Presentation on theme: "Multiple intelligences and emotional intelligence"— Presentation transcript:
1Multiple intelligences and emotional intelligence KV PetridesLecture 5Multiple intelligences and emotional intelligenceDr. KV Petrides
2Multiple ‘intelligences’ I KV PetridesMultiple ‘intelligences’ IGardner (1983) placed emphasis on the idea that the traditional understanding of intelligence that relies on IQ testing is too limited. Instead, he claimed that there exist eight different types of intelligence:Logical/Mathematicallogical thinking, detecting patterns, scientific reasoning and deduction; analyse problems, perform mathematical calculations, understands relationship between cause and effect towards a tangible outcome or resultLinguisticwords and language, written and spoken; retention, interpretation and explanation of ideas and information via language, understands relationship between communication and meaningMusicalmusical ability, awareness, appreciation and use of sound; recognition of tonal and rhythmic patterns, understands relationship between sound and feelingSpatialvisual and spatial perception; interpretation and creation of visual images; pictorial imagination and expression; understands relationship between images and meanings, and between space and effectBodily-Kinaestheticbody movement control, manual dexterity, physical agility and balance; eye and body coordinationAND EVERYONE THOUGHT THEY WERE OPERATIONALIZING THE SAME CONSTRUCT2
3Multiple ‘intelligences’ II KV PetridesMultiple ‘intelligences’ IINaturalisticrecognize and distinguish between plants and animals; categorizing them; sensitivity to nature and one’s place within itIntrapersonalself-awareness, personal cognisance, personal objectivity, the capability to understand oneself, one's relationship to others and the world, and one's own need for, and reaction to changeInterpersonalperception of other people's feelings; ability to relate to others; interpretation of behaviour and communications; understands the relationships between people and their situations, including other peopleThe notion of MI has been influential in educational settings, but rejected from mainstream psychological science. Some important limitations include:Arbitrary redefinition of talents and abilities as intelligencesArbitrary criteria for including and excluding ‘intelligences’Lack of empirical support (e.g., Visser, Ashton, & Vernon, 2008).See also Chen (2004), Waterhouse (2006), and White (2008).AND EVERYONE THOUGHT THEY WERE OPERATIONALIZING THE SAME CONSTRUCT3
4Background & milestones KV PetridesThornike’s (1920) ‘social intelligence’.Gardner’s (1983) ‘multiple intelligences’.Intrapersonal intelligenceInterpersonal intelligence‘Emotional intelligence’ as a term appears in Greenspan (1989), Leuner (1966), Payne (1986).Salovey & Mayer (1990)Goleman (1995)Petrides and colleagues (2000-)Trait EI versus Ability EITrait emotional intelligence research programme4
5Operationalization of EI KV PetridesOperationalization of EITwo crucial issues are involved in the operationalization of EI (and of any other construct):What is the sampling domain of the construct?How do we measure the various components of the sampling domain?Until recently – and even now – the first question was resolved by having as many sampling domains and EI definitions as researchers in the field.Until recently – and even now – the second question was not even considered, with researchers assuming that the use of self-report or maximum-performance tests has no implications for operationalization.AND EVERYONE THOUGHT THEY WERE OPERATIONALIZING THE SAME CONSTRUCT
6Trait EI vs ability EI IKV PetridesAbility EI (or ‘cognitive-emotional ability’) comprises actual emotion-related cognitive abilities and should be measured via maximum-performance tests.Trait EI (or ‘trait emotional self-efficacy’) comprises emotion-related self-perceptions and dispositions and should be measured via self-report questionnaires.
7Trait EI vs ability EI II KV PetridesTrait EI vs ability EI II
8Veridical scoring in IQ tests KV PetridesVeridical scoring in IQ testsNonverbal analogiesRaven’s matricesThe existence of single, invariant, and objectively derived correct response is a defining characteristic of intelligence testing.
9Operationalization of ability EI KV PetridesOperationalization of ability EIIf ability EI is a new cognitive ability, then items or tasks with emotional content must be developed such that they can be scored according to truly veridical criteria.In other words, the construct in its entirety ought to be assessed through items that can be responded to correctly or incorrectly.Is it possible to develop EI items along cognitive ability lines?NO: emotional experiences are inherently subjective (Brody, 2004; Pérez, Petrides, & Furnham, 2005; Roberts, Zeidner, & Matthews, 2001; Emotion).OBJECTIFYSO WE ARE ABANDONING THE ABILITY EI CONSTRUCT AND FOCUSING ON:
10KV PetridesMeasures of ability EIPérez, Petrides, & Furnham, 2005
11Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) I KV PetridesMayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) I
12KV PetridesMSCEIT IIIt should be obvious that items like the foregoing are not amenable to truly veridical scoring criteria (Brody, 2004; Davies, Stankov, & Roberts, 1998; Roberts, Zeidner, & Matthews, 2001; Petrides & Furnham, 2001).To identify correct and incorrect responses, Mayer, Caruso, & Salovey (1999) used two scoring methods previously employed to score items in failed social intelligence tests.
13KV PetridesConsensus scoring IConsensus scoring: Introduces ‘degrees of correctness,’ with each response weighted by the percentage of participants in the sample who have endorsed it.E.g., if 55% of the sample believe that a given design expresses ‘happiness,’ one gets .55 points for agreeing with them.If 13% of the sample believe that the same design expresses ‘sadness’, then the endorsement of the sadness option is considered less correct and earns only .13 points.
