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The New Kingdom 18 th -20 th Dynasty (1550-1070 BCE)

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Presentation on theme: "The New Kingdom 18 th -20 th Dynasty (1550-1070 BCE)"— Presentation transcript:

1 The New Kingdom 18 th -20 th Dynasty ( BCE)

2 Ancient Egyptian Time Frames Early Dynastic Period ( BCE) The Old Kingdom ( BCE) –The Age of the Pyramids The Middle Kingdom ( BCE) –Expansion of Boundaries The New Kingdom ( BCE) –The Golden Age of Egypt Late Dynastic Period ( BCE) Ptolemaic Period ( BCE)

3 Hatshepsut “Foremost of Noble Ladies” Thutmosis III “Son of Thuth” Akhenaton “Spirit of Aton” Tutankhamun “Living Image of Amun” Ramses II “Ramses The Great” Hat-SHEP-soot Thoot-MOH-sis Ah-ke-NA-ton TOOT-n-ka-mun RAM-seez

4 New Kingdom Egypt (aka: The Egyptian Empire) Ahmose founded the 18 th dynasty & completed the expulsion of the Hyksos from Egypt He used horse and chariot technology to expand Egypt’s territory After securing Palestine and Syria, Egypt became a great empire at the height of its power Dagger of Ahmose (Royal Ontario Museum)

5 Queen Hatshepsut ruled for her step son Thutmosis III Re-established trade routes that had been disrupted during the Hyksos occupation Constructed hundreds of building projects across Egypt The Pharaoh was considered to be the “son of Re” and male symbols were often associated with the Pharaoh

6 Hatshepsut’s Mortuary Temple – an example of perfect symmetry that predates the Parthenon

7 The King Herself 1799: Napoleon’s expedition found Hatshepsut’s tomb in KV : Howard Carter discovered Hatshepsut’s sarcophagus in KV 20, but it was empty! Egyptologists did not know whether her mummy had survived. Her son, had systematically chiselled off any remnants of her reign from temples, monuments, and obelisks 2007: It was discovered that a mummy in KV60, previously thought insignificant, is likely Hatshepsut! How did they figure it out? –A broken tooth from a canopic jar in her burial chamber containing Hatshepsut’s royal seal (and her embalmed liver & stomach) was discovered after a CT scan of the jar. –The tooth fit almost perfectly into the space of a missing molar in the mouth of the mummy. Today she is enshrined in one of the two Royal Mummy Rooms at the Egyptian Museum, with plaques proclaiming her “Hatshepsut, The King Herself”, reunited at long last with her extended family of fellow New Kingdom Pharaohs

8 Thutmosis III Thutmosis III blotted out his stepmother’s name after a lengthy power struggle His military campaigns into Syria & Nubia created the largest empire Egypt has ever seen.

9 Obelisk of Tuthmosis III – in Istanbul Obelisk of Tuthmosis III – in Rome

10 Obelisks… Placed in pairs at the entrance to temples Symbolized the sun god Re represented a ray of the “sundisk”

11 There are 30 known ancient Egyptian obelisks known to have survived & they are dispersed around the world… Egypt: 9 France: 1 Israel: 1 Italy: 11 Poland: 1 Turkey: 1 United Kingdom: 4 United States: 1 Place de la Concorde – Paris, France

12 Obelisk of Senusret I – in Cairo Obelisk of Ramses II - Paris Earliest known Obelisk 12 th dynasty

13 Tip of Hatshepsut’s fallen obelisk

14 The “Unfinished” Obelisk at Aswan

15 Hatshepsut “Foremost of Noble Ladies” Thutmosis III “Son of Thuth” Akhenaton “Spirit of Aton” Tutankhamun “Living Image of Amun” Ramses II “Ramses The Great” Hat-SHEP-soot Thoot-MOH-sis Ah-ke-NA-ton TOOT-n-ka-mun RAM-seez

16 Amenhotep IV (Akhenaton) (“Ah-mun-HO-tep”) Abandoned traditional Egyptian polytheism & focused his worship on Aton – the disk of the sun (the sun’s rays) This is sometimes described as the first mono-theistic religion, but it did not deny the existence of other gods

17 The capital city was moved to Amarna

18 The Great Temple to Aton at Amarna

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20 Akhenaton’s Wife: Nefertiti Made famous by her bust, which is the most widely copied works of Ancient Egypt.

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22 Akhenaton’s Son: Tutankhamun Manipulated by temple hierarchy to return to Thebes and reject his father’s reforms Died at age 18 (mysteriously); buried in Valley of Kings Restored worship of Amon Re in Thebes Never really mentioned until his discovery in 1922

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24 Ramses II Ramses II led several campaigns to conquer Palestine and Syria He had one of the longest reigns in history – 67 years in power and probably lived well into his eighties Responsible for many colossal building projects, such as the Ramesseum (his mortuary temple), the hypostyle hall at Karnak, and the majestic temples of Abu Simbel Many other buildings were simply adapted to make it seem as though he built them himself

25 Hypostle Hall Ramesseum Abu Simbel

26 Battle of Kadesh He took on the Hittite army at a place called Kadesh in Syria He claimed this battle to be a great victory, even though the Egyptian army only a narrowly escaped a heavy defeat He had the battle depicted on the walls of many temples, including Abu Simbel and hypostle hall at Karnak

27 Hatshepsut “Foremost of Noble Ladies” Thutmosis III “Son of Thuth” Akhenaton “Spirit of Aton” Tutankhamun “Living Image of Amun” Ramses II “Ramses The Great” Read pp develop 3-5 points indicating important accomplishments for each Pharoah

28 Five Pharaohs of the Golden Age 1. Read pp and rank the five kings using a graph like the one below. 2. For each king, explain why you placed him/her where you did on the graph. Develop at least 3 reasons for your decision. More Significant Less Significant Hatshepsut Tuthmosis III Akhenaton Tutankhamun Ramses II

29 Engineering an Empire: Egypt New Kingdom: Hatshepsut ( BCE) Amenhotep IV ( BCE) Seti I ( BCE) Ramesses II ( BCE)


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