2The Word Words are broken into parts Prefixes are at the beginning of wordsSuffixes are at the end of wordsA root is a set of letters that have meaning. It is the most basic formA root can be at the front, middle or end of a word.The Word
3Combining syllables Word Meaning Form To Shape Port To Carry Rupt To Break or BurstPrefixRe (Again)Re-Form means to shape againDe (Out)De-Port means to carry outInter (in the middle)Inter-rupt means to break in the middleCombining syllables
5One way to begin studying basic sentence structures is to consider the traditional parts of speech (also called word classes): nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, and interjectionsthe parts of speech come in many varieties and may show up just about anywhere in a sentence.To know for sure what part of speech a word is, we have to look not only at the word itself but also at its meaning, position, and use in a sentence.The Parts of Speech
6What is it?ExplanationThe basic parts of a sentence are the subject, the verb, and (often, but not always) the object. This is the noun or pronoun that comes after the prepositionThe subject is usually a noun--a word that names a person, place, or thing. The verb (or predicate) usually follows the subject and identifies an action or a state of being. An object receives the action and usually follows the verb.Parts of a sentence
8VERBS A verb shows action. There’s no doubt! It tells what the subject does,Like sing and shout!Action verbs are fun to do!Now it’s time to name a few!So clap your hands and join our rhyme!Say those verbs in record time!Wiggle, Jiggle, Turn aroundRaise your arms and stomp the ground!Shake your finger and wink your eye!Wave those action verbs GOODBYE!
9An action verb that describes an action that is happening now is called a present tense verb. The bird flies through the sky.Flies is a present tense verb because it is happening right now.Present verbs
10These are Action Verbs: clapcoughedswallowedawakesangrideran
11Many present tense verbs end with s, but some end with es, or ies. criessleepsPresent tense verbssplashes
12Verbs which tell about actions which happened some time ago are past tense verbs. The dog wanted a bone.Wanted is a past tense verb because the action has already happened.Past Verbs
13Many past tense verbs end with ed, but some end with d, or ied. triedclappedPast tense verbsplayed
14Verbs which tell about actions which are going to happen are future tense verbs. We will awaken at six a.m.Will awaken is a future tense verb because the action has not yet happened.Future Verbs
15Future tense verbs use special words to talk about things that will happen: will, going to, shall, aim to, etc.going to startwill enjoyFuture tense verbsshall
16Helping Verbs Elmer was using the computer. A helping verb works with a main verb to help you understand what action is taking place.Elmer was using the computer.Helping Verbs
1723 Helping Verbs may might must be being been am are is was were (main)do does didshould could wouldhave had haswill can shall23 Helping Verbs
18Helping Verbs Other things to keep in mind: Not every sentence will have a helping verb with the main verb.When you see an "ing" verb such as "running", be on the lookout for a helping verb also.Helping Verbs
19Sometimes there is another word which separates the helping verb from the main verb. One common example is "not", as in: The boy couldn't find his socks. The helping verb is could and the main verb is find.Helping Verbs
20The verb is barked, it’s what the dog is doing. Locate the subjectThen ask yourself, “What is it doing?”The dog barked.Who?dog“What did the dog do?”To find the verb:barkedThe verb is barked, it’s what the dog is doing.
21The verb is roared, it’s what the lion is doing. Let’s Practice:The big lion roared loudly.Who?Lion“What did the lion do?”roaredThe verb is roared, it’s what the lion is doing.
22The verb is shines, it’s what the lighthouse does. Let’s Practice:The lighthouse shines brightly.What?lighthouse“What does the lighthouse do?”shinesThe verb is shines, it’s what the lighthouse does.
23The verb is waves, it’s what the snowman is doing. Let’s Practice:The snowman waves his hat to us.Who?Snowman“What did the snowman do?”wavesThe verb is waves, it’s what the snowman is doing.
24The verb is takes, it’s what Alexander is doing. Let’s Practice:Alexander takes his bath.Who?Alexander“What does Alexander do?”takesThe verb is takes, it’s what Alexander is doing.
25The verb is dances, it’s what Sally is doing. Let’s Practice:Sally dances in the recital.Who?Sally“What does Sally do?”dancesThe verb is dances, it’s what Sally is doing.
26The verb is arrives, it’s what Mrs. Smith does. Let’s Practice:Mrs. Smith arrives late.Who?Mrs. Smith“What did Mrs. Smith do?”arrivesThe verb is arrives, it’s what Mrs. Smith does.
27The verb is shine, it’s what the stars are doing. Let’s Practice:Stars shine brightly at night.What?stars“What did the stars do?”shineThe verb is shine, it’s what the stars are doing.
28The verb is flies, it’s what time is doing. Let’s Practice:Time flies when you’re having fun.What?time“What does time do?”fliesThe verb is flies, it’s what time is doing.
29The verb is plays, it’s what Tommy does. Let’s Practice:Tommy plays baseball every year.Who?Tommy“What does Tommy do?”playsThe verb is plays, it’s what Tommy does.
30The verb is beats, it’s what Jacob is doing. Let’s Practice:Jacob beats on his drum all day.Who?Jacob“What does Jacob do?”beatsThe verb is beats, it’s what Jacob is doing.
31The verb is buzzes, it’s what the bee is doing. Let’s Practice:The bumble bee buzzes near the flower.What?bee“What does the bee do?”buzzesThe verb is buzzes, it’s what the bee is doing.
