2Examination of the Heart In the present era of technological advances, particularly in the various imaging modalities, there is a growing conception among practicing physicians in cardiovascular medicine that bedside physical examination is unnecessary and does not provide useful information.
6It should be emphasized, however, that for proper application and interpretation of various new and old tests that are available for cardiovascular evaluation in a given patient.
7Bedside clinical examination should be performed and practiced in the same way following similar sequences.
8Preparing the patientThe heart examination should be made as easy as possible for the patient, who usually expects it to be a relatively distasteful experience. If the physician is considerate and gentle, the patient should feel when it is all over, that most of his or her fears on that score were unfounded.
9The ideal examining room is private, warm enough to avoid chilling, and free from distracting noise and sources of interruption. Adequate (preferably fluorescent or natural) light is essential.
10The examining table may be placed with its head against the wall, but both sides (particularly the right) and the foot should be accessible to the examiner. And the results should be recorded carefully.
11Landmarks and topographic anatomy Certain basic landmarksmidsternal line(前正中线)midclavicular lines(锁骨中线)anterior, middle, and posterioraxillary lines(腋前、中、后线)
12suprasternal notch（胸骨上窝） identification of various ribs and intercostal spaceprecordium（心前区）
13InspectionInspection of the precordium should begin at the foot of the bed. The subject should be supine with the leg horizontal and the head and trunk elevated to approximately degrees.
15Asymmetry of the thoracic cage due to a convex bulging of the precordium suggests the presence of heart disease since childhood, such as congenital heart disease and rheumatic heart disease, with skeletal molding to accommodate cardiac enlargement.
16In the adult, precordial bulge may be produced from the massive pericardial effusion（心包积液）.
17apical impulse（心尖搏动）Most part of apex is left ventricle. The apex strikes the chest during systole.
18The apex impulse is normally located in or about the fifth costal interspace inside the left midclavicular line when the patient is supine. The extent of impulse is about 2~2.5 cm.
20Usually it is detectable in only one intercostal space and is less than cm in diameter. The normal apex impulse is characterized by a brief early systolic out ward thrust of moderate amplitude, which ends before the second heart sound.
21The apical impulse is normally exaggerated in thin, young individuals and when the subject is in the left lateral decubitus position(左侧卧位).
22When a patient takes a deep inspiration and holds his breath, the apical impulse moves downward from the fifth to the sixth interspace.
23When the patient lies on his right side, it moves slightly toward the right (1~ 2.5cm), and when he lies on his left side it moves about 2~3 cm toward the left.
24The absence of mobility leads one to suspect an adherent pericardium The absence of mobility leads one to suspect an adherent pericardium. However, a deep inspiration may bring the lungs over the heart so that the impulse disappears altogether.
25Diastolic movements are not perceptible in most cases, but in children and young adults an early diastolic F wave is occasionally present.
26Displacement of the apical impulse Heart diseaseThoracic diseaseAbdominal disease
27Heart disease Some heart diseases cause the left ventricular dilatation（增大）, the apical impulse is displaced laterally and inferiorly and sustained ,
28and it may be shifted to the left and upward in right ventricular dilatation .
29In mitral disease the impulse is displaced laterally.
30In aortic disease the impulse is displaced both laterally and downward.
31It can be found at the right fifth intercostal space in dextrocardia（右位心） and can not be found in massive pericardial effusion.
32Thoracic diseasePneumothorax（气胸） and pleural effusion（胸腔积液） will displace the apical impulse to the normal side. Pleural-adhesion（胸膜粘连） and atelectasis（肺不张） will result in a displacement of impulse toward the diseased side.
33effusion or pneumothorax Effect of massive right pleuraleffusion or pneumothorax
35The examiner should always observe the shape and contour of patient’s chest. Depressions of the sternum, Kyphosis of dorsal spine（驼背）, scoliosis（脊柱侧凸） often alter the shape and position of the apical impulse.
36Abdominal diseaseThe apical impulse also can be displaced by large mass(肿瘤), massive ascites(腹水).
37The apical impulse may have increased amplitude and duration in those persons with a thin chest, anemia(贫血), fever, hyperthyroidism (甲亢) and anxiety.
38Inward impulse(负性心尖搏动): the apex depress far from the chest instead of strikes the chest during systole. Broadbent’s sign is of value in the diagnosis of adherent pericardium(粘连性心包炎). It is also seen in RVH.
39Abnormal pulsations in the other areas: Right vertricular hypertophy (RVH). The impulse is clearly seen in left third fourth intercostal space.
40Pulmonary emphysema(肺气肿) with RVH, usually the pulsation can be found inferior the xiphoid process(剑突下搏动).
41In ascending or arch aortic aneurysm(主动脉瘤), one may detect abnormal pulsations in aortic area, with bulging or pulsation in systole.
42Pulmonary hypertension with dilatation the pulsation in systole may be detected in left second intercostal space to the edge of sternum.
43Marked pulsation at the base of the heart is seen in aortic insufficiency(主闭), in a dilated aorta or a saccular aneurysm.
45Normal apical impulseThe apex impulse is normally located in or about the fifth costal interspace inside the left midclavicular line when the patient is supine. The extent of impulse is about 2~2.5 cm.
46Displacement of the apical impulse Heart diseaseLVDdisplaced tolateral and inferior
47Displacement of the apical impulse RVDdisplaced toleft and upward
48Displacement of the apical impulse Congenital dextrocardiacrightCHF, myocarditis, myocardiopathyapical impulsedecrease intensity
49Displacement of the apical impulse Massive pericardial effusionapical impulsedisappear
50Displacement of the apical impulse Thoracic diseasepneumothorax, pleural effusionshifted tohealthy side
51Displacement of the apical impulse Pleural-adhesion, atelectasisshifted todisease sideEmphysema with RVHtoinferior to subxiphoid
52What’s the meaning ofApical ImpulseInward ImpulseBroadbent’ sign
53单选题 正常成人心尖搏动位于 A. 第四肋间,左锁骨中线内侧0.1~0.5cm B. 第五肋间,左锁骨中线内侧0.5~1.0cm C. 第五肋间,右锁骨中线内侧0.5~1.0cmD. 第四肋间,左锁骨中线内侧1.0~1.5cmE. 第五肋间,右锁骨中线内侧2.0~2.5cm