Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Oxford vpn for Youtube 1.  most important: possession (medium) ◦ impersonation of deceased by descendant ◦ by deity/demon ◦ human or object (e.g. writing.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Oxford vpn for Youtube 1.  most important: possession (medium) ◦ impersonation of deceased by descendant ◦ by deity/demon ◦ human or object (e.g. writing."— Presentation transcript:

1 Oxford vpn for Youtube 1

2  most important: possession (medium) ◦ impersonation of deceased by descendant ◦ by deity/demon ◦ human or object (e.g. writing object or sedan chair)  less common: spirit travel (shaman) ◦ world of the dead ◦ world of the unborn child (Flower Gardens, in southern China)  visitation by or encounter with extra-humans  dreams  moonblocks etc. 2

3  巫, 覡 archaizing terminology, not necessarily shaman as defined above  降, 下 describes the descent of a deity/demon  附 describes possession, usually of a demon  尸 possession (only in pre-Han texts)  見鬼 seeer of demons (very common in zhiguai texts)  香頭 (N. China)  童乩 (Fujian/Taiwan)  鸞壇, 扶乩  抽籤  筊  beware: ◦ autonym or label (almost invariably the latter) ◦ terms such as wu never sufficient evidence 3

4 4 very big sticks! 觀音籤 東京浅草寺 廣東 northeastern Guangdong

5 5 筊1筊1 筊2筊2 機率俗稱 平面 朝上 0.5*0.5= 0.25 笑筊 平面 朝上 凸面 朝上 0.25 聖筊 凸面 朝上 平面 朝上 0.25 聖筊 凸面 朝上 0.25 陰筊

6  disapproval educated elite over last centuries  prohibited & persecuted after 1911, certainly 1949  seen as typical “ethnic minority”  fieldwork highly sensitive 6

7  楚辭 ◦ 離騷 attributed to Qu Yuan 屈原 since bio by Sima Qian 司馬遷 ◦ 九歌 ◦ 招魂 ◦ attributions more relevant as beliefs than as historical facts  shamanic songs? ◦ 離騷 an emotional song about his fate in (political) life, no indication of spirit travel, leave alone possession (e.g. translation) translation ◦ 九歌 ritual songs, neither spirit travel or possession ◦ 招魂 precursor Daoist ritual, if anything  source of elite stereotype ◦ “south” as shamanic (and north not!) ◦ “south” as location Nuo exorcist ritual 7

8  some possibilities ◦ medium cults derided by early Daoists of Heavenly Master tradition, later also educated elite in general ◦ on elite/prestige level accepted until early Song ◦ shift performers, regionally differentiated, from male to female (Ioan Lewis thesis)  regional specificity ◦ to be combined with historical change, ex. Huizhou *dangki (late Ming local history) 8

9  (how) does it work? ◦ minimizing incertitude ◦ delegating impossible decisions ◦ interpreters of medium/spirit writers “messages” know local people & local situation  examples ◦ Arthur Kleinman argument for Taiwan ◦ Record of Miraculous Responses by the Generals 將 軍靈驗記 from the Lord Guan cult 9

10 10

11  Max Weber’s conceptconcept  in the eyes of the beholder, not an absolute quality: belief by followers that someone possesses extraordinary qualities ◦ routinized charisma (when derived from office, special objects, lineage) ◦ personal charisma (without pedigree)  outside institutionalized structures, not bound (NB there may be cultural conventions about what counts as charismatic)  charisma gives a personal hold over people, feared and rejected/persecuted by establishment 11

12  ling 靈 ability to work miracles (positive)  yin 淫 “licentiousness” & “dissolute”: quality of acting out of bounds (negative)  nao 閙 “to upset”, “create havoc”: upsetting of normal order as source power (liminal) 12 熱鬧 李三太子 ( 哪吒 ) 閙天 鬧房 熱鬧

13  territorial  deity controls territory and worshippers with right of residence  communal representation & benefits  ascribed  formal rites (state, communal, Daoist, Buddhist)  charismatic  deity helps whoever worships  personal requests & benefits  hence erratic nature of benefits  voluntary  inspired rites (shamans, mediums) 13

14  limen=border => liminal place as border & transition (see discussion of Daoist ritual)  liminal creatures live between here and there => can mediate between worlds (good), can come to attack us (bad)  origins: ◦ incomplete transition (hungry ghosts/demons 餓鬼 ) ◦ non-humans changing form ◦ humans attaining life beyond life (immortals)  liminal position enables charisma 14

15  violent death origin of most deities ◦ bone/grave cults ◦ plague deities  despised by early and later Daoist ritual traditions ◦ as manifestations of stale qi ◦ for their mediums  for some: routinization of charisma ◦ deity becomes territorial (may be local, socially incomplete) ◦ hagiography cleaned up ◦ state support 15

