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Organizational Behavior- Human Relations & Human Resources Management Dr. Len Elovitz Chapter 1 & 3 in Owens & Valesky.

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Presentation on theme: "Organizational Behavior- Human Relations & Human Resources Management Dr. Len Elovitz Chapter 1 & 3 in Owens & Valesky."— Presentation transcript:

1 Organizational Behavior- Human Relations & Human Resources Management Dr. Len Elovitz Chapter 1 & 3 in Owens & Valesky


3 Illumination Experiments 1. Illumination was increased then decreased in stated intervals in 3 departments Results: No change in productivity 2. Illumination was Increased for test group and remained the same for control group Results: Substantial and nearly equal production increase for both groups

4 3. Illumination was decreased for test group and remained the same for control group Results: Substantial production increase for the test group Conclusions: Employee output was not substantially related to lighting conditions, and too many variables were not controlled

5 Elton Mayo & Fritz Roethlisberger 4 Harvard psychologists retained to study the relationship between physical conditions and productivity Other similar experiments Conclusions – – Human variability is an important determinant of productivity –Workers behavior did not conform to official job specifications. Informal organizations formed that effected job performance


7 HUMAN RELATIONS SUPERVISION 4 By paying attention to workers and their needs, management could expect increases in performance and productivity

8 HUMAN RELATIONS SUPERVISION 4 EMPHASIS - HUMAN AND INTERPERSONAL FACTORS IN ADMINISTRATION Morale Group Dynamics Democratic Supervision Personnel Relations Behavioral Concepts of Motivation

9 Sociometry Jacob Moreno—developed sociometric analysis. Using data gathered from organizational members, sociograms showed the informal social structures. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

10 Classroom Sociogram

11 Behavior Patterns of Groups Robert Bales developed techniques for analyzing patterns of interaction. First to document that successful groups have people who play two key roles:  Someone to focus the group on accomplishing its task (Task orientation/Initiating structure).  Someone who focuses on maintaining productive human relations in the group (Relationship orientation/Concern for people).  Led to T Groups and Group Dynamics Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

12 Leadership as a Group Function & the Paradox of Organizational Structure Prior to 1980s, Human Relations Movement had little affect on superintendents as opposed to supervisors.  Different focus on literature from AASA and ASCD.  Superintendents Remained Scientific – prime concerns- budgets, politics, control  Supervisors – prime concerns- participation & communication The paradox is that organizations are not real tangible, concrete objects. They are what we and others think they are, nothing more. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

13 Criticism of HR 4 It oversimplifies the complexities of organizational life – Etzioni 4 Organizations share conflicting values that may be alienating as well as sources of satisfaction 4 Will never be one big happy family 4 Concern for workers is not authentic – managers use HR approach to manipulate workers 4 BOB

14 HUMAN RELATIONS SUPERVISION 4 Problems Misunderstanding of intent Belief that happy teachers would increase productivity Led to laissez-faire supervision in schools Supervisors afraid to supervise - public nature of personnel actions in schools 4 Led to dissatisfaction with schools 4 Reported success were anecdotal from successful administrators. Very little real research

15 NEOSCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT 4 Accountability 4 Control 4 Efficiency 4 Impersonal - Standardized tests as a measure of teacher competence

16 Bureaucratic Views 4 Five mechanisms for dealing with controlling and coordinating the behavior of people in an organization. –Maintain firm hierarchical control of authority and close supervision of those in the lower ranks. –Establish and maintain adequate vertical communication. –Develop clear written rules and procedures to set standards and guide actions. –Promulgate clear plans and schedules for participants to follow. –Add supervisory and administrative positions to the hierarchy of the organization as necessary to meet problems that arise from changing conditions confronted by the organization.

17 Bureaucratic Views (continued) 4 In 1983, A Nation At Risk, and other reports brought recommendations that resulted in: –Longer school days, focus on time on task, more homework, career ladders, calls for stronger school leadership of the principal, “tougher” curriculum, longer school calendar and others. 4 In essence, the bureaucratic model was at work: management decided what was to be done, they directed the workers to do it, and supervised them closely. 4 Although this model was not effective, it still persists and is growing today.

