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Root Words, Prefixes, and Suffixes The Word Words are broken into parts Prefixes are at the beginning of words Suffixes are at the end of words A root.

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Presentation on theme: "Root Words, Prefixes, and Suffixes The Word Words are broken into parts Prefixes are at the beginning of words Suffixes are at the end of words A root."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Root Words, Prefixes, and Suffixes

3 The Word Words are broken into parts Prefixes are at the beginning of words Suffixes are at the end of words A root is a set of letters that have meaning. It is the most basic form A root can be at the front, middle or end of a word.

4 Combining syllables WordMeaning FormTo Shape PortTo Carry RuptTo Break or Burst Prefix Re (Again)Re-Form means to shape again De (Out)De-Port means to carry out Inter (in the middle)Inter-rupt means to break in the middle

5 Sentence Structure and development

6 The Parts of Speech One way to begin studying basic sentence structures is to consider the traditional parts of speech (also called word classes): nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, and interjections the parts of speech come in many varieties and may show up just about anywhere in a sentence. To know for sure what part of speech a word is, we have to look not only at the word itself but also at its meaning, position, and use in a sentence.

7 WHAT IS IT? The basic parts of a sentence are the subject, the verb, and (often, but not always) the object. This is the noun or pronoun that comes after the preposition The subject is usually a noun--a word that names a person, place, or thing. The verb (or predicate) usually follows the subject and identifies an action or a state of being. An object receives the action and usually follows the verb. EXPLANATION Parts of a sentence

8 Verbs By Mrs. Caro

9 VERBS A verb shows action. There’s no doubt! It tells what the subject does, Like sing and shout! Action verbs are fun to do! Now it’s time to name a few! So clap your hands and join our rhyme! Say those verbs in record time! Wiggle, Jiggle, Turn around Raise your arms and stomp the ground! Shake your finger and wink your eye! Wave those action verbs GOODBYE!

10 Present verbs present tense verb An action verb that describes an action that is happening now is called a present tense verb. flies The bird flies through the sky. Flies Flies is a present tense verb because it is happening right now.

11 coughed swallowed awake ranride sang These are Action Verbs: clap

12 Present tense verbs ses ies Many present tense verbs end with s, but some end with es, or ies. s sleeps es splashes ies cries

13 Past Verbs Verbs which tell about actions which happened some time ago are past tense verbs. wanted The dog wanted a bone. Wanted is a past tense verb because the action has already happened.

14 Past tense verbs ed, d, ied Many past tense verbs end with ed, but some end with d, or ied. clapped played tried

15 Future Verbs Verbs which tell about actions which are going to happen are future tense verbs. We will awaken at six a.m. Will awaken Will awaken is a future tense verb because the action has not yet happened.

16 Future tense verbs Future tense verbs use special words to talk about things that will happen: will, going to, shall, aim to, etc. going to start shall will enjoy

17 Helping Verbs A helping verb works with a main verb to help you understand what action is taking place. was using Elmer was using the computer.

18 23 Helping Verbs may might must be being been am are is was were (main) do does did (main) should could would have had has (main) will can shall

19 Helping Verbs Other things to keep in mind: Not every sentence will have a helping verb with the main verb. When you see an "ing" verb such as "running", be on the lookout for a helping verb also.

20 Helping Verbs Sometimes there is another word which separates the helping verb from the main verb. One common example is "not", as in: The boy couldn't find his socks. The helping verb is could and the main verb is find.

21 To find the verb: Locate the subject Then ask yourself, “What is it doing?” The dog barked. Who? barked dog “What did the dog do?” The verb is barked, it’s what the dog is doing.

22 The big lion roared loudly. Who? roared Lion “What did the lion do?” Let’s Practice: The verb is roared, it’s what the lion is doing.

23 The lighthouse shines brightly. What? shines lighthouse “What does the lighthouse do?” The verb is shines, it’s what the lighthouse does. Let’s Practice:

24 The snowman waves his hat to us. Who? waves Snowman “What did the snowman do?” Let’s Practice: The verb is waves, it’s what the snowman is doing.

25 Alexander takes his bath. Who? takes Alexander “What does Alexander do?” Let’s Practice: The verb is takes, it’s what Alexander is doing.

