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21st Century College English: Book 4 Unit 10: Part B.

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2 21st Century College English: Book 4 Unit 10: Part B

3 Revision of Text ARevision of Text ARevision of Text ARevision of Text A Reading AnalysisReading AnalysisReading AnalysisReading Analysis Structured WritingStructured WritingStructured WritingStructured Writing Listening PracticeListening PracticeListening PracticeListening Practice AssignmentAssignmentAssignment

4 Revision of Text A Assignment CheckupAssignment Checkup  Structure Structure  Cloze Cloze  Translation Translation

5 Structure Ex. VIII, p. 354 《读写教程 IV 》 : Ex. VIII, p. 354

6 IX.Note how negative words such as nothing, none, and no can be used with an adjective or adverb in the comparative degree to express the meaning of the superlative degree. Examples: 1.There was nothing a Visigoth liked better than to burn a book, desecrate a building…. 2.I can wish you no higher compliment than that in the future it will be reported that….. 3.A Visigoth’s language aspires to nothing higher than the cliché. 4. … and among their values none stood higher than that in all things one should strive for excellence. Structure

7 1.He ______ (最喜欢的就是) a good dinner surrounded by friends, and large noisy get-togethers with his family. 2.People loved her, but ______ (最爱她的人是我). I was the one closest to her, and her passing away was the greatest loss for me. Structure  likes nothing better than  none loved her more than I did

8 Structure 3._____ (最糟糕的莫过于) arriving five minutes late for a lecture to find out that other students have occupied the best seats and taken all the handouts. 4.In the small mountain village, all the pupils like Miss Ross very much and they believe that _______ (世界上最好的老师就是) Miss Ross.  there’s no better teacher in the world than  There’s nothing worse than

9 Structure 5. ________ (最令人心碎的莫过于) to see a whole village washed away by flood. 6.________ (最让人恼火的莫过于) to have someone speaking for you when you are quite able to speak for yourself.  Nothing is more irritating than  Nothing is more heartbreaking than

10 Cloze Ex. IX, p. 355 《读写教程 IV 》 : Ex. IX, p. 355

11 XIV.Select the most appropriate word from the four choices given. The choice “0” means that no additional word is appropriate. The Athenians and the Visigoths were extraordinarily different cultures with _1_ values and traditions. The Athenians respected education and considered the quest _2_ knowledge a most noble pursuit. To the Visigoths, on the other hand, knowledge was _3_ unless it could be used to earn money or gain power over others. Athenians had a great _4_ for fine art. They wrote 1.a) conflictb) conflictedc)conflicting d) consistent 2.a) forb) byc) withd) into 3.a) foremostb) pointlessc)vulnerabled) ruthless 4.a) regardb) vigorc) banalityd) subtlety Cloze 1.a) conflictb) conflictedc)conflicting d) consistent 2.a) forb) byc) withd) into 3.a) foremostb) pointlessc)vulnerabled) ruthless 4.a) regardb) vigorc) banalityd) subtlety

12 XIV.Select the most appropriate word from the four choices given. The choice “0” means that no additional word is appropriate. Cloze profoundly touching epic poems and plays which exalt the spirit of audiences _5_ this day. To the Visigoths, art had no value beyond its _6_ at the moment. Athenians practiced political democracy with a tremendous _7_. They placed great value on tradition, social restraint, and continuity. They sought _8_ in all things and created the concept of ecology. At the _9_ of their power, 6.a) populousb) popularc) popularityd) population 8.a) moderationb)brutalityc) ancestorsd) scrawls 5.a) onb) inc)for d) to 7.a) precisionb) aspirationc) vigord)affectation 9.a) periodb)peakc) popularityd) flourish 5.a) onb) inc)for d) to 6.a) populousb) popularc) popularityd) population 7.a) precisionb) aspirationc) vigord)affectation 8.a) moderationb)brutalityc) ancestorsd) scrawls 9.a) periodb)peakc) popularityd) flourish

