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Biology 402 Daniella DiNizo. What is Trachoma? Infectious eye disease Leading cause of blindness globally Disease of poverty Neglected tropical disease.

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Presentation on theme: "Biology 402 Daniella DiNizo. What is Trachoma? Infectious eye disease Leading cause of blindness globally Disease of poverty Neglected tropical disease."— Presentation transcript:

1 Biology 402 Daniella DiNizo

2 What is Trachoma? Infectious eye disease Leading cause of blindness globally Disease of poverty Neglected tropical disease

3 History of Trachoma One of the earliest recorded eye afflictions Soldiers Immigrants through Ellis Island Disappeared from the industrial world Still plagues poorest regions of developing world

4 Epidemiology 84 million infected 8 million visually impaired 1995 – 15% of blindness; 2002 – 3.6% of blindness Most common among pre-school children

5

6 Causes Chlamydia trachomatis Associated factors Access to water Access to bathrooms Sanitation/ Hygiene Flies Overcrowding Poverty

7 Transmission Primary Person to person Direct contact with ocular, nasal, and respiratory secretions

8 Transmission Secondary Insect Vectors

9 The Eye

10 Stages 1 and 2 – Active Trachoma TF - Trachomatous inflammation follicular TI – Trachomatous inflammation intense

11 Infection – Stage 3 Trachomatous Scarring (TS) Scarring of the tarsal conjunctiva Eyelids turning inward may begin

12 Infection – Stage 4 Trachomatous trichiasis (TT) Ingrown eyelashes touching the cornea

13 Infection – Stage 5 Corneal opacity (CO) Clouding over of the cornea Blindness

14 Social Implications Global loss of productivity Women Cooking Water Family Effect on children Cycle of poverty

15 Treatment Azithromycin Tetracycline ointment Eyelid Surgery Resistance?

16 SAFE strategy – Surgery/ Antibiotics Surgery People with risk of blindness Reduce discomfort Improve vision Antibiotics For active infections Who?/ When?

17 SAFE Strategy - Facial Cleanliness/ Environmental Changes Facial Cleanliness Good facial hygiene Washing daily Environmental Changes Water Bathrooms Flies Interventions have not been as successful as expected

18 Future Directions Global Elminiation of blinding Trachoma by 2020 (GET2020) Emphasis on FE of SAFE strategy Research Global Awareness Without these steps Trachoma will continue to be a major cause of blindness in the developing world.

19 oma-blindness.html oma-blindness.html seinfo/trachoma_t.htm seinfo/trachoma_t.htm l=http://webpages.scu.edu/ftp/mrzhao/i mages/trachoma1.jpg&imgrefurl=http:// webpages.scu.edu/ftp/mrzhao/trachoma splashpage.html&usg=__8o18TNsjnRZX UJMUzPNcaljqLCo=&h=385&w=575&sz= 23&hl=en&start=2&sig2=im4vg70W2Flx zp1IAcnWaw&um=1&itbs=1&tbnid=zarP AH4CYV8c9M:&tbnh=90&tbnw=134&pr ev=/images%3Fq%3Dtrachoma%26um% 3D1%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN%26rls%3 Dcom.microsoft:en-us:IE- SearchBox%26rlz%3D1I7GGLL_en%26tb s%3Disch:1&ei=go6vS9mDIYP48AbOpI GcBg dies2.html Images: and_immigration3.asp and_immigration3.asp /Files/Maps/global%20active%20may% jpg homa/index.html homa/index.html ory/from-georgia-to-ethiopia ory/from-georgia-to-ethiopia m/atlas/pages/trachoma-trichiasis-and- tylosis-pachyblepharon.html m/atlas/pages/trachoma-trichiasis-and- tylosis-pachyblepharon.html ory/waterborne-diseases/ ory/waterborne-diseases/ archives/fdaDrugInfo.cfm?archiveid=7111 archives/fdaDrugInfo.cfm?archiveid=7111 ma/trachoma.htm#sect3


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