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UT-BATTELLE Oak Ridge National Laboratory U.S. Department of Energy Aluminum Soldering Performance Testing of H13 Steel as Boron Coated by the Cathodic.

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Presentation on theme: "UT-BATTELLE Oak Ridge National Laboratory U.S. Department of Energy Aluminum Soldering Performance Testing of H13 Steel as Boron Coated by the Cathodic."— Presentation transcript:

1 UT-BATTELLE Oak Ridge National Laboratory U.S. Department of Energy Aluminum Soldering Performance Testing of H13 Steel as Boron Coated by the Cathodic Arc Technique James M. Williams, C.C. Klepper, R.C. Hazelton and E.J. Yadlowsky HY-Tech Research Corporation, Radford, VA Gail Ludtka M & C Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831

2 UT-BATTELLE Oak Ridge National Laboratory U.S. Department of Energy Background for this Study Preliminary deposition studies demonstrate that boron can be used for the corrosion protection of steel Thermodynamic calculations indicate that boron has a negative affinity for aluminum This presentation describes the experimental results of a set of dip tests of B coated H13 pins in molten aluminum

3 UT-BATTELLE Oak Ridge National Laboratory U.S. Department of Energy Cathodic Arc Vacuum Technology Benefits –A fully ionized plasma is produced out of solid feedstock –Deposition rates exceed other plasma-discharge methods –Fully ionized plasma stream allows: Substrate biasing to guide ions to coat irregular geometries The potential to control of the energy with which ions impinge onto the substrate Challenges / Drawbacks –Macro-particles require filtering –Vacuum coatings require a higher cost than some sprayed and fused cermet coatings

4 UT-BATTELLE Oak Ridge National Laboratory U.S. Department of Energy File: SVC paper_all.ppt Illustration of Typical Cathodic (Vacuum) Arc Deposition with 90o Bend Magnetic Duct to Filter out Debris from Solid Cathode A curved solenoid help prevent debris/ macro- particles from depositing on the substrate

5 UT-BATTELLE Oak Ridge National Laboratory U.S. Department of Energy Advantages of Boron Deposition Using Cathodic Vacuum Arc Technique Very high current density ( MA/cm2) where the arc contacts the cathode results in a non-stationary hot spot that efficiently vaporizes and ionizes materials such as boron, which have very high boiling points (>2000  C). Plume is fully ionized and can be guided with the aid of a magnetic solenoid.

6 UT-BATTELLE Oak Ridge National Laboratory U.S. Department of Energy Coating Material Selection Criterion Thermodynamic calculations suggest that boron is an excellent candidate for a non- wetting coating for iron-based substrates

7 UT-BATTELLE Oak Ridge National Laboratory U.S. Department of Energy Illustration of the Thermodynamics - Heats of Formation - for Relevant Alloy Systems B is attracted to steel B has a repulsive chemical reaction with aluminum

8 UT-BATTELLE Oak Ridge National Laboratory U.S. Department of Energy Schematic of Automated “Dipper”* Testing Set-up to Simulate Die Casting Conditions * A variant of the dunk tester including programmable, computer controls thus enabling control of the dipping cycle and process cycle parameters (i.e., temperature of molten aluminum and of the lubricant, the dipping time in aluminum, in the lubricant, and in the air spray).

9 UT-BATTELLE Oak Ridge National Laboratory U.S. Department of Energy Soldering Test Set-up and Die Pin Schematic of Pin for Solder Testing Automated, molten aluminum testing apparatus Dimensions are in inches

10 UT-BATTELLE Oak Ridge National Laboratory U.S. Department of Energy Examples of Soldering Trials Data on Coated vs. Bare H13 Pins Experimental Data indicating the onset of Soldering Experimental Data indicating No Soldering

11 UT-BATTELLE Oak Ridge National Laboratory U.S. Department of Energy H13 without coating after 16 cycles exhibits soldering The experimental conditions are as follows, (1) Temperature of melt aluminum (T melt ): 700 o C (2) Temperature of lubricant (T lubricant ): 21 o C (3) Dipping time in aluminum(t 1 ):10 s (4) Time in lubricant(t 2 ):3 s (5) Time in air spray(t 3 ):5 s

12 UT-BATTELLE Oak Ridge National Laboratory U.S. Department of Energy Boron-coated H13 Steel Pin Exhibits No Soldering After 50 Cycles* in Molten Aluminum End view of die casting pin

13 UT-BATTELLE Oak Ridge National Laboratory U.S. Department of Energy Boron Concentration as a Function of Depth derived from original RBS Data All the B has reacted/diffused inward to yield a 0.5 micron thick reaction layer.

14 UT-BATTELLE Oak Ridge National Laboratory U.S. Department of Energy Summary Experimental results support the primary hypothesis that, based on thermodynamic based predictions, cathodic arc deposited boron coatings resist aluminum wetting. These coatings strongly adhere to the steel substrate, while resisting wetting by aluminum as predicted by thermodynamic calculations. Macroparticle management is the biggest challenge for this technology, but preliminary conceptual equipment designs indicate that this is solvable. Boron shows promise as a life-extension coating for aluminum casting steel dies. Further R&D would provide an industrially robust coating solution for the prevention of soldering and thermal fatigue of aluminum die casting dies.


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