13 XIV.Select the most appropriate word from the four choices given. The choice “0” means that no additional word is appropriate. the Visigoths overran Europe desecrating buildings, destroying works of art, and ushering _10_ the period known as the Dark Ages. It took Europe almost a thousand years to _11_ from their ravages. These two cultures are still _12_ today because we all must choose which group to align ourselves _13_. _14_ the university is an inherently Athenian institution, not all of the students it educates or even all of the professors on its Cloze 11.a) recoverb) reverec) exaltd) inspire 10.a) onb) inc)through d) by 12.a) eminentb) tediousc) spirituald)relevant 10.a) onb) inc)through d)by 11. a) recoverb) reverec) exaltd) inspire 12. a) eminentb) tediousc) spirituald)relevant 13.a) onb)byc) ford) with 14.a) Becauseb) Althoughc) Foremostd) Initially 13.a) onb)byc) ford) with 14.a) Becauseb) Althoughc) Foremostd) Initially

14 XIV.Select the most appropriate word from the four choices given. The choice “0” means that no additional word is appropriate. faculty hold Athenian values in _15_ esteem. It is a personal choice whether to sink to the depths of life as a modern Visigoth or to dedicate oneself to the more exalted pursuit of becoming a contemporary Athenian. Cloze 15.a) goodb)highc) broadd) wide

15 Exercise XExercise XExercise XExercise X Exercise XIExercise XIExercise XIExercise XI Translation

16 Translation: English to Chinese Ex. X, p. 356 《读写教程 IV 》 : Ex. X, p. 356

17 Read the following paragraphs until you learn them by heart and translate them into Chinese. Now, it must be obvious what all this has to do with you. Eventually, like the rest of us, you must be on one side or the other. You must be an Athenian or a Visigoth. Of course, it is much harder to be an Athenian, for you must learn how to be one, you must work at being one, whereas we are all, in a way, natural-born Visigoths. 现在,所有这一切与你的关系一定很明显。最终,同我们 其他人一样,你必须站在一方或另一方。你必定是一个雅典 人或西哥特人。当然,做一名雅典人要难得多,因为你必须 学会如何做,你必须要付出努力,而从某种意义上说我们都 是天生的西哥特人。 现在,所有这一切与你的关系一定很明显。最终,同我们 其他人一样,你必须站在一方或另一方。你必定是一个雅典 人或西哥特人。当然,做一名雅典人要难得多,因为你必须 学会如何做,你必须要付出努力,而从某种意义上说我们都 是天生的西哥特人。 Translation: English to Chinese

18 Read the following paragraphs until you learn them by heart and translate them into Chinese. Translation: English to Chinese That is why there are so many more Visigoths than Athenians. And I must tell you that you do not become an Athenian merely by attending school or accumulating degrees. My father-in-law was one of the most committed Athenians I have ever known, and he spend his entire adult life as a dress cutter on Seventh Avenue in New York City. 这就是为什么西哥特人比雅典人要多得多的原因。我还必须 告诉你,仅仅通过上学或者积累几个学位是不会变成雅典人 的。我的岳父是我所知道的最坚定的雅典人之一,他成年之 后一直是纽约第七大街上的一名裁缝。

19 Read the following paragraphs until you learn them by heart and translate them into Chinese. Translation: English to Chinese On the other hand, I have known physicians, lawyers, and engineers who are Visigoths of unmistakeable persuasion. And I must also tell you, as much in sorrow as in shame, that at some of our great universities, perhaps even this one, there are professors of whom we may fairly say they are closet Visigoths. 另一方面,我认识的一些医生,律师和工程师却是十足的西 哥特人。我还必须既伤心又羞愧地告诉你, 在我们一些名牌 大学里,也许甚至就在这一所,有一些教授,我们可以公正 地说,是些隐蔽的西哥特人。

20 Read the following paragraphs until you learn them by heart and translate them into Chinese. Translation: English to Chinese And yet, you must not doubt for a moment that a school, after all, is essentially an Athenian idea. There is a direct link between the cultural achievements of Athens and what the faulty of this university is all about. I have no difficulty imagining that Plato, Aristotle, or Democritus would be quite at home in our classrooms. A Visigoth would merely scrawl obscenities on the wall. 然而,你决不可怀疑,学校的本质毕竟体现了一种雅典人的 观念。雅典的文化成就和这所大学的教员所从事的工作之间 有着直接的联系。不难想象,在我们的教室里,柏拉图、亚 里士多德或者德谟克利特会感到很自在。西哥特人将只会在 墙壁上涂写一些淫秽的话。

