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1 Eugen Noveanu THE INTERNET AND THE CHANGING EDUCATION PARADIGM.

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1 1 Eugen Noveanu THE INTERNET AND THE CHANGING EDUCATION PARADIGM

2 2 Steps of evidence and reasoning Starting points: Knowledge Economy Index (WB). National technological learning. Basics: I. INTERNET: Learning Activity Types (A,B). II.The Changing Paradigm: (Constructivism. Learner- centered educational process). Relevant points: Intersection aria analysis. Where we are? SWOT? Implications for a new educational policy.

3 3 WB – Knowledge Economy Index Economic incentive & institutional regime Education and human resources Innovation systemICT infra-structure Tariff & non-tariff barriers Adult literacy rateNumber of researchers in R&D Telephones per 1,000 population Regulatory qualitySecondary enrolment rate Patent applications granted by USPTO Computers per 1,000 population Rule of lawTertiary enrolment rate S&T journal articles Internet users per 1,000 population

4 4 Should the WB develop some standard guidelines on S&T assistance to client countries? (Soubbotina, T.P. Grouping Countries by National Models of Technological Learning. 10.11.2005) (Soubbotina, T.P. Grouping Countries by National Models of Technological Learning. 10.11.2005)

5 5 Concept of “National technological learning” National technological learning is the process of creating or acquiring from foreign sources of new S&T knowledge & skills, as well as adapting, disseminating, and using those for improving the technological structure of national production and exports.

6 6 Factors of National technological learning S&T learning capacity S&T learning opportunities Knowledge generation capacity Capital imports Inward FDI Internet Licensing S&T co- operation + Knowledge absorption capacity Education R&D

7 7 INTERNET: Telecomputing-Enhanced Learning Activity Types A. COMMUNICATION Communication activities are those during which students interact with others online, either directly or indirectly. B.INQUIRY Inquiries are activities in which students gather and use information found online for educational teleresearch purposes.

8 8 A. COMMUNICATION: 4 categories 1. Interpersonal Exchanges -activities in which individuals talk electronically with other individuals, individuals talk with groups or groups talk with other groups: __keypals, __group discussions, __virtual appearances/presentations, __question-and-answer activities, __telementoring (online mentoring), __and impersonations.

9 9 … A.Communication 2. Information Exchange - activities which involve students collecting, compiling, and comparing different types of interesting information: __ information sharing, __ information comparison/contrast, __ information building/organization, __ data pooling (including data analysis).

10 10 … A.Communication 3. Works & Experiences Exchanges help students to share their texts, images, soundtracks, multimedia creations and/or experiences virtually with others: __ virtual galleries/exhibits, __ virtual displays (smaller-scale than virtual galleries or exhibits), __ virtual publications (e.g., enzines, electronic newspapers, ‘blogs), __ virtual lessons, __ virtual visits (telefieldtrips and online expeditions).

11 11 … A.Communication 4. Strategies Exchanges - activities in which students are involved in some type of cooperative or collaborative problem solving, and are attending to their own and others’ problem solving processes as part of their learning: __ parallel problem-solving, __ joint problem-solving, __ serial creating (e.g., progressive stories), __ peer feedback (peer editing or writers’ workshop online), __ simulation.

12 12 B.INQUIRY Inquiries are activities in which students gather and use information found online for one or more of the following four educational research purposes. 1. Information Comprehension activities are those in which students use information available online to help them to understand more about a curriculum-related topic. __ topic exploration (e.g., “Let’s see what I can learn about __________.”), __ question investigation (using online information to help answer a question).

13 13 … B.INQUIRY 2. Information Reframing activities are those in which students combine and/or evaluate multiple sources and/or types of information about a topic: __ information synthesis (e.g., a literature review), __ perspective comparison/contrast (e.g., comparing different platforms).

14 14 … B. INQUIRY 3. Information Application activities are those during which students use information accessed online to solve problems or persuade others: __ problem-based inquiry, __ position preparation (e.g., preparing for a debate or social action project).

15 15 … B. INQUIRY 4. Information Creation activities are those during which students use online tools to generate data, the analysis of which helps them to understand a topic: __ data collection (e.g., creating and gathering results from an online survey), __ device operation (e.g., using a remotely-located robotic device).

16 16 What types of activity? A. Communication: communication, group discussions, sharing information, information comparison/building/ organization, exchanging experiences, virtual publications/lessons/visits, parallel or joint problem-solving, peer feedback, simulation, mentoring,

17 17 … B. Inquiry: topic exploration, question investigation (for understanding, enlarging knowledge), information synthesis, information analysis/comparison/ evaluation, problem-based inquiry, position preparation, data collection, using ITC tools

18 18 II. The Changing Paradigm A. Competence-based Curriculum. B. Constructivism. C. Learner-centered ed. process.

19 19 B. Constructivism: a psychological theory that construes learning as an building process by active learners interacting with the physical and social world Principles of learning derived from constructivism: 1. Learning is an active process in which the learner uses sensory input and constructs meaning out of it, people learn to learn as they learn. 2. Learning consists both of constructing meaning and constructing systems of meaning. 3. Physical actions and hands on experience may be necessary for learning, especially for children, but is not sufficient; we need to provide activities which engage the mind as well as the hand (reflective activity), 4. Learning involves language: the language that we use influences our learning.

