Presentation on theme: "Crusades Presented by Md. RabiUl Islam (Rabi) Senior Lecturer, GED Northern University Bangladesh Cell:"— Presentation transcript:
Crusades Presented by Md. RabiUl Islam (Rabi) Senior Lecturer, GED Northern University Bangladesh Cell:
Crusade: The word crusade means any struggle for good or bad. Here crusade indicates the destructive religious war during A.D against the Muslim in the East and the Christians in the Europe. The war happened between these two group of religious people was one of the most important in world history. The Christians in Europe involved themselves in the crusade following the dictation of their Pope taking the cross mark on their chest. They considered the cross mark as their flag, that was why is is called the crusade.
Most of the European historians and the researchers asserted all the war between the Muslims and Christians as the crusades. The crusade was the expression of the conflict, and the hate of European Christians to Asian Muslims. So the causes of crusade were many and it had a long term impact also. Amor Ibn al As conquered the Jerusalem first from the Christian. As a result Jerusalem belonged to Muslims. But still then the Muslims rulers shown a well behavior to the Christians. Because the Muslim rulers had still then so much patience in religion.
Bitter reaction were created among the Christian world for conquering Jerusalem by the Muslims. Though the Christians were under the rule of the Muslims they were not so active to rescue the city. Because they were enjoying the religious freedom in that time. The Muslim rulers in later were not religious patience and they started torture on the religious activities of the Christians and also on Christian pilgrims. So a vast excitement was created among the Christians in Europe. Then the Seljuk Turks conquered an important portion of the Byzantine Empire.
Immediate cause Around 1095, a new group of Arabs took control of Jerusalem. They closed the city to Jewish and Christian pilgrims. Around 1095, a new group of Arabs took control of Jerusalem. They closed the city to Jewish and Christian pilgrims. The Pope acted. He called for a crusade - a volunteer army whose goal was to retake Jerusalem. Many people volunteered. About 30,000 men left Western Europe to fight in Jerusalem. The Pope acted. He called for a crusade - a volunteer army whose goal was to retake Jerusalem. Many people volunteered. About 30,000 men left Western Europe to fight in Jerusalem.
Causes of the Crusade: Though the first and foremost cause of the crusade was the tendency to establish the supremacy on the holy land Palestine, many other socio-economic and political causes of different European countries that time involved with the crusade. These causes are described as below- Religious Cause: Jerusalem city is the birth place of Jesus. That was why it was a holy place to the Christian. For this many Christians did go there for the pilgrim in each year. Jerusalem is also holy to the Jews and to the Muslims.
Causes of the Crusades _ contd. Religious Cause (contd.) ►To Christians, it was the place where Jesus was crucified and ascended to heaven ►To Muslims, it was the place where Muhammad ascended to heaven ►To Jews, it was the site of the ancient temple built by Solomon. In 600 CE, Arabs entered the city and took control. But the Arabs allowed Christian and Jewish pilgrims to visit Jerusalem. In fact, Jews and Christians could live in Palestine as long as they paid their taxes like everyone else.
Causes of the Crusade (cont’d): Religious Cause (cont’d) So the Constantinople was in threatened. In that circumstances the Europeans participated with the crusade responding their Pope. The Pope declare that the Crusaders need not pay the tax and they will be escaped from all types of sin. On the other hand since Jerusalem was more than same important to the Muslims, that is why they also took part in that religious war to save their holy place from the aggression of the Christian crusaders. So the Crusade begun.
Causes of the Crusade (cont’d): Political Cause: The political cause was one of the most important causes in the history of the crusade. Most of the crusaders were not participated in the crusade only for their religious feelings also different political causes. Because many of the people who encouraged the crusaders, the wishing to conquer and rule the country. At the beginning of the eleventh century the power of the Muslim rulers were weakened, and the Christian popes used that chance.
Causes of the Crusade (cont’d): Political Cause (cont’d): The conflict between the emperors and the popes were in the climax situation that time. In these situations the roman pope encouraged the people to crusade to rescue the holy place and to get the supremacy over both the Greek church and the roman emperors. The roman emperor thought that his power will be increased if it is possible to conquer the Jerusalem city. That was why he also encouraged the people to the crusade.
Economic Cause Economic and commercial competition also responsible for Crusade. The supremacy of the Muslim merchants were established since 10 th century. As a result the Muslim merchants got privileges in trade and commerce. Most of the cities in Italy, Egypt, Spain, Syria and other Mediterranean countries were under the Muslim supremacy. In that condition the foremost objective of the Christians merchants were to rescue the sea ways through the Crusade. The Christian merchants encouraged the Crusade by giving ships, money and some how direct participation in the Crusade.
Economic Cause (cont’d) Notably the population of Europe were increased much during the 10 th century in comparison of the land. Many social problems were so high in that time. In that condition the Christian merchants participated to take the control of international commerce. Because the merchants had the naval power and experience. They had also knowledge about different sea ports in the Mediterranean sea. In that Pope second Urban encouraged the merchants in the Crusade.
Cultural Cause Before the arrival of Islam the Romans in the east and the Greek were the bearer of civilization. They thought themselves proud for their education and civilization, and considered the other nations as the barber and the back warded. But the arrival of Islam was the threatened for the Greek and the roman civilization. Because widely spread of Islam was the responsible to demolish the culture of Greek and roman civilization.
Cultural Cause (cont’d) The Muslims that time was holding the highest position in the history of world civilization. Even a major portion of the Greek and roman empire were conquered by the Muslims. That was why the anti Islam mentality among the Europeans were very high at that moment. So it be asserted that the crusade was the result of the expression of the anti Islam mentality for a long time.