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Dynamics of Uniform Circular Motion Chapter 5

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Learning Objectives- Circular motion and rotation Uniform circular motion Students should understand the uniform circular motion of a particle, so they can: Relate the radius of the circle and the speed or rate of revolution of the particle to the magnitude of the centripetal acceleration. Describe the direction of the particle’s velocity and acceleration at any instant during the motion. Determine the components of the velocity and acceleration vectors at any instant, and sketch or identify graphs of these quantities. Analyze situations in which an object moves with specified acceleration under the influence of one or more forces so they can determine the magnitude and direction of the net force, or of one of the forces that makes up the net force, in situations such as the following: Motion in a horizontal circle (e.g., mass on a rotating merry-go- round, or car rounding a banked curve). Motion in a vertical circle (e.g., mass swinging on the end of a string, cart rolling down a curved track, rider on a Ferris wheel).

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Table Of Contents 5.1 Uniform Circular Motion 5.2 Centripetal Acceleration 5.3 Centripetal Force 5.4 Banked Curves 5.5 Satellites in Circular Orbits 5.6 Apparent Weightlessness and Artificial Gravity 5.7 Vertical Circular Motion

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Chapter 5: Dynamics of Uniform Circular Motion Section 1: Uniform Circular Motion

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Other Effects of Forces Up until now, we’ve focused on forces that speed up or slow down an object. We will now look at the third effect of a force Turning We need some other equations as the object will be accelerating without necessarily changing speed.

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Uniform circular motion is the motion of an object traveling at a constant speed on a circular path. DEFINITION OF UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION

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Let T be the time it takes for the object to travel once around the circle.

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Example 1: A Tire-Balancing Machine The wheel of a car has a radius of 0.29m and it being rotated at 830 revolutions per minute on a tire-balancing machine. Determine the speed at which the outer edge of the wheel is moving.

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Newton’s Laws 1 st When objects move along a straight line the sideways/perpendicular forces must be balanced. 2 nd When the forces directed perpendicular to velocity become unbalanced the object will curve. 3 rd The force that pulls inward on the object, causing it to curve off line provides the action force that is centripetal in nature. The object will in return create a reaction force that is centrifugal in nature.

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Chapter 5: Dynamics of Uniform Circular Motion Section 2: Centripetal Acceleration

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In uniform circular motion, the speed is constant, but the direction of the velocity vector is not constant.

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The direction of the centripetal acceleration is towards the center of the circle; in the same direction as the change in velocity.

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Conceptual Example 2: Which Way Will the Object Go? An object is in uniform circular motion. At point O it is released from its circular path. Does the object move along the straight path between O and A or along the circular arc between points O and P ? Straight path

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Example 3: The Effect of Radius on Centripetal Acceleration The bobsled track contains turns with radii of 33 m and 24 m. Find the centripetal acceleration at each turn for a speed of 34 m/s. Express answers as multiples of

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Chapter 5: Dynamics of Uniform Circular Motion Section 3: Centripetal Force

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Recall Newton’s Second Law When a net external force acts on an object of mass m, the acceleration that results is directly proportional to the net force and has a magnitude that is inversely proportional to the mass. The direction of the acceleration is the same as the direction of the net force.

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Recall Newton’s Second Law Thus, in uniform circular motion there must be a net force to produce the centripetal acceleration. The centripetal force is the name given to the net force required to keep an object moving on a circular path. The direction of the centripetal force always points toward the center of the circle and continually changes direction as the object moves.

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Problem Solving Strategy – Horizontal Circles 1.Draw a free-body diagram of the curving object(s). 2.Choose a coordinate system with the following two axes. a) One axis will point inward along the radius (inward is positive direction). b) One axis will point perpendicular to the circular path (up is positive direction). 3.Sum the forces along each axis to get two equations for two unknowns. a) F RADIUS : +F IN F OUT = m(v 2 )/ r b) F : F UP F DOWN = 0 4.Do the math of two equations with two unknowns. R

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Just in case… The third dimension in these problems would be a direction tangent to the circle and in the plane of the circle. We choose to ignore this direction for objects moving at constant speed. If an object moves along the circle with changing speed then the forces tangent to the circle have become unbalanced. You can sum the tangential forces to find the rate at which speed changes with time, a TAN. The linear kinematics equations can then be used to describe motion along or tangent to the circle. F TAN : F FORWARD F BACKWARD = m a TAN R tan

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Example 5: The Effect of Speed on Centripetal Force The model airplane has a mass of 0.90 kg and moves at constant speed on a circle that is parallel to the ground. The path of the airplane and the guideline lie in the same horizontal plane because the weight of the plane is balanced by the lift generated by its wings. Find the tension in the 17 m guideline for a speed of 19 m/s.

