Presentation on theme: "Introduced to the Muslim world by the Persians. The Persians imported it first from India. Caliphs (rulers) would invite champions of the games to chess."— Presentation transcript:
Introduced to the Muslim world by the Persians. The Persians imported it first from India. Caliphs (rulers) would invite champions of the games to chess matches at their palaces. Eventually, they introduced chess to Europeans. The word rook comes from the Persian rukh, which means chariot.
Because water was so scarce in the desert regions ways to get more water were needed. Developed ingenious irrigation techniques and underground wells. Dams, reservoirs, and aqueducts were constructed throughout the Islamic Empire as early as the tenth century. Muslims perfected the Roman water wheel, or noria, a technique that could be operated by man, or animals, or the wind. The word “noria,” comes from the arabic word “na-urah,” meaning first water machine. Both the Umayyad and Abbasid rulers preserved and improved the series of Underground wells, called “qanats” used to irrigate fields in Syria and Spain. Much of the agriculture of the Muslim Empire was dependent upon these irrigation techniques.
Muslim scholars made great advances in zoology, the study of animals. Muslim lifestyles and economy were dependent upon animals. Al-Jahiz, in Baghdad, was the foremost scholar to explore zoology. He wrote some 200 works about animals, the most famous, the Book of Animals. His work was a model for later scholars.
During the rule of the Abbasids of Baghdad, a banking system was developed that helped to end the confusion caused by the many currencies (kinds of money) that were then in use. From this system came the word “check” from the Arabic word sakk. There were central banks and branch offices and an elaborate system of checks and letters of credit. This was important because international trade had expanded and goods were being marketed (sold) abroad (in foreign countries).
Calligraphy, beautiful writing, is the art of elegant handwriting. It was first used by the Arabs of the Arabian Peninsula when they began preparing copies of the Qur’an.
The most common design was the arabesque, which was a winding stem of leaves and flowers that formed a spiraling design. These designs decorated everything from small objects to carpets and entire walls. It was used to express the idea that there was unity and order in all things at all times.
During the rule of the Abbasids, Chinese soldiers captured during a battle in Central Asia were discovered to be skilled artisans in paper making. These Chinese prisoners taught their captors how to make paper, and this new skill spread throughout the empire. Baghdad, established the first paper factory in the Muslim Empire. As a result, books became more available and contributed to interest in all kinds of learning. It was a status symbol to own them and the sign of a wealthy person was a well-stocked library.
The House of Wisdom was an educational institution founded in Baghdad by the Abbasid caliph al-Ma’mun, in A.D. 830. It was here that many scholars from all parts of the world translated into Arabic, Greek, Persian, and Indian texts on such topics as mathematics. Astronomy and logic. Scholars who came here translated Greek classics in philosophy and science into Arabic. They helped to preserve many classical works that would have been lost during the Dark Ages.
Astronomy, the scientific study of the stars, was an area in which Islamic scientists made great achievements. In Baghdad and Cordoba, Spain were some of the finest observatories. Muslim astronomers discovered and corrected many of the mistakes made by Ptolemy. They used an astrolabe, a device adapted from the Greeks. Using this they could tell the time of day, measure latitude, and determine the position of the planets and stars. They knew the earth was a globe, began to believe that the earth rotated on its axis, and that the sun was the center of the universe. These same ideas were discovered centuries later in Western Europe.
The Muslim scholars of the Abbasid period were very interested in furthering the developments of the Greeks in mathematics. They spent hours trying to stump one another with difficult mathematic puzzles. They invented the “magic boxes.” It was given its name by Al Khwarazmi, of Baghdad who introduced algebra to civilization. Algebra comes from the word “al jabr,” which means the coming together of separate parts. In algebra the mathematician substitutes symbols such as x, y, or z for numbers in order to solve mathematical problems.
Muhammad stated that Allah had provided a cure for every illness. It was in the city of Damascus that the first hospital was founded. Baghdad built the largest hospital of its time. It became a model for future hospitals. It was staffed by doctors who were paid by the government. Hospitals were designed to promote health, cure diseases, and teach, and expand medical knowledge. Hospitals had lecture halls, libraries, pharmacies, laboratories, and patient rooms with beds. Patients with communicable diseases, as well as those recovering from surgery were kept in a separate part of the hospital.
Muslim doctors in Damascus experimented with the treatment of disease through herbal medicines. Plants such as coriander (an herb of the carrot family) were used for their medicinal powers. Sedatives (drugs used to calm or tranquilize), including hashish (a strong narcotic), were used to kill pain during surgery. a.Al-Zahrawi, a Muslim doctor from Spain, began using antiseptics (substances derived from herbs that kill germs) to cleanse wounds, a practice unheard of in other parts of Europe until centuries later. Ibn Sina, a famous Persian healer, designed treatments involving the use of herbs and medicinal plants. Pharmacies developed advances in herbal medicine in Baghdad to heal illnesses. Pharmacies filled prescriptions much as present-day drug stores do.
Baghdad, now the capital city of Iraq, was chosen by the Abbasid ruler, Caliph al-Mansur, to be the center of his empire in the eighth century. Baghdad was an ideal choice because it lay between two rivers and was at the crossroads of great trade routes. The city was built in concentric circles(each inside the other), with a deep moat surrounding three circular walls. His palace was at the exact center of his city. It was considered the most spectacular city in the empire.
Polo was introduced to the Muslim world by the Persians. Polo is a fast-paced ball and goal game played on horseback by two teams of four on a grass field with goal posts at either end. The game was a favorite among the wealthy because of the use of horses. The Muslims adapted and improved the game, which was then introduced to Europeans. Today it is played all over the world.
In the eighth century a new and independent Muslim kingdom was established by the Umayyads in Spain. Its capital city, Cordoba, became a center of learning and intellectual life and was widely known as a city of bibliophiles (people who love books). The most celebrated library in Cordoba was run by Caliph al- Hakam II al-Mustanir (A.D. 961-976). Al-Hakam, who was an accomplished scholar, sent bookbuyers all over the Muslim Empire to find books for his library. Library clerks, many of them women, carefully hand-copied the books while calligraphers and bookbinders created beautiful text and cover designs. Al-Hakam’s library was said to have contained more than 400,000 books, whose titles filled a 44-volume catalog. The people of Cordoba also collected their own books.
The music of Muslim Spain, which combined musical styles from all over the world, was an important achievement during the Golden Age of Muslims. Europe’s first music conservatory (school) was established in Cordoba by an Arab named Ziryad, a slave liberated from Baghdad. Musicians from all over Central Asia and Africa were hired by royal courts to entertain royalty and important visitors, such as wealthy merchants. These musicians developed a distinct style of music from the patterns and rhythms of poetry that combined the styles of Classical Arab and native Spanish cultures. The origins of many instruments, including the oboe, trumpet, violin, guitar, harp, and percussion instruments can be traced to this music of Muslim Spain.