26 Sally dances in the recital. Who? dances Sally “What does Sally do?” Let’s Practice: The verb is dances, it’s what Sally is doing.

27 Mrs. Smith arrives late. Who? arrives Mrs. Smith “What did Mrs. Smith do?” Let’s Practice: The verb is arrives, it’s what Mrs. Smith does.

28 Stars shine brightly at night. What? shine stars “What did the stars do?” Let’s Practice: The verb is shine, it’s what the stars are doing.

29 Time flies when you’re having fun. What? flies time “What does time do?” Let’s Practice: The verb is flies, it’s what time is doing.

30 Tommy plays baseball every year. Who? plays Tommy “What does Tommy do?” Let’s Practice: The verb is plays, it’s what Tommy does.

31 Jacob beats on his drum all day. Who? beats Jacob “What does Jacob do?” Let’s Practice: The verb is beats, it’s what Jacob is doing.

32 The bumble bee buzzes near the flower. What? buzzes bee “What does the bee do?” Let’s Practice: The verb is buzzes, it’s what the bee is doing.

33 *A simple sentence is a sentence with just one independent clause (also called a main clause) *A compound sentence contains at least two independent clauses * A complex sentence contains an independent clause and at least one dependent clause: *A compound-complex sentence contains two or more independent clauses and at least one dependent clause: Four Basic Sentence Structures

34 Let’s Practice: Read Mr. Fox

35 A common way to connect related words, phrases, and even entire clauses is to coordinate them--that is, connect them with a basic coordinating conjunction such as "and" or "but." Coordination

36 Combining sentences Independent clauses can be connected in a variety of ways : 1. By a comma and little conjunction (and, but, or, nor, for, yet, and sometimes so). 2. By a semicolon, by itself. 3. By a semicolon accompanied by a conjunctive adverb (such as however, moreover, nevertheless, as a result, consequently, etc.). 4. And, of course, independent clauses are often not connected by punctuation at all but are separated by a period.

37 To show that one idea in a sentence is more important than another, we rely on subordination- -that is, treating one word group as less important. My brother’s car Comma Which he bought two years ago Comma Has already needed repairs Always put a comma before the word WHICH. The adjective clause develops, but is not required. Never put a comma before the word THAT-this indicates the information is NEEDED Adjective Clauses

38 Subordinate Conjunctions  after  although  as  because  before  even though  if, even if  in order that  once  provided that  since  so [that implied], so that  than  that  though  unless  when, whenever  where, wherever, whereas  whether  while

39 Combining sentences Use a comma if you subordinate the first of the two clauses. Even though cat hair clung to Shelly’s pant legs during her interview, she still got the job. The second clause has less emphasis because its thought is in complete. The second clause has less emphasis because its thought is in complete.

40 Appositives Phrases An appositive is a word or group of words that identifies or renames another word in a sentence--most often a noun that immediately precedes it. Appositive constructions offer concise ways of describing or defining a person, place, or thing. ALWAYS put a COMMA around the phrase. Shelly, WHO IS A NURSE, likes cats

41 Adverb Clauses Here is the description of the table. You may change or delete this text as you wish. This table is compatible with PowerPoint 97 to Like an adjective clause, an adverb clause is always dependent on (or subordinate to) an independent clause an adverb clause usually modifies a verb, though it can also modify an adjective, an adverb, or even the rest of the sentence in which it appears.

42 Punctuation

43 Semi-Colon Use semicolons to join independent clauses Use a semicolon only if the clauses are closely related. Examples: Happiness isn't something you experience; it's something you remember. We lavish on animals the love we are afraid to show to people. They might not return it; or worse, they might.

44 Semi-Colon’s Use semicolons with conjunctive adverbs or introductory expressions When I eat alone, I leave a mess; however, what’s worse is when everyone laughs at me. The movie was awesome; in fact, it was so funny I cried

45 Colons A colon means "that is to say" or "here's what I mean." Colons and semicolons should never be used interchangeably. Use a colon to introduce a series of items. Do not capitalize the first item after the colon (unless it's a proper noun). I need an assistant who can do the following: input data, write reports, and complete tax forms. Avoid using a colon before a list when it directly follows a verb or preposition Wrong: I've seen the greats, including: Barrymore, Guinness, and Streep. Right: I've seen the greats, including Barrymore, Guinness, and Streep..

