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Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 1 Russia And China: Permanent Revolutions?

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 1 Russia And China: Permanent Revolutions?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 1 Russia And China: Permanent Revolutions?

2 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 2 A Song Of War Chariots...Do you know that, east of China's mountains, in two hundred districts And in thousands of villages, nothing grows but weeds, And though strong women have bent to the ploughing, East and West the furrows all are broken down?...Men of China are able to face the stiffest battle, But their officers drive them like chickens and dogs. Whatever is asked of them, Dare they complain? Challenged for taxes, How could they pay?...We have learned that to have a son is bad luck- It is very much better to have a daughter Who can marry and live in the house of a neighbour, While under the sod we bury our boys....Go to the Blue Sea, look along the shore At all the old white bones forsaken -- New ghosts are wailing there now with the old, Loudest in the dark sky of a stormy day.

3 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 3 Brief Background Russian Revolution/USSR  (Started in WWI)  Leadership of Lenin and Stalin  NEPs, Five-Year Plans  Warsaw Pact, Cold War  Afghanistan and Cuba  Loss of Influence in Eastern Europe and world in 80s  “Lost” the Cold War in Chinese Revolution/PRC  1911-??  Nationalists vs. Communists  Real struggle begins during WWII (Japanese invasions)  Mao Zedong, Deng Xiaoping  Five Year Plans, Great Leap Forward, Cultural Revolution  Returning to the real balance of world power?

4 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 4 Collapse of the Russian Empire Russia: February Revolution, 1917 Germany smuggles Lenin into Provisional Government Russia (Compromise gov’t) October Revolution, creation of the USSR Treaty of Brest-Litovsk cedes Poland, Baltic countries, Ukraine to central Powers Russia of course never invited into…?

5 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 5

6 6 The Bolshevik Revolution October/November 1917 Soviets take over Disband Provisional Government “All Power to the Soviets!”  (Anti-Provisional Government Slogan)

7 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 7 War Communism, Rapid collectivization Confiscations Massively unpopular, Lenin backtracks in 1921 New Economic Policy (NEP) partial privatization of the economy

8 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 8 New Economic Policy (NEP) Promotion of Agriculture Promotion of Industry “Kulaks” and speculation “one step backward, two steps forward”

9 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 9 Lenin’s Death Lenin’s Stroke (s) (1922) and death (1924) Triumvirate:  Stalin  Bukharin  Trotsky  Really Trotsky vs. Stalin-- “pure” communism vs. Stalinism…

10 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 10 Joseph Stalin ( ) Yosef Vissarionovich Dzugashvili  Nom de guerre: “man of Steel,” Georgian Mother’s influence leads to Orthodox seminary education Leads Soviet Union by 1928

11 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 11 Stalin and Industrialization the “Great Leap Forward” Socialism in One Country Massive collectivization of agriculture (These all main differences with Trotsky and several key similarities and differences with China)

12 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 12 The Ukrainian Famine of a Terror-Famine?  Ukrainians  Don Region De-kulakization The Law of Socialist Property “when you cut down a forest, splinters will fly”

13 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 13 The Purges Mechanics of a purge  “confession”  the show-trial  punishment Massive scope: 8 million Soviet citizens in labor camps by 1939 euphemisms: “wreckers, saboteurs”

14 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 14 Tolls of The Purges On the cases investigated by the State Security Department of Russia  At least 1,710,000 people were arrested  At least 1,440,000 people were sentenced  At least 724,000 were executed. Among them: At least 436,000 people were sentenced to death as part of the Kulak operation At least 247,000 people were sentenced to death by NKVD Dvoikas' and the Local Special Troykas as part of the Ethnic Operation At least 41,000 people were sentenced to death by Military Courts Among other cases in October 1936-November 1938:  At least 400,000 were sentenced to labor camps as Socially Harmful Elements  At least 200,000 were exiled or deported by Administrative procedures  At least 2 million were sentenced by courts for common crimes, among them 800,000 were sentenced to Gulag camps.

15 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 15 Life in the Gulag internal exile the possibility of escape forced labor living conditions trial and re-trial “rehabiliatation”

16 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 16 The Republic of China Revolution in 1911 forces Emperor Puyi to abdicate Sun Yatsen ( ) proclaims Republic of China in 1912 Political anarchy follows Independent warlord exercise local control

17 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 17 Chinese Nationalism May Fourth Movement  Students, urban intellectuals protest foreign interference Especially Japanese interference Marxism increases in popularity Chinese Communist Party founded in Shanghai (1921)  Leader: Mao Zedong ( )

18 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 18 Sun Yatsen ( ) Created Nationalist People’s Party (Guomindang) Accepts support from Soviet Union Members of the Chinese Communist Party also join Guomindang

19 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 19 Civil War Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kai-Shek, ) takes over after death of Sun Yatsen Launches military expedition to unify China, turns against communist allies Communists flee 6,215 miles to north-west China, 1934: The Long March Mao Zedong leads, establishes Chinese communism (Maoism)

20 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 20 The struggle for control in China,

21 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 21 The People’s Republic of China Civil war between Communists and Nationalists erupts after defeat of Japan Jiang Jieshi (Chang Kai-shek) forced to retreat to island of Taiwan with Nationalist forces  Takes most of China’s gold reserves Mao Zedong proclaims People’s Republic of China, 1949  Begins dramatic transformation of Chinese society into Communist mold

22 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 22 Social and Economic Transformations Power concentrated in Communist Party Ex-nationalists executed or sent to reform camps Rapid industrialization under Soviet-style Five- Year Plan, 1955  Massive land redistribution  Collective farms replace private farming Universal health care, education Dramatic challenges to gender discrimination

23 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 23 The Great Leap Forward

24 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 24 The Cultural Revolution

25 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 25 Communism and Democracy in China Massive, pervasive policies of economic and cultural engineering  Great Leap Forward ( )  Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution ( ) Both huge failures Deng Xiaopeng ( ) comes to power in 1981, moderates Maoism Tiananmen Square pro-democracy rallies nevertheless subdued, 1989

26 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 26 The Tank Man

27 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 27 And For China…?

28 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 28 Beijing-Moscow Relations Mutual concern over US rehabilitation of Japan (Post World War II) Beijing recognizes primacy of USSR as Communist leader  Receives military aid in return  Soviet Union principal trading partner Friction over Moscow’s neutrality in conflict with India over Tibet, claimed by China in 1950 Rift sharpened in 1964 as Khrushchev moves toward peace with US

29 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 29 End of the Cold War President Ronald Reagan (in office ) deeply opposes USSR  The “evil empire” Promotes massive military spending, beyond Soviet economy to keep up  Strategic Defense Initiative (“star wars”) Forces Soviet Mikhail S. Gorbachev (1931- ) to implement reforms, ultimately brings down the USSR

30 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 30

31 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 31 Collapse of the Soviet Union Reforms under Gorbachev  Economic  Social Perestroika: “restructuring” Glasnost: “openness” Nationalist sentiments, long suppressed, come to the surface Several non-Russian republics secede, August 1991 Attempted hardliner takeover in Moscow fails, Soviet Union collapses by end of the year


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