific directions regardless of the posted signs or regulations to the contrary Disregard regulations governing the direction of movement of traffic or turning in specific directions regardless of the posted signs or regulations to the contrary

13 12 The little print takes it away! May May vs Shall –Due –Due regard

14 13 The Issue of Liability

15 14 Courts apportion blame They look at the case and determine who and what contributed to the accident. They assign a percentage of the blame to each faction. They look at the case and determine who and what contributed to the accident. They assign a percentage of the blame to each faction.

16 15 Courts apportion blame A court may say that the “other” driver was 40% to blame; the fire department 40% to blame; the vehicle operator 20% to blame. They look at the dollar award and assign the percentages accordingly. A court may say that the “other” driver was 40% to blame; the fire department 40% to blame; the vehicle operator 20% to blame. They look at the dollar award and assign the percentages accordingly. Let’s say the “other” driver is asking for $1,000,000 in damages for harm due to an accident. Let’s say the “other” driver is asking for $1,000,000 in damages for harm due to an accident.

17 16 “Other” driver – 40% = No award “Other” driver – 40% = No award Fire Department – 40% = $400,000 Fire Department – 40% = $400,000 Emeg. Vehicle Operator – 20% = $200,000 Emeg. Vehicle Operator – 20% = $200,000

18 17 Was there a true emergency? Is there a high probability that this situation could cause death or serious injury to an individual? Is there a high probability that this situation could cause death or serious injury to an individual? Is there significant property imperiled? Is there significant property imperiled? Could action on my part reduce the seriousness of the situation? Could action on my part reduce the seriousness of the situation?

19 18 If a Emergency Vehicle operator was driving in excess of the established rules adopted by their fire department, or without “ DUE REGARD “ for the safety of others, than the Emergency Vehicle operator could be held personally responsible.

20 19 Due Regard What is Due Regard for the safety of others? “A reasonably careful person, performing similar duties and under similar circumstances, would act in the same manner”. “A reasonably careful person, performing similar duties and under similar circumstances, would act in the same manner”.

21 20 What problems might a person encounter after an accident? Possible individual financial responsibility. Possible individual financial responsibility. Uncertainty of outcome. Uncertainty of outcome. Months/years of mental strain on the individual or family. Months/years of mental strain on the individual or family. Grief if you took a life or seriously injured someone. Grief if you took a life or seriously injured someone.

22 21 Commercial Drivers License (CDL) In Washington State, all fire department drivers operating any fire department vehicle that has a “manufacture’s weight rating”( MWR) in excess of 26,000 pounds are considered to be “commercial drivers”. In Washington State, all fire department drivers operating any fire department vehicle that has a “manufacture’s weight rating”( MWR) in excess of 26,000 pounds are considered to be “commercial drivers”. EVAP will substitute for CDL. EVAP will substitute for CDL.

23 22 Requirements of the CDL law In order to meet the requirement of the CDL law, you must: Complete all of the EVAP course requirements: Complete all of the EVAP course requirements:  Classroom portion.  Written test 80% passing grade.  Rodeo/road course  Road test.

24 23 Emergency Vehicle Accident Prevention Safety is foremost in everything we do, individually or as a team. Safety is foremost in everything we do, individually or as a team. You are responsible for the safety of yourself and your passengers You are responsible for the safety of yourself and your passengers WE ARE IN THE SAFETY BUSINESS WE ARE IN THE SAFETY BUSINESS

25 24 Concepts of Defensive Driving

26 25 Lesson Objectives Explain why a positive attitude is necessary. Explain why a positive attitude is necessary. Describe several types of driver failure which contribute to accidents. Describe several types of driver failure which contribute to accidents. Explain the responsibility the Emergency Vehicle operator accepts while driving. Explain the responsibility the Emergency Vehicle operator accepts while driving.

