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Svend Hollensen GLOBAL MARKETING 4 th Edition Initiation of internationalization Lecture by Ewa Baranowska-Prokop, Ph.D.
Hollensen, Global Marketing 4e, © Pearson Education Learning objectives Discuss the reason why firms go international Explain the difference between proactive and reactive motives Analyse the triggers of export initiation
Hollensen, Global Marketing 4e, © Pearson Education Learning objectives (2) Explain the difference between internal and external triggers of export initiation Describe different factors hindering export initiation Discuss the critical barriers in the process of exporting
Hollensen, Global Marketing 4e, © Pearson Education Figure 2.1 Stages of internationalization
Hollensen, Global Marketing 4e, © Pearson Education Motives for internationalization Proactive Profit and growth goals Managerial urge Technology competence Foreign market opportunities Economies of scale Tax benefits Reactive Competitive pressures Domestic market Overproduction Unsolicited foreign orders Extend sales of seasonal products Proximity to international customers
Hollensen, Global Marketing 4e, © Pearson Education What is this? Internal or external events taking place to initiate internationalization are known as ______. Internationalization triggers
Hollensen, Global Marketing 4e, © Pearson Education Triggers of export initiation Internal triggers Perceptive management Specific internal event Importing as inward internationalization External triggers Market demand Competing firms Trade associations Outside experts
Hollensen, Global Marketing 4e, © Pearson Education Figure 2.2 Inward/outward internationalization
Hollensen, Global Marketing 4e, © Pearson Education Outside experts Export agents Governments Chambers of commerce Banks
Hollensen, Global Marketing 4e, © Pearson Education Barriers hindering export initiation Insufficient finances Insufficient knowledge Lack of foreign market connections Lack of export commitment Lack of capital Lack of productive capacity Lack of foreign channels of distribution Management emphasis on developing domestic markets Cost escalation
Hollensen, Global Marketing 4e, © Pearson Education Barriers hindering the process of internationalization General market risks Commercial risks Political risks
Hollensen, Global Marketing 4e, © Pearson Education General market risks Comparative market risks Competition from other firms Differences in product usage Language and cultural differences Difficulties in finding the right distributor Differences in product specifications Complexity of shipping services
Hollensen, Global Marketing 4e, © Pearson Education Commercial risks Exchange rate fluctuations Failure of export customers to pay due to contract disputes, bankruptcy, refusal to accept product, or fraud Delays and/or damage in the export shipment and distribution process Difficulties in obtaining export financing
Hollensen, Global Marketing 4e, © Pearson Education Political risks (1) Foreign government restrictions National export policy Foreign exchange controls imposed by host governments Lack of governmental assistance in overcoming export barriers Lack of tax incentives
Hollensen, Global Marketing 4e, © Pearson Education Political risks (2) High value of domestic currency relative to export markets High foreign tariffs on imported products Confusing foreign import regulations and procedures Complexity of trade documentation Enforcement of national legal codes regulating exports Civil strife, revolution, and wars disrupting foreign markets
Hollensen, Global Marketing 4e, © Pearson Education Risk-management strategies Avoid exporting to high-risk markets Diversify overseas markets Insure risks when possible Structure export business so that buyer bears most risk
Hollensen, Global Marketing 4e, © Pearson Education For discussion (1) Export motives can be classified as reactive or proactive. Give examples of each group of export motives. How would you prioritize these motives? Can you think of motives other than those mentioned in the chapter? What are they? What is meant by ‘change agents’ in global marketing? Give examples of different types of change agent.
Hollensen, Global Marketing 4e, © Pearson Education For discussion (2) Discuss the most critical barriers to the process of exporting. What were the most important change agents in the internationalization of Haier (Exhibit 2.2)? What were the most important export motives in Japanese firms (Exhibit 2.1)?
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