14KV PetridesConsensus scoring IIConsensus scoring is problematic for the following reasons:Likely to lead to noninvariant or sample-specific ‘correct’ responses.Contradicts the foremost function of tests, which is to discriminate between test-takers.Impossible to incorporate difficult items in the test, since the ‘correctness’ of a response is a function of the number of participants who will ultimately endorse it.
15KV PetridesExpert scoringExpert scoring: A group of experts examines the items/stimuli and decides which of the alternative responses should be deemed correct.Some limitations of expert scoring include:In many cases (intrapersonal EI), it assumes that experts have more insight into normal adults’ emotional states than the adults themselves.Who is an EI expert (therapists, researchers, psychiatrists, psychologists)?
16Validity of ability EI I KV PetridesValidity of ability EI IEmpirical evidence does not provide solid support for the construct validity of ability EI:Consensus and expert scoring methods tend to produce divergent findings (Davies et al., 1998; Roberts et al. 2001).Many ability EI subfactors do not correlate with IQ (Roberts et al., 2001). Ciarrochi, Chan, & Caputi (2001) found a zero correlation between ability EI and Raven’s matrices.Correlations with external criteria are frequently the result of severe confounding with crystallized IQ (esp. vocabulary size; Wilhelm, 2005).
17Validity of ability EI II KV PetridesValidity of ability EI IIReliability problems.Factor structure problems.Inconsistent/nonreplicable results.Frequent use of odd and atheoretical criteria (number of self-help books read, academic performance marks from a quarterly term in a single year at high-school, etc.).Low correlations and low incremental validity.
18Validity of ability EI II KV PetridesBrody, N. (2004). What cognitive intelligence is and what emotional intelligence is not. Psychological Inquiry, 15,Conte, J. M. (2005). A review and critique of emotional intelligence measures. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26,Keele, S. M. & Bell, R. C. (2008). The factorial validity of emotional intelligence: An unresolved issue. Personality and individual differences, 44,Ortony, A., Revelle, W., & Zinbarg, R. (2007). Why emotional intelligence needs a fluid component. In G. Matthews, M. Zeidner, & R. D. Roberts (Eds.), The science of emotional intelligence. Knowns and unknowns - Series in Affective Science (pp ). Oxford: Oxford University Press.O’Sullivan, M., & Ekman, P. (2005). Facial expression recognition and emotional intelligence. In G. Geher, (Ed.). Measuring emotional intelligence: Common ground and controversy. Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science Publishing.Rossen, E., Kranzler, J. H., & Algina, J. (2008). Confirmatory factor analysis of the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test V2.0 (MSCEIT). Personality and Individual Differences, 44,Wilhelm, O. (2005). Measures of emotional intelligence: practice and standards. In R. Schulze, & R. D. Roberts (Eds.), International handbook of emotional intelligence (pp ). Seattle, WA: Hogrefe & Huber.18
19KV PetridesTrait EITrait emotional intelligence is defined as a constellation of emotional self-perceptions located at the lower levels of personality hierarchies (Petrides, Pita, & Kokkinaki, 2007).Trait emotional self-efficacy is an alternative label for the same construct.
20The sampling domain of trait EI KV PetridesPetrides & Furnham (2001; EJP):20
21KV PetridesTrait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue , TEIQue-SF, TEIQue-ASF, TEIQue-CF,TEIQue 360o)TEIQue translationsGreekFrenchSpanishChinesePortugueseDutchNorwegianCroatianSerbianItalianTEIQue-SF30 items, global trait EI scoreAdolescent TEIQue-ASFTEIQue 360o153 items, 15 subscales, 4 factors, global trait EI score.Theory-basedResearch-basedPeer-reviewedOpen-access21
23Location of trait EI in personality factor space Petrides, Pita, & Kokkinaki, 2007; BJPKV PetridesLocation of trait EI in personality factor spaceTEIQue Raw English data; N = 371TEIQue Raw Spanish data; N = 538
24Gender differences in trait EI KV PetridesOverall, small or non-existent gender differences in global trait EI scores.TEIQue data; N = 351; p = nsModified EQ-i data; N = 166; p < .01Petrides, Furnham, & Martin (2004); N = 224; JSPTEIQue-SF data; N = 668; p < .01Schutte et al. scale data; N = 260; p = ns24
25KV PetridesEstimates of EI ITypically, when males are asked to estimate their IQ, they provide higher estimates than females .What is the case for EI estimates?Petrides, Furnham, & Martin (2004); N = 224; JSPFurnham & Petrides (2004); N = 239; AJP
26KV PetridesEstimates of EI IITypically, participants tend to estimate their father’s IQ as higher than their mother’s.What is the case for EI estimates?Petrides, Furnham, & Martin (2004); N = 224; JSP
27The trait emotional intelligence research programme KV PetridesThe trait emotional intelligence research programmeResearch divisionsPsychometricEducationalIndustrial/OrganizationalChild/Human DevelopmentBehavioural GeneticInternational linksUK, Australia, Belgium, Canada, Croatia, Cyprus, Greece, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Spain.Current & past funding bodiesESRCNuffield FoundationBritish AcademyUniversity of LondonStudentsPhD: E. ColeBA, BSc, MA, MSc, MPhilwwwGoogle: trait EI27