27 26 25% of firefighters killed are responding to or returning from incidents

28 27 Defensive Driving The most important requirement of being a good driver is: A Good Attitude

29 28 Concepts Knowledge Knowledge Alertness Alertness Foresight Foresight Good Judgment Good Judgment Skill Skill

30 29 Driver Failure Carelessness Carelessness Incompetence Incompetence Recklessness Recklessness Inattentiveness Inattentiveness Inability to judge distances Inability to judge distances Slow reaction of drivers Slow reaction of drivers

31 30 What are some of the things that could alter our normal driving abilities? Alcohol Alcohol Drugs/prescription drugs Drugs/prescription drugs Injuries Injuries Poor attitude brought on by family problems Poor attitude brought on by family problems Personnel conflicts Personnel conflicts Other drivers Other drivers Excitement Excitement

32 31 You Have A Responsibility to: Your own family Your own family The department and community The department and community The other crew members on board. As the driver, you owe them a safe trip! The other crew members on board. As the driver, you owe them a safe trip!

33 32 Physical and Mental Conditions The Emergency Vehicle operator has the responsibility to begin each shift or trip in good mental and physical condition The Emergency Vehicle operator has the responsibility to begin each shift or trip in good mental and physical condition Financial problems. Financial problems. Domestic problems. Domestic problems. Be aware of changing attitudes. Be aware of changing attitudes. A good defensive driver expects and allows for the mistakes of others. A good defensive driver expects and allows for the mistakes of others.

34 33 Important Physical Forces

35 34 Lesson Objectives: Description of terms. Description of terms. Discuss the effects of acceleration, deceleration and weight distribution. Discuss the effects of acceleration, deceleration and weight distribution. Discuss braking systems and effects on driving. Discuss braking systems and effects on driving. Effects of weight transfer. Effects of weight transfer.

36 35 Important Physical Factors Velocity & direction (Two of the most important) Velocity & direction (Two of the most important) Inertia Inertia Centrifugal force Centrifugal force Friction Friction Brakes Brakes

37 36 Other Physical Forces Weight transfer Weight transfer Live loads Live loads

38 37 Velocity Rate of motion or speed.

39 38 Velocity Acceleration Acceleration Deceleration Deceleration Braking. Braking.

40 39 Inertia The tendency of a body in motion to stay in motion in a straight line unless disturbed by an external force.

41 40 Centrifugal Force The force, caused by inertia, which tends to make a rotating body move away from the center of rotation

42 41

43 42 Weight Transfer/Live Loads

44 43 Friction Resistance to motion between two moving objects that touch

45 44 Friction occurs throughout Operators hands and the steering wheel. Operators hands and the steering wheel. Engine parts rubbing together. Engine parts rubbing together. Gears meshing. Gears meshing. Tires and the road surface. Tires and the road surface. Brake shoes or pads rubbing on drum or disc. Brake shoes or pads rubbing on drum or disc.

46 45 Friction can be classified in three conditions Greatest – When the wheels and the vehicle are stationary. Greatest – When the wheels and the vehicle are stationary. Very Good – When the wheel is rolling on a dry, smooth road surface. Very Good – When the wheel is rolling on a dry, smooth road surface. Least – When the wheel is locked or spinning. Least – When the wheel is locked or spinning.

47 46

48 47 Understanding Brake Types Drum brakes Drum brakes Disc brakes

49 48 Drum brakes – Almost 90% of the total drum surface is in contact with the brake shoe at one time. Thus only about 10% of the surface can be cooled off at any one time.

50 49 Disc brakes – The pad makes contact with only 15% of the disc surface, about 85% of the disc surface is cooling.

51 50 System Types Hydraulic system – Closed system using hydraulic fluid. Hydraulic system – Closed system using hydraulic fluid. Hydraulic/vacuum assist – Closed hydraulic system with vacuum assist from the motor. Hydraulic/vacuum assist – Closed hydraulic system with vacuum assist from the motor. Air system – Uses compressed air to operate the vehicles service and parking brakes Air system – Uses compressed air to operate the vehicles service and parking brakes Air Over Hydraulic – Uses air pressure to operate hydraulic system. Air Over Hydraulic – Uses air pressure to operate hydraulic system.

52 51 Auxiliary Braking Devices Jake Retarder – Uses engine compression to slow vehicle. Jake Retarder – Uses engine compression to slow vehicle. Electric Retarder – Provides a powerful drag force by using electromagnets on the vehicle driveline. Electric Retarder – Provides a powerful drag force by using electromagnets on the vehicle driveline. Hydraulic Retarder – Uses hydraulic fluid in the transmission to create a drag on the vehicles drivetrain. Hydraulic Retarder – Uses hydraulic fluid in the transmission to create a drag on the vehicles drivetrain.