16  Four Great Families ( 四大門 ): fox 狐 / 胡仙, snake 柳仙 ( 蛇 ), weasel 黄仙 ( 黄鼠狼 ), hedgehog 白仙 ( 刺猬 ) ◦ sometimes the rat 灰仙 ( 老鼠 ) or others as fifth ◦ live on margins of cultivated land ◦ self-cultivation> ability of transforming into human shape ◦ not to be confused with literary topos  each animal was unique member of overall type ◦ family name same, personal name varies ◦ often nr. + lang 郎  small shrines ◦ irregular sightings as human/animal ◦ could be male and female ◦ privately worshipped for personal favours ◦ even worshipped in yamen  charismatic power ◦ erratic & vindicative deities ◦ help with insecurity/contingency of events for worshippers ( 仙 ): wealth, health, crops etc. (and its reverse!) ◦ disapproved by state & outsiders ( 妖, 精 )=>sexual accusations  underlying part of the fox stories in 聊齋志異 ◦ female seducers & male friends ◦ fox from the fox cults 16

17 A survey of animal and other shrine deities in Jilin City animal cultsother shrine cults Hu 胡 78Earth God23 Huang 黃 36Mountain God20 Liu 柳 4 Five Paths ( 五道 ) 15 Mang 莽 3 Bai 白 1 Five Great Household Immortals 6 (grand total: 62 small shrines, mostly for several deities at a time) 17

18  member of the Four Great Families possess people ◦ possessed person starts to behave and talk strangely ◦ identified as “possessed” (by “incensers” or experienced people) ◦ the deity communicates the issue or carries out a punishment ◦ explanatory value  “incensers” ( 香頭 ) ◦ initially possessed involuntarily ◦ need to identify immortal descending into them ◦ tutor ◦ initiation ritual ◦ local network of customers 18

19  Wutong 五通 / Wuchang 五猖 ◦ Yangzi region in particulardeveloped from demonic creatures, esp. “one legged mountain demon” ◦ later seen as animal or animal transformation  deal with insecurities of life/money economy  charisma => labelled licentious 淫 ◦ state: heavily persecuted, esp. 18th century ◦ local outside perception: sexual accusations  we know little about shamanic practice, except that they existed and functioned more or less like the “incensers” 19

20 20 enactment Wuchang, no longer possession Wutong: modern fiction

21  esp. well-documented in Fujianese cultural zone (historically Fujian, Taiwan, SE Asia)  etymology ◦ speculation on Austronesian roots word ◦ jitong (!): Mandarin cultural imperialism ◦ not necessarily young, mostly male  function ◦ communication less clearly important ◦ demonstrative of divine power and presence  examples: ◦ ◦ ◦ 21

22  analogous “incensers” in northern China  male and female, personal deity, any age  example: ◦ 22

23  early example possession  relatively well-documented in 真誥 a.o. works (show pdf file?) ◦ possession  眾眞並未降事  非降楊時也  自此後諸真共語耳  右南嶽夫人言 ◦ record  定錄  喻書此。紫陽旨也。 ◦ read passage p. 19 together 23

24 24

25  Tang origins in signs 紫姑 -cult (acc. to 許地山 )=> divine writing in characters  common form of revelation & communication by Song ◦ immortals (rarely well-known deities) ◦ poetic communication ◦ writing thru winnowing basket, wooden pencil etc. ◦ writers and interpreters  practitioners ◦ originally mostly educated elite ◦ prestige form of divine communication  example: ◦ 25

26  文昌化書 (Song: Terry Kleeman)  early Qing onwards (why so late unclear to me) ◦ L ü Dongbin texts ◦ combined with charitable movement  True Classic to Awaken the World by Imperial Lord Saint Guan 關聖帝君覺世真經  Classic of Imperial Lord Saint Guan who Illuminates Saintliness 闗聖帝君明聖經  allowed creative fusion local (oral) culture & educated culture(s) 26

27  Unity Way 一貫道 ◦ continued use spirit writing 27

28 28

29  shamanic travel to Flower Gardens ◦ world unborn child (pot flowers, red/white buds) ◦ rituals for changing sex of future child & healing ◦ prognostication future children  southern culture ◦ Fujian/Taiwan ◦ Guangdong ◦ local cultures (Yao, Miao a.o.)  some research (Berthier; Taiwanese colleagues) 29

30  travels thru underworld ◦ relationship ritualized visits by specialists unclear ◦ to investigate deceased or ill people who are already partly in underworld  lack of ethnographical descriptions 30

31 31

32  not necessarily by shamans/mediums ◦ Hong Xiuquan 洪秀全  shamans in Chinese context rarely have visions  mediums do have revelations ◦ potential for scenario-revelations  scenarios most commonly moral rearmament  either way: action requires further conditions to be fulfilled ◦ non-scenario more common  Taiwanese & HK cases  provide solutions to people’s problems 32


Download ppt "Oxford vpn for Youtube 1.  most important: possession (medium) ◦ impersonation of deceased by descendant ◦ by deity/demon ◦ human or object (e.g. writing."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google