21 Ex. XI, p. 357 《读写教程 IV 》 : Ex. XI, p. 357 Translation: Chinese to English

22 XIV. Translate the following sentences into English. 1. 如果你对冗长的讲座不感兴趣,那从头至尾把它听完实在 是毫无意义的。 It is really pointless to sit through a tedious lecture if you do not take any interest in it. sit through It is pointless to… Translation

23 XIV. Translate the following sentences into English. 2. 由于他在生态学领域的卓越地位,我们学校的学生敬重他。 The students in our university all hold him in high esteem because of his eminence in the field of ecology. hold…in high esteem Translation

24 XIV. Translate the following sentences into English. 3. 虽然他声称他的那部新小说跟他本人的生活无关,但它还 是吸引了许多青年读者。他们认为这部小说使他们粗略地 看到了作者的童年。 Though he claims that his new novel has nothing to do with his own life, it has caught the fancy of many young readers, who believe that this novel has given them a glimpse of the author’s childhood. have nothing to do with Translation catch the fancy of sb. give sb. a glimpse of sth.

25 XIV. Translate the following sentences into English. 4. 自从计算机技术迎来了人们所称的信息时代以来,有些作 家已经不在用钢笔, 因为他们现在能够用计算机来写一切 东西了。 Since the computer technology ushered in what is known as the Information Age, some writers have done away with their pens they can write everything with their computers now. usher in Translation known as do away with

26 XIV. Translate the following sentences into English. 5. 我们不得不羞愧而遗憾地承认,在我们中间有些人的确 把自己看作是宇宙的中心,对公共事务毫不关心。 We have to admit, as much in sorrow as in shame,that there are some people among us who do think of themselves as the center of the universe and care very little about public affairs. in shame Translation think of sb. as

27 XIV. Translate the following sentences into English. 6. 首先,我们应该取得该市人口的精确数据。 如果退休人员 的人数超过青少年的人数, 我们就应该调整发展计划以满 足这一大批人的需要。 First and foremost, we should get the precise data on the population of the city. If retired people outnumber the teenagers, we should adjust our development plan to the needs of this large group of people. adjust…t o Translation first and foremost outnumbe r

28 XIV. Translate the following sentences into English. 7. 最令南希感到高兴的莫过于看到她七岁的儿子取得的飞速 进步, 他的演奏甚至会使许多专业钢琴家相形见绌。 Nothing pleases Nancy more than to see the rapid progress made by her seven-year-old son, whose playing would have put many a professional pianist to shame. Translation nothing…more than put…in shame

29 XIV. Translate the following sentences into English. 8. 我要表明的观点是,作为当代的大学生,我们必须极为尊 重知识,尤其是尊重对知识的追求,并非常重视传统、社 会的约束和连续性。 The point I want to make is that as modern university students, we must hold knowledge and, especially, the quest for knowledge in high esteem and place great value on tradition, social restraint and continuity. Translation hold…in high esteem place great value on

30 Ex. IX, p. 355 《读写教程 IV 》 : Ex. IX, p. 355 Reading Analysis

31 The type of language used in giving a speech is different from that used in writing an essay. For one thing, sentences tend to be a bit shorter. Other common features of a speech include a greeting of the audience, the use of humor, and some repetitive sentence structures. Attention

32 Reading Analysis Postman begins by mentioning all the major groups who are in the audience. Kennedy’s greeting is both more specific and more formal, reflecting the greater seriousness of the occasion of his speech. XII.Look over text A and answer the following questions. 1. How does Postman greet his audience? Look forward to the first sentence of John F. Kennedy’s Inaugural Address (Text C of this unit), what differences do you see between Postman’s greeting and that which Kennedy uses? What do you think are the reasons for this difference?

33 Reading Analysis It is humorous that Postman refers so specifically to the brevity of his speech. His joking also has a serious effect, however; it is intended to reassure his audience that he won’t go on too long so as to courage them to listen carefully while he is speaking. XII.Look over text A and answer the following questions. 2. How does Postman use humor at the beginning of his speech? What effect is his humorous comment intended to have on his audience?