53 52 Driving Conditions and Contingencies

54 53 Lesson Objectives Describe a procedure for estimating vehicle following distances. Describe a procedure for estimating vehicle following distances. Adverse weather conditions precautions. Adverse weather conditions precautions. Three primary steps for skid control. Three primary steps for skid control. Problems associated with night driving. Problems associated with night driving.

55 54 Contingency A possibility that must be prepared against; a future emergency

56 55 Normal Following Distances Estimate car lengths – One car length for every 10 mph Estimate car lengths – One car length for every 10 mph Three-second rule – Keep a separation of at least three seconds between the Emergency Vehicle and the vehicle being followed. Three-second rule – Keep a separation of at least three seconds between the Emergency Vehicle and the vehicle being followed.

57 56 Normal Stopping Distances All stopping distances are based on a ¾ second reaction time by the driver. All stopping distances are based on a ¾ second reaction time by the driver. Sedans – about 366 feet Sedans – about 366 feet Light trucks – about 426 feet Light trucks – about 426 feet Three axle – about 531 feet (1/8 of a mile) Three axle – about 531 feet (1/8 of a mile)

58 57

59 58 Adverse Weather Conditions Approximately six times more people are killed on wet roads than on snowy and icy roads combined. Approximately six times more people are killed on wet roads than on snowy and icy roads combined. Roads are especially slippery during the onset of fog, mist and rain. Roads are especially slippery during the onset of fog, mist and rain. Wet roadways causes vehicles to “hydroplane”. Wet roadways causes vehicles to “hydroplane”. Do not use auxiliary braking systems on snow and ice. Do not use auxiliary braking systems on snow and ice.

60 59 Primary Causes of Contingency Situations Vehicle malfunctions or failure. Vehicle malfunctions or failure. A sudden change or deterioration in the road. A sudden change or deterioration in the road. The appearance of an obstacle in the roadway. The appearance of an obstacle in the roadway. Driver error Driver error

61 60

62 61 Unavoidable Collisions When collision is unavoidable, choose an object to collide with

63 62 Impact Absorbing Parked cars Parked cars Low bushes and shrubs Low bushes and shrubs

64 63 Non-Impact Absorbing Concrete bridge abutments. Concrete bridge abutments. Buildings. Buildings. Large trees. Large trees. Utility poles. Utility poles.

65 64 Night Driving

66 65 Causes of Accidents Night vision varies among persons. Night vision varies among persons. Eye straining activities (during the day) can reduce night vision. Eye straining activities (during the day) can reduce night vision. Bright flashes of light (lightning, high beam glare) can cause momentary blindness. Bright flashes of light (lightning, high beam glare) can cause momentary blindness.

67 66 Drunk Drivers Weaving across lanes. Weaving across lanes. Delayed start at a stop sign or traffic light. Delayed start at a stop sign or traffic light. Erratic speeds. Erratic speeds.

68 67 Headlights and High Beams Department policy states that headlights are to be on whenever operating vehicle. Department policy states that headlights are to be on whenever operating vehicle. Dim headlights within 500 feet of approaching vehicles. Dim headlights within 500 feet of approaching vehicles. Dim headlights within 300 feet of overtaking or following other vehicles. Dim headlights within 300 feet of overtaking or following other vehicles. Keep eyes moving. Keep eyes moving.

69 68 Vehicle Control Tasks

70 69 Use & limitations of signaling devices. Use & limitations of signaling devices. Describe driving conditions. Describe driving conditions. Methods for checking traffic at intersections. Methods for checking traffic at intersections. Turning methods. Turning methods. Overtaking/passing another vehicle. Overtaking/passing another vehicle. Backing operations and precautions. Backing operations and precautions.

71 70 Vehicle Control Tasks Emergency lights. Emergency lights. Sirens. Sirens. Urban driving. Urban driving. Negotiating intersections. Negotiating intersections.

72 71 Sirens (Effectiveness) Sound level of the siren and its frequency. Sound level of the siren and its frequency. Direction of the siren. Direction of the siren. Distracting noises in the area. Distracting noises in the area. Buildings and corners. Buildings and corners.

