The Renaissance: The Triumph of Linear Perspective At left, frescoes from Roman villa, ca. 79 AD (From villa of P. Fannius Synistor, buried by eruption of Vesuvius in 79 AD. Walls rescued in 20 th century, now in Met Museum) Had Classical artists, that modern viewers admire so much, been able to master linear perspective? Why do you say yes or no?
Use of axonometric perspective in Chinese painting -- Along the River During the Qingming Festival (detail), Zhang Zeduan, 12 th Century R: Illustration of the difference between axonometry as it is used in Chinese painting (left), and linear perspective. The key features of axonometry are its high vantage point and the parallel lines of projection in the three principal directions. The latter point explains why axonometry is often referred to as 'parallel perspective'. Beams and pillars do not taper off; their size and geometry remains constant. The size of the figures in the foreground and background remains constant, and a light source and shadows will be absent.
Is vision itself “culturally constructed?” Schematic drawings of “Reverse perspective” L: A cube, represented in linear perspective R: As represented in reverse perspective Other perspective systems Byzantine icon showing use of reverse perspective – What tells us this is different from linear persp?
Albrecht Dürer – Artist drawing with the aid of a perspective device Why does the artist use the grid? What does this help him do?
Cartoon (preparatory drawing) for fresco “The School of Athens” by Raphael
Left: Giotto. Madonna and Child Enthroned with Saints (Ognissanti Madonna) c.1305-1310. Tempera on panel. Right: Raphael. The Marriage of the Virgin, 1504. Oil on panel. What differences? What difference does the use of perspective make?
Perugino, Marriage of the Virgin, c. 1500-04 (oil on panel, 234 x 185 cm), Musée des Beaux-Arts, Caen Raphael. Marriage of the Virgin, 1504. Oil on panel. 170 x 117 cm. Pinacoteca di Brera, Milan
“It is well known that... Raphael greatly altered and improved his style, through having seen the works of the foremost masters, and he never reverted to his former manner, which looks like the work of a different and inferior hand.” Raphael, The Sistine Madonna, c. 1512-13. Oil on canvas Raphael. Marriage of the Virgin, 1504. Oil on panel. 170 x 117 cm. Pinacoteca di Brera, Milan
“It is well known that... Raphael greatly altered and improved his style, through having seen the works of the foremost masters, and he never reverted to his former manner, which looks like the work of a different and inferior hand.” Raphael, The Sistine Madonna, c. 1512-13. Oil on canvas
Common supports for oil paintings in the 16 th century: canvas (top left) and panel (right), as well as copper plates (bottom left)
Gesso – thin layer of plaster that helps to make a smooth, ideal surface for paint application.
Portraiture Joseph Wright, The Corinthian Maid, 1782-84. Desire to create a likeness of a living person, with some relation to the artist, such as a friend or a patron Idea that the image should be created in the presence of the person being depicted Sometimes, idea of memorializing the person, or idea that the portrait will stand in the person’s place: Alberti says “As the effort of learning may perhaps seem to the young too laborious, I think I should explain here how painting is worthy of all our attention and study. Painting possesses a truly divine power in that not only does it make the absent present…but it also represents the dead to the living many centuries later…through painting, the faces of the dead go on living for a very long time.”
Olmec head, found at site of San Lorenzo (Tabasco, Mexico), Olmec culture, ca. 1200-400 BC (As seen in Museum of Anthropology, Xalapa, Mexico)
Raphael, Portraits of Agnolo Doni and Maddelena Doni, c. 1506 (oil on panel, 63 x 45 cm), Pitti Palace, Florence
Leonardo da Vinci, Mona Lisa, begun c. 1503 (oil on panel, 77 x 53 cm), Louvre, Paris Use of sfumato
Raphael, Portrait of Baldassare Castiglione, ca. 1512 (oil on canvas, 82 x66 cm), Louvre, Paris
Raphael. Portrait of a Young Woman (“La Fornarina”),1518-19, oil on panel, 85 x 60 cm Use of chiaroscuro