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Mining Multiple-level Association Rules in Large Databases Authors : Jiawei Han Simon Fraser University, British Columbia. Yongjian Fu University of Missouri-Rolla,

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Presentation on theme: "Mining Multiple-level Association Rules in Large Databases Authors : Jiawei Han Simon Fraser University, British Columbia. Yongjian Fu University of Missouri-Rolla,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Mining Multiple-level Association Rules in Large Databases Authors : Jiawei Han Simon Fraser University, British Columbia. Yongjian Fu University of Missouri-Rolla, Missouri. Presented by Ebrahim Kobeissi IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering,

2 OUTLINE 1. Introduction 2. Multiple-Level Association Rules 3. A Method For Mining M-L Association Rules 4. Conclusions 5. Future Work 6. Exam Questions 2

3 INTRODUCTION Why Multiple-Level (ML) Association Rules Pre-requisites for M-L Data Mining (MLDM *) Possible Approaches and Rationale Assumptions How this differs from previous research *MLDM=Multiple-Level Data Mining 3

4 WHY MLDM? Rule A=> 70% of customers who bought diapers also bought beer Rule B =>45% of customers who bought cloth diapers also bought dark beer Rule C =>35% of customers who bought Pampers also bought Samuel Adams beer. 4

5 WHY MLDM? What are the conceptual differences between the three rules? Rule A applies at a generic higher level of abstraction (product) Rule B applies at a more specific level of abstraction (category) Rule C applies at the lowest level of abstraction (brand). This process is called drilling down. 5

6 WHY MLDM? More specific information at lower levels Hence essential to mine at different levels for any tree Different levels of association rules enable different strategies Helps to factor out uninteresting or coincidental rules 6

7 PRE-REQUISITES FOR MLDM 1. Data Representation At Different Levels Of Abstraction Level 1: {DIAPERS, BEER} Level 2: {CLOTH,DISPOSABLE} {REGULAR,LITE} Level 3: {‘BUMKINS’,’KUSHIES’,’PAMPERS’,’HUGGIES’} {‘BUDWEISER’, ‘MILLER LITE’, ‘SAMUEL ADAMS’, ‘HEINIKEN’} 2. Efficient Methods for ML Rule Mining(focus of this paper) 7

8 HIERARCHY TYPES Generalization Specialization (isa relationships) Generalization/Specialization With Multiple Inheritance Whole-Part hierarchies (is-part-of; has-part) 8

9 GENERALIZATION- SPECIALIZATION 2-Wheels MotorcycleSUV Vehicle 4-Wheels SedanBicycle 9

10 GENERALIZATION-SPECIALIZATION WITH MULTIPLE INHERITANCE Recreational SnowmobileBicycle Vehicle Commuting Car 10

11 WHOLE-PART HIERARCHIES Hard Drive PlatterCPU Computer Motherboard RAM RW Head 11

12 FOCUS OF THE PAPER Determining Efficient Mining Of Multiple-Level Association Rules 12

13 DIFFERENT METHODS Apply single-level Apriori Algorithm to each of the multiple levels under the same miniconf and minisup. Potential Problems? Higher Levels of abstraction have higher support and lower levels have lower support What is the single most optimum minisup for all levels? Too high a minisup => not too many itemsets for lower levels Too low a minisup => far too many uninteresting rules 13

14 POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS Have different minisup for different levels Maybe also different miniconf at different levels Progressively decrease minisup as we go down the tree to lower levels This paper studies a progressive deepening method developed by extension of the Apriori Algorithm 14

15 MAIN ASSUMPTION Explore only descendants of frequent items at any level. In other words, if an item is non-frequent at one level, its descendants no longer figure in further analysis ARE THERE ANY PROBLEMS THAT CAN ARISE BECAUSE OF THIS ASSUMPTION? 15

16 Will this potentially eliminate possible interesting rules for itemsets at one level whose ancestors are not frequent at higher levels?  If so, can be addressed by 2 workarounds level passage threshold 2 minisup values at higher levels – one for filtering infrequent items, the other for passing down frequent items to lower levels; latter called level passage threshold (lph) sub frequent The lph may be adjusted by user to allow descendants of sub frequent items What is a potential problem with this approach? 16

17 DIFFERENCES FROM PREVIOUS RESEARCH Other studies use same minisup across different levels of the hierarchy This study…. Uses different minisup values at different levels of the hierarchy Analyzes different optimization techniques Studies the use of interestingness measures 17

18 MULTIPLE LEVEL ASSOCIATION RULES Definitions Example Taxonomy Working of the algorithm 18

19 DEFINITIONS- 1 Assume Database contains: 1. Item dataset containing item description: {, } 2. A transaction dataset T containing set of transactions.. {Tid,{Ap…Aq}} where Tid is a transaction identifier(key ) 19

20 DEFINITION 2.1 A pattern or an itemset A is one item Ai or a set of conjunctive items Ai Λ …. Λ Aj. The support of a pattern is the number of transactions that contain A vs. the total number of transactions  σ(A|S) The confidence of a rule A => B in S is given by: φ(A=>B) = σ(AUB)/ σ(A) ie. it is the conditional probability of B occurring given that A has occurred Specify 2 thresholds  minisup(σ’) and miniconf (φ’); different values at different levels 20

21 DEFINITION 2.2 pattern A is frequent in set S at level l if : the support of A is no less than the corresponding minimum support threshold σ’ rule A => B is strong for a set S, if: a. each ancestor of every item in A and B is frequent at its corresponding level b. A Λ B is frequent at the current level and c. the confidence of A => B is no less than the miniconf at that level This ensures that the patterns examined at the lower levels arise from itemsets that have a high support at higher levels 21