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A boy is whirling a stone at the end of a string around his head. The string makes one complete revolution every second, and the tension in the string is F T. The boy increases the speed of the stone, keeping the radius of the circle unchanged, so that the string makes two complete revolutions per second. What happens to the tension in the sting? a) The tension increases to four times its original value. b) The tension increases to twice its original value. c) The tension is unchanged. d) The tension is reduced to one half of its original value. e) The tension is reduced to one fourth of its original value.

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Chapter 5: Dynamics of Uniform Circular Motion Section 4: Banked Curves

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On an unbanked curve, the static frictional force provides the centripetal force. Unbanked curve

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On a frictionless banked curve, the centripetal force is the horizontal component of the normal force. The vertical component of the normal force balances the car’s weight. Banked Curve

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Example 8: The Daytona 500 The turns at the Daytona International Speedway have a maximum radius of 316 m and are steely banked at 31 degrees. Suppose these turns were frictionless. As what speed would the cars have to travel around them?

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Chapter 5: Dynamics of Uniform Circular Motion Section 5: Satellites in Circular Orbits

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There is only one speed that a satellite can have if the satellite is to remain in an orbit with a fixed radius. Don’t worry, it’s only rocket science

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Example 9: Orbital Speed of the Hubble Space Telescope Determine the speed of the Hubble Space Telescope orbiting at a height of 598 km above the earth’s surface.

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Period to orbit the Earth

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Geosynchronous Orbit

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Chapter 5: Dynamics of Uniform Circular Motion Section 6: Apparent Weightlessness and Artificial Gravity

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Conceptual Example 12: Apparent Weightlessness and Free Fall In each case, what is the weight recorded by the scale?

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Example 13: Artificial Gravity At what speed must the surface of the space station move so that the astronaut experiences a push on his feet equal to his weight on earth? The radius is 1700 m.

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Chapter 5: Dynamics of Uniform Circular Motion Section 7: Vertical Circular Motion

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Circular Motion In the previous lesson the radial and the perpendicular forces were emphasized while the tangential forces were ignored. Each class of forces serves a different function for objects moving along a circle. Class of ForcePurpose of the Force Radial ForcesCurves the object off a straight-line path. Perpendicular ForcesHolds the object in the plane of the circle. Tangential ForcesChanges the speed of the object along the circle.

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Circular Motion Most of the horizontal, circular problems occurred at constant speed so that we could ignore the tangential forces. The vertical, circular problems have objects moving with and against gravity so that speed changes. Tangential forces become significant. The good news is that perpendicular forces can now be ignored unless hurricanes are present.

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Problem Solving Strategy for Vertical Circles 1.Draw a free-body diagram for the curving objects. 2.Choose a coordinate system with the following two axes. a) One axis will point inward along the radius. b) One axis points tangent to the circle in the circular plane, along the direction of motion. 3.Sum the forces along each axis to get two equations for two unknowns. a) F RADIUS : +F IN F OU T = m(v 2 )/ r b) F TAN : F FORWARD F BACKWARDS = ma 4.You can generally expect the weight of the object to have components in both equations unless the object is exactly at the top, bottom or sides of the circle. 5.If the object changes height along the circle you may need to write a conservation of energy statement. This goes well with centripetal forces since there is an {mv 2 } in both kinetic energy terms and in centripetal force terms. 6.Do the math with 3(a) and 4 or perhaps 3(a) and 3(b).

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Minimum/Maximum Speed Problems Sometimes the problem addresses “the minimum speed” that an object can move through the top of the circle or “maximum speed” that an object can move along the top of the circle. If the bucket of water turns too slowly you get wet. If a car tops a hill too quickly it leaves the ground. Allowing v 2 /r to equal g can solve many of these questions. By solving for v you will find a critical speed.

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Conceptual Example: A Trapeze Act In a circus, a man hangs upside down from a trapeze, legs bent over and arms downward, holding his partner. Is it harder for the man to hold his partner when the partner hangs straight down and is stationary of when the partner is swinging through the straight-down position?

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