Presentation on theme: "ACCESS HE Skeleton and Muscle. POSTURE. Aims. What is posture? Definitions. Muscle Tone. Structures concerned with posture. Function of structures concerned."— Presentation transcript:
ACCESS HE Skeleton and Muscle. POSTURE.
Aims. What is posture? Definitions. Muscle Tone. Structures concerned with posture. Function of structures concerned with posture. Maintenance of a healthy posture. Problems associated with poor posture. Conclusion.
Posture. ‘Active or passive arrangements of the whole body, or a part, in a definite position.’ Roper, N. (1989) Medical Dictionary. London: Churchill Livingstone. ‘The relationship of different parts of the body to each other and to the vertical.’ Youngson, R. (1992) Dictionary of Medicine. Glasgow: HarperCollins.
Tone. Muscles are never totally relaxed. There is always a slight degree of muscle contraction even when we are asleep. We would simply collapse if all muscles totally relaxed at the same time. This muscular contraction gives normal posture to the body. This natural function of healthy muscle is known as muscle tone.
Muscle Tone. The constant tension produced by muscles of the body for long periods of time. Responsible for: –Keeping the back straight. –Keeping the legs straight. –Holding the head in an upright position. –Preventing the abdomen from bulging. –Body is ready for action at any time. Sustained, small contractions that provide firmness to relaxed skeletal muscle without producing movement.
Structures concerned with posture. Bones. Muscles. Nerves. Blood.
Bones. Bones: The Skeletal System. The vertebral column. Consists of: –Cervical vertebrae x 7. –Thoracic vertebrae x 12. –Lumbar vertebrae x 5. –Sacral vertebrae x 5 (fused together). –Coccygeal vertebrae x 4 (fused together).
Muscles. Muscles: (The Muscular System). Stability: An important function of muscles The most powerful muscles in the body are those connected with the spine. Spinal muscles maintain posture, strength and support. Provide the strength for lifting and pushing. Neck muscles help to bear the weight of the head and maintain its upright position.
Nerves. Nerves: The Nervous System. In youth posture is under voluntary control. Faulty posture gradually becomes permanent thus may affect: –Health. –Appearance.
Blood. Blood: The Circulatory System. Blood is essential for all cells of the body. Nutrients are transported in the plasma. Erythrocytes transports oxygen to all cells and removes carbon dioxide. Leucocytes fight infection. Platelets form clots to stem bleeding.
Spinal Curves. The spine has four natural curves that help to make it resilient and maintain balance: –Inward curve in cervical area (neck). –Outward curve in thoracic area (upper back). –Inward curve in lumbar area (lower back). –Outward curve in sacral area (base of spine). Sometimes these natural curves become exaggerated thus unnatural curves. Unnatural curves are called Postural Deformities.
Postural Deformities. Common causes of postural deformity: –Congenital: present at birth or hereditary. –Environmental: sitting or standing incorrectly (common amongst sedentary workers). –Traumatic: caused by accidents. –Disease: conditions such as osteoporosis. –Herniated (slipped) disc.
Postural Deformities. Kyphosis: an exaggerated outward curvature of the spine (‘hunchback’). Scoliosis: a sideways curvature of the spine. Lordosis: an exaggerated inward curvature of the spine. Frequently two of these deformities co-exist See separate handout.
Maintenance of Healthy Posture. Prompting of children re correct posture. Using correct handling, lifting and moving techniques. Healthy Lifestyle: –Balanced diet. –Exercise. –No smoking. –No substance/drug misuse. –Limited alcohol.
Conclusion. Posture is the term given to the way that our body systems co-ordinate to maintain our position, whether standing, sitting or lying. To maintain our posture some muscle tissue needs to be contracted at all times. This is called muscle tone. Muscle tone is responsible for maintaining straight back and legs, head in upright position, prevention of bulging abdomen.
Conclusion. There are four natural curves of the spine, which may become exaggerated causing deformity. There are many causes of spinal deformities including, bone and congenital disease, environment, herniated disc, trauma. Healthy posture is maintained by a healthy lifestyle, practising correct posture and good handling, lifting and moving techniques.
Bibliography. Baggaley, A. (2001) Human Body. London: Dorling Kindersley. Seely, R. et al. (1989) Anatomy and Physiology. USA: TimesMirror/MosbyCollege. Tortora, G. and Grabolski, S. (1993) Principles of Anatomy and Physiology. USA: HarperCollins. Tucker, L. (2002) Anatomy and Physiology. Cambridge: Holistic Therapy.