22 HOW DOES THE METHOD WORK? Example: Find multiple-level strong association rules for purchase patterns related to category, content and brand 1. Retrieve relevant data from TABLE 2 and merge into a generalized sales_item table with their relevant bar codes replaced by a bar_code set as in TABLE 3TABLE 2 TABLE 3 2. Find frequent patterns and strong rules at highest level. 1-item, 2-item,…k-item itemsets may be discovered of the form {bread, vegetable, milk,…} 3. At the next level the process is repeated but the itemsets will be more specific ex: {2% milk, lettuce, white bread} 4. Repeat steps 2 to 3 at all levels until no more FPs 22

23 Referenced Tables 23

24 OUTLINE 1. Introduction 2. Multiple-Level Association Rules 3. A Method For Mining M-L Association Rules 4. Conclusions 5. Future Work 6. Exam Questions 24

25 ALGORITHM: Taxonomy For This Exercise food milk 2% chocolate bread white wheat Dairyland Foremost Old MillsWonder L1, L2 and L3 correspond to the 3 levels of the hierarchy 25

26 ALGORITHM: Dataset For This Exercise Trans-idBar_code_set {17325, 92108, ….} {23423, 56432,…} Bar_codeCategoryBrandContentSizePrice 17325milkForemost2%1 Gal$3.31 ….. ……….. GIDBarcode_setCategoryContentbrand 112{17325,31414,91265,…}Milk2%Foremost ….. ……….. TABLE 1 Sales-transaction Table TABLE 2 sales_item (Description) Relation TABLE 3 Generalized sales_item Description Table 26

27 ALGORITHM: Explanation Of GID G I D = Level 1 Item 1 ‘Milk’ Level 2 Item 1 ‘2%’ Level 3 Item 2 ‘Foremost’ Foremost 2% Milk 27

28 ALGORITHM: Encoded Transaction Table T[1] TIDItems T1{111, 121, 211, 221} T2{111, 211, 222, 323} T3{112, 122, 221, 411} T4{111, 121} T5{111, 122, 211, 221, 413} T6{211, 323, 524} T7{323, 411, 524, 713} 28

29 ALGORITHM : Step 1 TIDItems T1{111, 121, 211, 221} T2{111, 211, 222, 323} T3{112, 122, 221, 411} T4{111, 121} T5{111, 122, 211, 221, 413} T6{211, 323, 524} T7{323, 411, 524, 713} T [1] Level 1 MiniSup = 4 Level 1 frequent 1-item itemsets 5{1**} 5 Support {2**} Itemset L[1,1] 29

30 ALGORITHM: Step 2 {111,121,211,221}T1 {111,211,222}T2 {112,122,221}T3 {111,121}T4 {211}T6 {111,122,211,221}T5 ItemsTID Filtered T [2] 5{1**} 5 Support {2**} Itemset L[1,1] only keep items in L[1,1] from T[1] ItemsetSupport {1**,2**}4 L [1, 2] 30

31 Level-2 minsup = 3 L[2,1] 4{12*} 4{21*} 5{11*} 4 Support {22*} Itemset L[2,2] 3{12*,22*} 3{11*,21*} 4{11*,22*} 4{11*,12*} 3 Support {21*,22*} Itemset L[2,3] 3{11*,21*,22*} 3{11*,12*,22*} SupportItemset ALGORITHM : Step 3 {111,121,211,221}T1 {111,211,222}T2 {112,122,221}T3 {111,121}T4 {211}T6 {111,122,211,221}T5 ItemsTID Filtered T [2] 31

32 Algorithm: Level 3 Ops Level 3 Minisup=3 L(3,1) 4{211} 3{221} 4{111} SupportItemset L(3,2) 3{111,211} SupportItemset {111,121,211,221}T1 {111,211,222}T2 {112,122,221}T3 {111,121}T4 {211}T6 {111,122,211,221}T5 ItemsTID Filtered T [2] 32

33 CONCLUSIONS Extended the association rules from single-level to multiple-level. A top-down progressive deepening technique is developed for mining multiple-level association rules. Filtering of uninteresting association rules 33

34 FUTURE WORK Can study developing efficient algorithms for mining multiple-level sequential patterns Another interesting issue is the study of mining multiple-level correlations in databases Cross-level associations Interestingness of rules 34

35 Exam Question 1 Q. What is a major drawback to multiple-level data mining using the same minisup at all levels of a concept hierarchy? A. Large support exists at higher levels of the hierarchy; smaller support at lower levels. In order to insure that sufficiently strong association rules are generated at the lower levels, we must reduce the support at higher levels which, in turn, could result in generation of many uninteresting rules at higher levels. Thus we are faced with the problem of determining which is the optimal minisup at all levels 35

36 Exam Question 2 Q. What are the 2 pre-requisites to performing multiple-level association rule mining? A. To explore multiple-level association rule mining, one needs to provide: 1) Data at multiple levels of abstraction, and 2) Efficient methods for multiple-level rule mining 36

37 Exam Question 3 Q. Give an example of a multiple-level association rule. A. Multiple-Level Association Rules operate on a taxonomy or concept hierarchy. At a higher level in the hierarchy one may have a very general rule such as 80% of people who buy bread also buy milk. At a lower level in the hierarchy the rule becomes more specific. For example, 24% of the people who buy Foremost 2% milk also buy Wonderbread 37


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