34 Reading Analysis (a) In order to communicate a number of related facts about Athenians, Postman uses a series of sentences starting with “they” followed by a past tense verb. He introduces some variation to prevent his structure from becoming boring (I.e., “And they also invented,” “They composed,” “And they wrote and performed,” “ They even invented”). Towards the end of the paragraph, Postman repeats the structure “They believed in” three times, before beginning his final sentence with “And they invented.” XII.Look over text A and answer the following questions. 3. Underline all of the repetitive structures in the following two places: (a) Paragraph 4 & (b) Paragraphs 9 to 13. What is the effect of such repetition? (b) In order to express the values of the Athenians, which is perhaps his most important point, Postman begins each of these paragraphs with the phrase “To be an Athenian is to”. There is also a less prominent repetition of the phrases “ To a Visigoth” and “To an Athenian” in sentences which express the respective values of each of these cultures.

35 Reading Analysis Postman says “thank you” because it is a convention to thank people for their time and attention after you have given a speech. He says “congratulations” to give his best regards to those who are graduating in the day’s ceremony. XII.Look over text A and answer the following questions. 4. How is the final line of Postman’s speech appropriate to the situation?

36 Ex. XIII, p. 358 《读写教程 IV 》 : Ex. XIII, p. 358 Structured Writing

37 Imagine that you have been asked to give a speech at the graduation ceremony for your college class. Write the address that you will give. Structured Writing  You speech should begin with a greeting to those who will be present at the ceremony.  It should also have more of the features of oral language than written language. (e.g. shorter sentences, more repetition).

38  Listen for any phrases that sound awkward to the ear and replace them with more conversational language. Structured Writing  To check this, try reading your speech aloud once you have written a draft. Above all, your speech should present your own view of the challenges and opportunities facing your class, and should offer your best advice on how your classmates should proceed after leaving college. Structured Writing

39 Write Your Own It will be a challenge to express all of your ideas clearly and concisely. Try to keep your speech to no more than 500 words. Structured Writing

40 Listening Practice ConversationConversationConversation Passage 1Passage 1Passage 1Passage 1

41 Listening Practice Conversations 《听说教程 IV 》 Part 4.3, p. 118

42 1.A)At an accountant's office. B)At a post office. C)At a school. D)At a bank. Listening Practice

43 2.A)He doubts the woman will like the novel. B)He hasn't started reading the novel yet. C)He enjoyed reading the novel. D)He'll lend the woman the novel after he has read it. Listening Practice

44 3.A)The son is as smart as his father. B)The son is not doing well. C)The son is very poor. D)The son wants to be a fire fighter. Listening Practice

45 4.A) Count her money. B)Go to the seminar with the man. C)Help the man learn to manage his money. D)Pay for the seminar. Listening Practice

46 5.A) The woman doesn't drive often. B)Traffic is better than it used to be. C)Taking public transportation saves time. D)The subway is crowded. Listening Practice

47 6.A) He dropped out of Professor Johnson's class. B)He'll probably take another class with Professor Johnson. C)Professor Johnson's lectures were boring. D)Students weren't allowed to bring drinks into Professor Johnson's class. Listening Practice

48 7.A) The committee is discussing it. B)It received a low grade. C)It hasn't been graded. D) The woman hasn't submitted it. Listening Practice

49 8.A) Make sure the registration office didn't make a mistake. B)Decide whether to drop the course next week. C)Find out if a place opens up in the course later. D) Take the course next year. Listening Practice

50 9.A) Make a copy of the key for the woman. B)Give the woman her key at her class. C)Put the key in the woman's mailbox. D) Unlock the woman's door. Listening Practice

51 10.A)She'd like to go although she has little experience. B)She doesn't enjoy camping. C)She'd rather go swimming than hiking. D)She needs to buy a canoe before the trip. Check-up Listening Practice

52 1.A)At an accountant's office. B)At a post office. C)At a school. D)At a bank. 1.A)At an accountant's office. B)At a post office. C)At a school. D)At a bank. Listening Practice

53 1.M:I'd like to open a savings account. W:Sure. Have a seat, fill out this application form, and make a small deposit. Then, you'll be all set. Q:Where is this conversation taking place? Listening Practice

