3Minority, Racial, and Ethnic Groups Module 31Minority, Racial, and Ethnic GroupsRacial group:Group set apart from others because of obvious physical differencesEthnic group:Group set apart from others primarily because of its national origin and/or distinctive cultural patterns
4Module 31Minority GroupsMinority group: Subordinate group whose members have significantly less control or power over their own livesProperties of minority groups include:Unequal treatmentDistinguishing cultural characteristicsInvoluntary membershipSolidarityIn-group marriage
5Module 31Minority GroupsMinority group does not necessarily imply a smaller number.South African prior to the end of apartheidBlack South Africans were 79% of the total population and yet they were the minority groupWhite South Africans were 9.6% of the population and yet they were the majority group
6Module 31RaceResearch shows that race is not a meaningful way of differentiating peopleRacial group refers to these minoritiesSocial construction of race: Society socially constructs which differences are important
7Historical Efforts to Define Race Linnaeus: 4 human racesBlumenbach: 5 human racesCuvier: 3 human racesHunter: 7 human racesBurke: 63 human racesPickering: 11 human races
8Historical Efforts to Define Race Very: 2 species; 3 in races eachHaeckel: 36 human racesHuxley: 4 human racesTopinard: 19 races under 3 headingsDesmoulins: 16 speciesDeniker: 17 races and 30 types
9Module 31RaceRacial formation: Sociohistorical process in which racial categories are created, inhibited, transformed, and destroyedNative Americans“One-drop rule”
10Race Recognition of Multiple Identities Module 31RaceRecognition of Multiple IdentitiesIn 1990, Du Bois predicted “the color line” foremost problem of 20th centuryImmigration from Latin America shows fluid nature of race formationBiracial society being replaced by triracialStereotypes: Unreliable generalizations about all members of a group that do not recognize individual differences with the group
11Module 31Prejudice AttitudePrejudice: Negative attitude toward an entire category of peopleEthnocentrism: Tendency to assume one’s culture and way of life are superior to othersRacism: Belief that one race is supreme and others are innately inferior
12Discriminatory Behavior Module 31Discriminatory BehaviorDiscrimination: Denial of opportunities and equal rights to individuals and groups based on some type of arbitrary biasDiscrimination persists even for educated and qualified minority membersGlass ceiling: invisible barrier blocking promotion of qualified individuals in work environment because of gender, race, or ethnicity
13Merton’s Typology of Prejudice and Discrimination PrejudicedAttitude?Discriminatorybehavior?UnprejudicednondiscriminatorNodiscriminatorYesNondiscriminatorDiscriminator
14Patterns of Racial and Ethnic Group Interaction GenocideColonialismSegregationAcculturationPluralismAssimilationAmalgamation
15Genocide Annihilation of an entire nation or people. In the 20th century Hitler led the Nazi extermination of 12 million people in the Holocaust.In the early 1990s ethnic Serbs attempted to eliminate Muslims from parts of Bosnia.
16GenocideIn 1994 genocide took pace in Rwanda when Hutus slaughtered hundreds of thousands of Tutsis.Currently in the Darfur region of Sudan, the Sudanese government, using Arab janaweed militias, its air force, and organized starvation, is systematically killing the black Sudanese population.
17ColonialismA racial or ethnic group from one society takes over and dominates the racial or ethnic group(s) of another society.Examples: European invasion of North America, British occupation of India, Dutch presence in South Africa before the end of apartheid
18SegregationPhysical separation of two groups in residence, workplace, and social functions.de jure ( by law)de facto (in fact)
19Expulsion or Population Transfer Occurs when a dominant group forces a subordinate group to leave the country or to live only in designated areas of the country.The 1830 Indian Removal Act called for the relocation of eastern tribes to land west of the Mississippi River.
20AcculturationRefers to adopting the culture of a group different from the one in which a person was originally raised.Acculturation may involve learning the dominant language and adopting new values and behaviors.
21PluralismRefers to a state in which racial and ethnic groups maintain their distinctness but respect each other and have equal access to social resources.In Switzerland, four ethnic groups—French, Italians, Germans, and Swiss Germans—maintain their distinct cultural heritage and group identity in an atmosphere of mutual respect and social equality.
22AssimilationThe process by which formerly distinct and separate groups merge and become integrated as one.Secondary assimilation: integration in public areas and social institutions, such as neighborhoods, schools, workplaces, and government.Primary assimilation integration in personal, associations, as with friends, family, and spouses.
23AmalgamationWhen different ethnic or racial groups become married or pair-bonded and produce children.Since 1960:Number of black-white married couples has increased fivefoldNumber of Asian-white married couples has increased tenfoldNumber of Hispanics married to non-Hispanics has tripled