20 20 … cont 5. Learning is a social activity: our learning is intimately associated with our connection with other human beings, our teacher, our peers, our family, as well as casual acquaintances. 6. Learning is contextual: we learn in relationship to what else we know, what we believe, our prejudices and our fears. 7. One needs knowledge to learn: it is not possible to absorb new knowledge without having some structure developed from previous knowledge to build on. 8. Learning is not instantaneous: it takes time to learn. For significant learning we need to revisit ideas, ponder them, try them out, play with them, and use them. 9. The key component to learning is motivation.

21 21 Constructivist learning environments (CLE): eight characteristics 1. CLE provide multiple representations of reality. 2. Multiple representations avoid oversimplification and represent the complexity of the real world. 3. CLE emphasize knowledge construction inserted of knowledge reproduction. 4. CLE emphasize authentic tasks in a meaningful context rather than abstract instruction out of context. 5. CLE provide learning environments such as real-world settings or case-based learning instead of predetermined sequences of instruction. 6. CLE encourage thoughtful reflection on experience. 7. CLE enable context- and content- dependent knowledge construction. 8. CLE enable collaborative construction of knowledge through social negotiation, not competition among learners for recognition."

22 22 C. Learner-Centered Psychological Principles: A Framework for School Redesign and Reform Revision, prepared by a Work Group of the American Psychological Association's Board of Educational Affairs Cognitive and Metacognitive Factors 1. Nature of the learning processNature of the learning process 2. Goals of the learning processGoals of the learning process 3. Construction of knowledge Construction of knowledge 4. Strategic thinkingStrategic thinking 5. Thinking about thinkingThinking about thinking 6. Context of learningContext of learning Motivational and Affective Factors 7. Motivational and emotional influences on learningMotivational and emotional influences on learning 8. Intrinsic motivation to learnIntrinsic motivation to learn 9. Effects of motivation on effortEffects of motivation on effort

23 23 … cont Developmental and Social 10. Developmental influences on learningDevelopmental influences on learning 11. Social influences on learningSocial influences on learning Individual Differences 12. Individual difference in learningIndividual difference in learning 13. Learning and diversityLearning and diversity 14. Standards and assessmentStandards and assessment

24 24 INTERSECTIONS ICT INTERNET SCHOOL CURRICULUM (CONTENT, AIMS, TIME) TEACHING/LEARNING ACTIVITY

25 25 INTERNET ACTIVITY A. Communication: communication, group discussions, sharing information, information comparison/building/organization, exchanging experiences, virtual publications/ lessons/ visits, parallel or joint problem-solving, peer feedback, simulation, mentoring, B. Inquiry: topic exploration, question investigation (for understanding, enlarging knowledge), information synthesis, information analysis/comparison/ evaluation, problem-based inquiry, position preparation, data collection/search,

26 26 Understanding Where We Are … Strengths 1. SEI 2. 3. Opportunities 1. AEL 2. Student motivation 3. Weaknesses 1. Curricular TIME 2. Lack of expertise 3. Threats 1. Economic factors 2. Instability/lack of Educational policy.

27 27 SOME IMPLICATIONS/NEEDS 1. At curricular level: aims, content, time; transdisciplinaire objectifs; 2. Development of new teaching/learning models, using the ICT opportunities; 3. New concepts /strategies for pre-service and in-service teacher training; 4. Experimental research to validate strategies and tools. NB! Educational Reform: a) finality, b) content /process, c) infrastructure ……

28 28

29 29

30 30 “Crystals of S&T Learning” - graphical/statistical illustrations

31 31 6 models of national technological learning: Traditionalist slow learning, Passive FDI-dependent, Active FDI-dependent, Autonomous, Creative-isolated, Creative-cooperative.

32 32 Traditionalist slow S&T learning Relying mostly on traditional technologies, low S&T learning capacity, minimal S&T learning opportunities, low international competitiveness, high risk of further economic marginalization, most urgent need of international S&T assistance.

33 33 Creative-isolated S&T learning High S&T learning capacity, but unfavorable international environment or isolationism, limited opportunities for S&T learning from foreign sources, aspiring to produce most of the needed technologies inside the country, low international competitiveness of high-tech industries, high risk of lagging further behind in technological and economic development.

34 34 ‘Rules’ of national technological learning National S&T learning requires a certain minimal stock of human capital and a favorable economic & institutional ‘learning environment’. Government S&T policies and international aid should target both prerequisites. Different models of S&T learning can be also seen as consecutive stages in the same country’s development (‘crystals’ are growing from 9 a.m. to 6 p.m.). But there are some policy choices, e.g. active FDI- dependent vs. autonomous and creative-isolated strategies. The higher a country’s underlying S&T capacity, the broader its choice of S&T learning strategies.

35 35 ‘Tree’ of national technological learning Slow learning Passive FDI- dependent Creative- cooperative Aid supported Creative- isolated Autonomous Active FDI- dependent Time Human capital accumulation

36 36 Prioritization Table of Policies for Transitioning from Non-learning Traditionalism to Passive/Active FDI-dependent S&T Learning

37 37 Prioritization Table of Policies for Transitioning from Passive to Active FDI-dependent S&T Learning

38 38 How to help the majority of slow-learning countries? What should be the main features of international aid-supported S&T learning? What can be learned from previous international aid projects with S&T components? What should be the role of the World Bank in these countries?

39 39 The advantages of S&T Learning Models approach compared to any S&T capacity indices are that it 1.Looks forward, helps predict future difficulties, 2.Allows for diversity of learning paths, 3.Underlines the importance of policy choices made by developing countries themselves.


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