54 2.A)He doubts the woman will like the novel. B)He hasn't started reading the novel yet. C)He enjoyed reading the novel. D)He'll lend the woman the novel after he has read it. 2.A)He doubts the woman will like the novel. B)He hasn't started reading the novel yet. C)He enjoyed reading the novel. D)He'll lend the woman the novel after he has read it. Listening Practice

55 2.W:I hope you like the novel I lent you. I wasn't sure whether it was the kind of book you would be interested in. M:You know, I had the same doubt at first. But once I started I simply couldn't put it down. Q:What does the man mean? Listening Practice

56 3.A)The son is as smart as his father. B)The son is not doing well. C)The son is very poor. D)The son wants to be a fire fighter. 3.A)The son is as smart as his father. B)The son is not doing well. C)The son is very poor. D)The son wants to be a fire fighter. Listening Practice

57 3.W:How's your son doing in school? Is he as smart as you? M:He had a promising start, but now he's doing poorly. To add fuel to the fire, he's stopped going to classes. Q:What does the man mean? Listening Practice

58 4.A) Count her money. B)Go to the seminar with the man. C)Help the man learn to manage his money. D)Pay for the seminar. 4.A) Count her money. B)Go to the seminar with the man. C)Help the man learn to manage his money. D)Pay for the seminar. Listening Practice

59 4.M: I've got an invitation to a financial planning seminar and I don't want to go alone. W:Count me in. I need all the help I can get managing my money. Q:What will the woman probably do? Listening Practice

60 5.A) The woman doesn't drive often. B)Traffic is better than it used to be. C)Taking public transportation saves time. D)The subway is crowded. 5.A) The woman doesn't drive often. B)Traffic is better than it used to be. C)Taking public transportation saves time. D)The subway is crowded. Listening Practice

61 5.W: I need to go across town, but the traffic is so heavy this time of the day. M:When you take the subway, you don't have to deal with traffic. I never drive any more. Q:What does the man imply? Listening Practice

62 6.A) He dropped out of Professor Johnson's class. B)He'll probably take another class with Professor Johnson. C)Professor Johnson's lectures were boring. D)Students weren't allowed to bring drinks into Professor Johnson's class. 6.A) He dropped out of Professor Johnson's class. B)He'll probably take another class with Professor Johnson. C)Professor Johnson's lectures were boring. D)Students weren't allowed to bring drinks into Professor Johnson's class. Listening Practice

63 6.W: You had Prof. Johnson before, right? How would you describe his lecture? M:Well, let me put it this way. I could never stay awake at one of his classes without first drinking at least two cups of coffee. Q:What does the man imply? Listening Practice

64 7.A) The committee is discussing it. B)It received a low grade. C)It hasn't been graded. D) The woman hasn't submitted it. 7.A) The committee is discussing it. B)It received a low grade. C)It hasn't been graded. D) The woman hasn't submitted it. Listening Practice

65 7.W: Professor, have you graded my term paper yet? M:To tell you the truth, I've been tied up in committee meetings all week. Q:What can be inferred about the paper? Listening Practice

66 8.A) Make sure the registration office didn't make a mistake. B)Decide whether to drop the course next week. C)Find out if a place opens up in the course later. D) Take the course next year. 8.A) Make sure the registration office didn't make a mistake. B)Decide whether to drop the course next week. C)Find out if a place opens up in the course later. D) Take the course next year. Listening Practice

67 8.W: I just found out that registration of the creative writing class is full. Now I have to wait another whole year to get in. M:Why don't you check after the first week? Somebody might drop it. Q:What does the man suggest the woman do? Listening Practice

68 9.A) Make a copy of the key for the woman. B)Give the woman her key at her class. C)Put the key in the woman's mailbox. D) Unlock the woman's door. 9.A) Make a copy of the key for the woman. B)Give the woman her key at her class. C)Put the key in the woman's mailbox. D) Unlock the woman's door. Listening Practice

69 9.W: Hi, Jerry, it's Beth from the apartment next door. I'm at school right now and I realize I forgot my keys at home. Could you ask the building manager to put the extra set in my mail box? M:I don't think that's secure enough. I can just drop by your class later. Q:What will the man probably do? Listening Practice

70 10.A)She'd like to go although she has little experience. B)She doesn't enjoy camping. C)She'd rather go swimming than hiking. D)She needs to buy a canoe before the trip. 10.A)She'd like to go although she has little experience. B)She doesn't enjoy camping. C)She'd rather go swimming than hiking. D)She needs to buy a canoe before the trip. Listening Practice

