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Presentation on theme: "REVERSE LOGISTICS PROBLEM"— Presentation transcript:


2 Definition Logistics is the function responsible for all aspects of the movement and storage of materials on their journey from original suppliers through to final customers. It follows that every organisation is concerned with logistics (and not just manufacturers) On a national scale logistics is a huge industry

3 Place of logistics Every organisation supplies a product, which is the combination of goods and services that it passes to its customers Operations are the activities that make the product, converting inputs into desired outputs Materials is a general term for everything that an organisation moves to support its operations Logistics is responsible for moving and storing all the materials This includes inward logistics (moving inputs into the organisation), materials management (moving them through operations), and outward logistics (moving products to customers)

4 Materials move through a series of organisations
A supply chain consists of the series of activities and organisations that materials move through on their journey from initial suppliers to final customers. Every product has its own unique supply chain Supply chains develop to give efficient flows of materials The resulting movements can be very complex, so some people prefer terms like supply networks or supply webs

5 Each organisation sees
Inward logistics (moving inputs into the organisation), materials management (moving them through operations), and outward logistics (moving products to customers) Activities in front of the organisation (moving materials inwards) are called upstream; activities after it (moving materials outwards) are called downstream. Upstream activities are divided into tiers of suppliers; downstream activities are divided into tiers of customers

6 Supply chain management is responsible for the flow of materials through a supply chain
It is another term for logistics The function exists to overcome: Space gaps Time gaps Quantity gaps Variety gaps Information gaps

7 Logistics overcomes these gaps as efficiently as possible
An overriding aim of logistics is to help the organisation achieve customer satisfaction. Higher customer service needs more resources that come with higher costs A realistic aim is to provide the best balance of customer service and costs.

8 Logistics provides customer service by adding utility
Place utility Time utility Ownership utility To achieve these, it uses resources of different kinds

9 Activities of logistics
Procurement or purchasing Inward transport or traffic Receiving Warehousing or stores Stock control Materials handling Order picking Packaging Outward transport Physical distribution Recycling, returns and waste disposal Location Communication

10 Features of supply chains
Logistics managers make all decisions about the design of supply chains and the subsequent flow of materials Materials flow through a series of activities and organisations The forward flows start at initial suppliers and end with final customers, with reverse logistic moving materials backwards Each organisation in the supply chain is a customer when buying materials, and is a supplier when selling its products There are different kinds of relationships between suppliers and customers There are always costs of logistics and these must be controlled and related to the levels of service given Each element in the supply chain somehow adds value to the products Alongside the flow of materials are associated flows of money and information Stocks are formed whenever materials stop moving There are inherent risks in supply chains, and things do not always go according to plans

11 Logistics is important because it:
is essential for all organisations has strategic importance is expensive has effects on most operations directly affects profits, lead time, reliability and other measures of organisational performance forms links with upstream suppliers forms links with downstream customers determines the best locations and sizes of facilities gives public exposure and familiarity is inherently risky prohibits or discourages some operations can encourage growth of other organisations


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