18 NCLB 4 The Federal Government knows how best to improve classroom outcomes 4 They have the knowledge about classroom circumstances to draw up legal mandates 4 Top-down management is the best way to bring about desired changes.

19 RECAP - HOW ARE TEACHERS TREATED? 4 SCIENTIFIC –Heavily Supervised 4 HUMAN RELATIONS –laissez-faire 4 NEOSCIENTIFIC –Impersonal & Technical

20 HUMAN RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT 4 Grew out of dissatisfaction with other concepts and practices. 4 Represents a high regard for human needs, potential and satisfaction. 4 Leadership is neither patronizing or directive but supportive in meeting the goals of the organization.

21 Human Resources Development Views 4 Human Resources Development (HRD) views the teacher as foremost in creating instructional change. 4 HRD uses newer concepts such as loose coupling (allowing subunits autonomy) and the power of organization culture to influence behavior. 4 HRD exercises coordination and control through socialization of participants to the values and goals of the organization, rather then through written rules and close supervision.

22 The Human Relations Supervisor Adopts shared decision-making practices To increase teacher satisfaction Which in turn Increases school effectiveness

23 The Human Resources Supervisor Adopts shared decision-making practices To increase school effectiveness Which in turn Increases teacher satisfaction

24 Generally Teachers –dislike work or –view work as satisfying

25 Generally Teachers –must be supervised closely or –exercise initiative and self direction

26 Generally Teachers –will shirk responsibility and seek formal direction or –accept responsibility and seek it

27 Douglas McGregor - Theory X 1. Average people are by nature indolent-they work as little as possible. 2. They lack ambition, dislike responsibility, prefer to be led. 3. They are inherently self-centered, indifferent to organizational needs. 4. They are by nature resistant to change. 5. They are gullible, not very bright, ready dupes of the charlatan and demagogue.

28 Douglas McGregor - Theory Y 1. If it is acceptable to them, employees will view work as natural and as acceptable as play. 2. People at work will exercise initiative, self- direction, and self-control on the job if they are committed to the objectives of the organization. 3. The average person, under proper conditions, learns not only to accept responsibility on the job but to seek it. 4. The average employee values creativity - that is, the ability to make good decisions - and seeks opportunities to be creative at work

29 Theory X and Theory Y 4 Theory X rests on four assumptions that an administrator holds about people in the organization. –They dislike work, must be supervised closely, will shirk responsibility and seek formal direction, and have little ambition. 4 Theory Y embraces four very different assumptions administrators hold about the nature of people at work. –They view work as satisfying, exercise initiative and self direction if committed to the organization, learn to accept responsibility and seek it, and have the ability to make good decisions.

30 Do Theory X Teachers result from Theory X Supervisors? Is this a self-fulfilling prophecy?

31 4 PLEASE READ: 4 The Human Side of Enterprise by Douglas McGregor

32 Pattern A & Pattern B Behavior 4 Chris Argyris explains how Theory X views give rise to Behavior Pattern A in leaders: –Pattern A, Hard: characterized by no-nonsense, strongly directive leadership, tight controls, and close supervision. –Pattern A, Soft: involves a good deal of persuading, “buying” compliance from subordinates, benevolent paternalism, or so- called good (that is, manipulative) human relations.

33 Pattern A & Pattern B Behavior (continued) 4 Theory Y views lead to Behavior Pattern B: –Characterized by a commitment to mutually shared objectives, high levels of trust, respect, satisfaction from work, and authentic, open relationships. –Pattern A, Soft, is often mistaken for Behavior Pattern B.

34 Argyris’s Pattern A Soft Vs Pattern B T. Sergiovanni

35 Rensis Likert Systems 1, 2, 3, and 4 4 Based on studies of schools and other organizations, Likert identified four systems describing management styles. –System 1 --Management is seen as having no trust in subordinates. X –System 2 –Management has condescending confidence and trust in subordinates. X –System 3 –Management seen as having substantial but not complete trust in subordinates. X –System 4 --Subordinates make specific decisions at lower levels. Y

36 Likert’s Management Systems Theory

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