71 10.M: How about going on a camping trip next week with us? We're planning on hiking and canoeing in the state park. W:That sounds great, but I'd better warn you I've never been in a canoe and I'm not much of a swimmer either. Q:What does the woman mean? Listening Practice

72 Passage 1 Questions 《听说教程 IV 》 Part 4.3, p. 119

73 1.A.The family has changed greatly over time. B.Many of the functions of the family today are being performed by government agencies. B.Many of the functions of the family today are being performed by government agencies. C.The most important role for the family is to gather food and provide shelter. C.The most important role for the family is to gather food and provide shelter. D.The family has served many useful functions throughout history. D.The family has served many useful functions throughout history. Listening Practice

74 2. A.The family is undergoing many changes. B.The family is the oldest and only useful social institution. B.The family is the oldest and only useful social institution. C. The family provides its members with the basic emotional needs. D.No person can be considered as being complete until he or she gets married. D.No person can be considered as being complete until he or she gets married. Listening Practice Check-up

75 Listening Practice 1.What is the main idea of the talk? A.The family has changed greatly over time. B.Many of the functions of the family today are being performed by government agencies. B.Many of the functions of the family today are being performed by government agencies. C.The most important role for the family is to gather food and provide shelter. C.The most important role for the family is to gather food and provide shelter. D.The family has served many useful functions throughout history. D.The family has served many useful functions throughout history. 1.What is the main idea of the talk? A.The family has changed greatly over time. B.Many of the functions of the family today are being performed by government agencies. B.Many of the functions of the family today are being performed by government agencies. C.The most important role for the family is to gather food and provide shelter. C.The most important role for the family is to gather food and provide shelter. D.The family has served many useful functions throughout history. D.The family has served many useful functions throughout history.

76 Listening Practice Script 2.According to the speaker, what of the following is true? A.The family is undergoing many changes. B.The family is the oldest and only useful social institution. B.The family is the oldest and only useful social institution. C. The family provides its members with the basic emotional needs. D.No person can be considered as being complete until he or she gets married. D.No person can be considered as being complete until he or she gets married. 2.According to the speaker, what of the following is true? A.The family is undergoing many changes. B.The family is the oldest and only useful social institution. B.The family is the oldest and only useful social institution. C. The family provides its members with the basic emotional needs. D.No person can be considered as being complete until he or she gets married. D.No person can be considered as being complete until he or she gets married.

77 Listening Practice The most fundamental group to which a person belongs is the family. The institution of the family exists in almost every human culture. It is considered by behavioral scientists to be one of the oldest institutions in human history. The most fundamental group to which a person belongs is the family. The institution of the family exists in almost every human culture. It is considered by behavioral scientists to be one of the oldest institutions in human history. The family unit serves many important functions. The performance of these functions is the reason for the family's importance. Above all, the family serves as a mechanism of species survival. The family unit serves many important functions. The performance of these functions is the reason for the family's importance. Above all, the family serves as a mechanism of species survival. Families also have important economic functions. In primitive societies, the tasks of gathering food and providing shelter were divided among family members. Today, both husband and wife may work and share the duties of homemaking and child rearing. Families also have important economic functions. In primitive societies, the tasks of gathering food and providing shelter were divided among family members. Today, both husband and wife may work and share the duties of homemaking and child rearing. In addition to its survival and economic functions, the family gives its members social status. In many societies, a person is not considered a complete member until he or she has married and produced children. Finally, the family helps to meet the basic emotional needs of a person through the love and support received from parents, brothers, sisters, and relatives. In addition to its survival and economic functions, the family gives its members social status. In many societies, a person is not considered a complete member until he or she has married and produced children. Finally, the family helps to meet the basic emotional needs of a person through the love and support received from parents, brothers, sisters, and relatives.

78 1. Preview Text B 2. Do Exercises: Ex. VI (p. 352)Ex. VI (p. 352) Ex. XIV(p. 364)Ex. XIV(p. 364) Ex. XV(p. 365) Ex. XV(p. 365) Ex. XVI(p. 367) Ex. XVI(p. 367) AssignmentAssignment


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