73 72 Emergency Lights Due regard must always be exercised, even during the most serious of emergencies. Due regard must always be exercised, even during the most serious of emergencies. State law requires us emergency lights whenever any of the exemptions are exercised. State law requires us emergency lights whenever any of the exemptions are exercised. Use of signaling equipment does not guarantee an operator safety, nor does it free him/her from the possibility of civil or criminal liability if a mishap occurs. Use of signaling equipment does not guarantee an operator safety, nor does it free him/her from the possibility of civil or criminal liability if a mishap occurs. Use emergency lights when parked at scene and turn off headlights. Use emergency lights when parked at scene and turn off headlights.

74 73 Urban Driving Keep alert-watch for the following: Keep alert-watch for the following: Children. Alleys. Exhaust from parked cars. Crosswalks.

75 74 Motorists Reactions Stop dead in the middle of the road. Stop dead in the middle of the road. Try to compete (race) with the Emergency Vehicle. Try to compete (race) with the Emergency Vehicle. Pull to the side of the road and continue their speed. Pull to the side of the road and continue their speed. Nothing at all. Nothing at all.

76 75 Unaware Motorist Beware of startling unsuspecting motorists; they could respond hazardously. Beware of startling unsuspecting motorists; they could respond hazardously. Vary pitch and duration of siren. Vary pitch and duration of siren. Use headlights and horn to get attention. Use headlights and horn to get attention. Be patient, keep signaling! Be patient, keep signaling! Never pass on the right. Never pass on the right.

77 76 Negotiating Intersections Come to a complete stop before proceeding. Come to a complete stop before proceeding. Look left, then right, then left again. Look left, then right, then left again. Change siren pitch or use air horns at least 100 feet in advance of an urban intersection (200 feet in the country) Change siren pitch or use air horns at least 100 feet in advance of an urban intersection (200 feet in the country)

78 77 Passing and Backing Up

79 78 Passing If the decision has been made to pass and conditions are okay – DO NOT HESITATE If the decision has been made to pass and conditions are okay – DO NOT HESITATE Stay in the passing lane shortest time possible. Stay in the passing lane shortest time possible. Be prepared to abort actions. Be prepared to abort actions. Keep an eye out for escape routes. Keep an eye out for escape routes.

80 79 Backing Up In the event of a single operator, walk completely around the vehicle before backing up. In the event of a single operator, walk completely around the vehicle before backing up. Two person or more crew – The officer shall place themselves at the left rear corner of the vehicle in full view of the operators outside mirror. Two person or more crew – The officer shall place themselves at the left rear corner of the vehicle in full view of the operators outside mirror. Use correct and concise hand signals to inform the operator of direction of travel or stopping. Use correct and concise hand signals to inform the operator of direction of travel or stopping. At night, use back up or rear deck lights to illuminate the rear of vehicle. At night, use back up or rear deck lights to illuminate the rear of vehicle.

81 80 Backing Up The drivers window shall be rolled down in order to allow direct communications with the driver. The drivers window shall be rolled down in order to allow direct communications with the driver. If back up person moves out of the drivers field of vision, the driver shall immediately stop the vehicle until sight is restored. If back up person moves out of the drivers field of vision, the driver shall immediately stop the vehicle until sight is restored. Back SLOWLY! Back SLOWLY!

82 81 Backing Up Use proper horn signals when backing: Use proper horn signals when backing: 1 blast…..STOP immediately 2 blasts….Forward 3 blasts….Back up

83 82 Apparatus Inspections

84 83 Apparatus Inspections Return in service sheets. Return in service sheets. Daily shift inspections. Daily shift inspections. Weekly inspections. Weekly inspections.

85 84 Primary Inspection Walk around vehicle. Walk around vehicle. Look under vehicle. Look under vehicle. Condition of tires. Condition of tires. Check engine oil. Check engine oil. Pump primer. Pump primer. Inspect cab area. Inspect cab area.

86 85 Secondary Inspection Oil pressure. Oil pressure. Voltmeter. Voltmeter. Amp meter. Amp meter. Water temp. Water temp. Air pressure. Air pressure. Other gauges. Other gauges. Activate exterior lighting. Activate exterior lighting.

87 86 Secondary Inspection Cont. Operate siren's) Operate siren's) Windows Windows Automatic transmission fluid. Automatic transmission fluid. Power steering fluid. Power steering fluid. Brake fluid. Brake fluid. Portable equipment. Portable equipment. Ladders. Ladders.

88 87 The End


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