Delineation Ritual –“Rituals embedded in ceremonial gatherings are central to social integration. Durkheim (1912) argued that everyday life is different in important ways from sacred times – ritual helps to define the sacred realm and set it apart from the defiling elements of the profane” (p. 424).
Delineation Ritual –“Goffman (1967) and Collins (1988) extended the study of ritual to everyday life, focusing on social practices that produce and maintain trust, but their work owes much to the anthropologists who first described ceremonial exchange” (424).
Delineation Ritual –“Boas (1966) Levi-Strauss (1969), Malinowski (1922), and Mauss (1967) pioneered this concept in the context of premodern societies as a way of describing transactions that occur for symbolic and ultimately social ends rather than utilitarian value” (p. 424).
Method (section 1) “In the first section of the article the development of the command and market paradigms is examined in the social and historical context of pre-Lenten celebrations. This exploration of ritual origins is based on documents and interviews with New Orleans residents and merchants, festival participants, and police officers” (p. 425).
Method (section 2) “In the second section, the general forms of gifting and disrobement in the French Quarter are described through a sample of videotaped behavior at Mardi Gras” (p. 425).
Method (section 2) Defining temporal and spatial parameters. Describing the instrumentation. Describing the coding method. Describing variables. –Structural, status, group, behavior, and appearance variables (see pg. 433).
Method (section 3) “In the third section, we account for observed differences in ritual actions by analyzing these performances in terms of gender, hierarchy, impression management, and ritual ordering” (p. 425).
Conclusions “In the case of Mardi Gras, new forms of exchange emerged as an alternative to traditional gifting, establishing a new ritual order that is first and foremost a symbolic expression of moral commitment to the market in the profane, everyday world.”
Conclusions Since disrobement is a form of deviant action, its performance may be legitimized by the resourceful acquisition of a generalized medium, the currency of the symbolic universe (p. 429).
Conclusions “The timing of exchange, therefore, is massively affected by the location of the performer” (p. 443).
Conclusions “Women may enter the economic marketplace and the competition for wealth, but while they will be permitted a moderate level of aggressiveness toward men, they remain on a pedestal for men to worship and control as sexual objects” (p. 449).
Conclusions “We argue that the practices surrounding public disrobement and gifting at Mardi Gras can best be understood as a group of related ritual paradigms organized in terms of markets, gender, and hierarchy” (p. 444).
Conclusions “Our interpretation hinges on three points. (1) Ceremonial exchange is not simply unstructured hedonism but a ritualized enactment of the economic markets that characterize contemporary society. (2) Freedom of choice and negotiations over value are essential to ritual based on market paradigm.
Conclusions (3) Variability in performance is important to the “multivocality” of ritual, expressing the diversity of contemporary gender relations” (p. 444).