46 Hyphens Hyphens' main purpose is to glue words together (-) Hyphenate two or more words when they come before a noun they modify and act as a single idea. This is called a compound adjective. an off-campus apartment When writing out new, original, or unusual compound nouns, writers should hyphenate whenever doing so avoids confusion. I changed my diet and became a no-meater.

47 Hyphens Hyphens' main purpose is to glue words together (-) An often overlooked rule for hyphens: The adverb very and adverbs ending in -ly are not hyphenated. Incorrect: the finely-tuned watch (describes adjective) Correct: Correct: the friendly-looking dog (describes verb) Hyphenate all spelled-out fractions. more than two-thirds of registered voters

48 Hyphens are often used to tell the ages of people and things. We have a two-year-old child Hyphenate prefixes when they come before proper nouns or proper adjectives Trans-American flight Mid-June is when the party is Hyphenate all words beginning with the prefixes self-, ex- (i.e., former), and all-. Suffixes are not usually hyphenated. Some exceptions: -style, -elect, -free, -based. Hyphens

49 DASHES Sometimes you have some information which needs to be added to a sentence, and that little bit of information is EXTEMELY important and you’ll want the reader to pay attention to that information You are the friend—my only friend—who offered to help me. indicate added emphasis, an interruption, or an abrupt change of thought I wish you would—oh, never mind.

50 Writing clear, concise sentences

51 Active Voice

52 Verbs Shows action or state of being Active or passive Connects subject and predicate Most important word in the sentence Examples: Pour, laugh (Active) Am, is, are, was, were, will be, have been, will have been (Passive) 51

53 Active vs. Passive Active voice is when you are focusing on the person who is doing an action The ninja attacked the adorable baby. Passive voice is when you’re focusing on the thing that was done. The adorable baby was attacked by the ninja.

54 In passive voice, the subject is usually not present. If it is, it is at the end of a prepositional phrase. The bag was picked up by John 53 In active voice, the subject of the sentence is present BEFORE the verb. John picked up the bag Active vs. Passive

55 Why avoid them? Usually needs helping verbs (am/were/etc.), prepositions like “by” or “of If there is a helping verb, to determine if it is passive, look at the end of the verb phrase If it ends in past tense or participle, it is passive voice She is going home. She was unhappy with her brother. Can be more confusing My car was driven to Dallas. (By who? Some car thief?) Five FBI agents entered the room, and the terrorist was plastered against the wall. (Was he there already and they found him? Did the agents put him there?)

56 ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS A common way of expanding the basic sentence is with modifiers--words that add to the meanings of other words. The simplest modifiers are adjectives and adverbs. Adjectives modify nouns, while adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs. Like adjectives and adverbs, prepositional phrases add meaning to the nouns and verbs in sentences. A prepositional phrase has two basic parts: a preposition plus a noun or a pronoun that serves as the object of the preposition. PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES Phrases

57 Wordiness Omit the filler phrases "it is," "there is," and "there are" at the beginning of sentences; these often delay the sentence's true subject and verb It is expensive to upgrade computer systems Upgrading computer systems is expensive Omit "this" from the beginning of a sentence by joining it to the preceding sentence with a comma Chlorofluorocarbons have been banned from aerosols. This has lessened the ozone layer's depletion Chlorofluorocarbons have been banned from aerosols, lessening the ozone layer's depletion

58 Wordiness continued Omit "which" or "that" altogether when possible. Because the fluid, which was brown and poisonous, was dumped into the river, the company that was negligent had to shut down Because the brown, poisonous fluid was dumped into t he river, the negligent company had to shut down. Replace prepositional phrases with one-word modifiers when possible The President of the Student Senate was in charge of the lobbying against the merger at the Minnesota Congress. The Student Senate President oversaw lobbying the Minnesota Congress against the merger

59 Wordiness continued Use a colon after a statement preceding a sentence of explanation, and leave out the beginning of the next sentence The theater has three main technical areas. These areas are costumes, scenery, and lighting The theater has three main technical areas: costumes, scenery, and lighting. Avoid the overuse of qualifiers. ` Qualified words can often be replaced by a single, more potent word Sue is extremely angry” could be shortened to “Sue is furious”.

60 Picture Page Layout


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