32Four Basic Sentence Structures *A simple sentence is a sentence with just one independent clause (also called a main clause) *A compound sentence contains at least two independent clauses * A complex sentence contains an independent clause and at least one dependent clause: *A compound-complex sentence contains two or more independent clauses and at least one dependent clause: Four Basic Sentence Structures
34A common way to connect related words, phrases, and even entire clauses is to coordinate them--that is, connect them with a basic coordinating conjunction such as "and" or "but."Coordination
35Independent clauses can be connected in a variety of ways: 1. By a comma and little conjunction (and, but, or, nor, for, yet, and sometimes so).2. By a semicolon, by itself.3. By a semicolon accompanied by a conjunctive adverb (such as however, moreover, nevertheless, as a result, consequently, etc.).4. And, of course, independent clauses are often not connected by punctuation at all but are separated by a period.Combining sentences
36Adjective Clauses My brother’s car Which he bought two years ago To show that one idea in a sentence is more important than another, we rely on subordination--that is, treating one word group as less important.Which he bought two years agoHas already needed repairsMy brother’s carCommaCommaAlways put a comma before the word WHICH. The adjective clause develops, but is not required.Never put a comma before the word THAT-this indicates the information is NEEDED
37Subordinate Conjunctions sinceso [that implied], so thatthanthatthoughunlesswhen, wheneverwhere, wherever, whereaswhetherwhileafteralthoughasbecausebeforeeven thoughif, even ifin order thatonceprovided thatSubordinate Conjunctions
38The second clause has less emphasis because its thought is incomplete. Use a comma if you subordinate the first of the two clauses.Even though cat hair clung to Shelly’s pant legs during her interview, she still got the job.The second clause has less emphasis because its thought is incomplete.Combining sentences
39An appositive is a word or group of words that identifies or renames another word in a sentence--most often a noun that immediately precedes it. Appositive constructions offer concise ways of describing or defining a person, place, or thing.ALWAYS put a COMMA around the phrase. Shelly , WHO IS A NURSE, likes catsAppositives Phrases
40Like an adjective clause, an adverb clause is always dependent on (or subordinate to) an independent clausean adverb clause usually modifies a verb, though it can also modify an adjective, an adverb, or even the rest of the sentence in which it appears. Here is the description of the table. You may change or delete this text as you wish. This table is compatible with PowerPoint 97 to 2007.Adverb Clauses
42Semi-Colon Use a semicolon only if the clauses are closely related. Use semicolons to join independent clausesUse a semicolon only if the clauses are closely related.Examples:Happiness isn't something you experience; it's something you remember.We lavish on animals the love we are afraid to show to people. They might not return it; or worse, they might.Semi-Colon
43Use semicolons with conjunctive adverbs or introductory expressions When I eat alone, I leave a mess; however, what’s worse is when everyone laughs at me.The movie was awesome; in fact, it was so funny I criedSemi-Colon’s
44A colon means "that is to say" or "here's what I mean A colon means "that is to say" or "here's what I mean." Colons and semicolons should never be used interchangeably. Use a colon to introduce a series of items. Do not capitalize the first item after the colon (unless it's a proper noun).I need an assistant who can do the following: input data, write reports, and complete tax forms.Avoid using a colon before a list when it directly follows a verb or prepositionWrong: I've seen the greats, including: Barrymore, Guinness, and Streep.Right: I've seen the greats, including Barrymore, Guinness, and Streep..Colons
45Hyphens Hyphens' main purpose is to glue words together (-) Hyphenate two or more words when they come before a noun they modify and act as a single idea. This is called a compound adjective.an off-campus apartmentWhen writing out new, original, or unusual compound nouns, writers should hyphenate whenever doing so avoids confusion.I changed my diet and became a no-meater.Hyphens
46Hyphens Hyphens' main purpose is to glue words together (-) An often overlooked rule for hyphens: The adverb very and adverbs ending in -ly are not hyphenated.Incorrect: the finely-tuned watch (describes adjective)Correct: Correct: the friendly-looking dog (describes verb)Hyphenate all spelled-out fractions.more than two-thirds of registered votersHyphens
47Hyphens Hyphens are often used to tell the ages of people and things. We have a two-year-old childHyphenate prefixes when they come before proper nouns or proper adjectivesTrans-American flightMid-June is when the party is Hyphenate all words beginning with the prefixes self-, ex- (i.e., former), and all-.Suffixes are not usually hyphenated. Some exceptions: -style, -elect, -free, -based.Hyphens
48Sometimes you have some information which needs to be added to a sentence, and that little bit of information is EXTEMELY important and you’ll want the reader to pay attention to that informationYou are the friend—my only friend—who offered to help me. indicate added emphasis, an interruption, or an abrupt change of thoughtI wish you would—oh, never mind.DASHES
51Verbs Shows action or state of being Active or passive Connects subject and predicateMost important word in the sentenceExamples:Pour, laugh (Active)Am, is, are, was, were, will be, have been, will have been (Passive)
52Active voice is when you are focusing on the person who is doing an action The ninja attacked the adorable baby.Passive voice is when you’re focusing on the thing that was done.The adorable baby was attacked by the ninja.Active vs. Passive
53Active vs. PassiveIn active voice, the subject of the sentence is present BEFORE the verb.John picked up the bagIn passive voice, the subject is usually not present. If it is, it is at the end of a prepositional phrase.The bag was picked up by John
54Why avoid them? Can be more confusing Usually needs helping verbs (am/were/etc.), prepositions like “by” or “ofIf there is a helping verb, to determine if it is passive, look at the end of the verb phraseIf it ends in past tense or participle, it is passive voiceShe is going home.She was unhappy with her brother.Can be more confusingMy car was driven to Dallas. (By who? Some car thief?)Five FBI agents entered the room, and the terrorist was plastered against the wall. (Was he there already and they found him? Did the agents put him there?)Why avoid them?
55Adjectives and Adverbs Prepositional PhrasesLike adjectives and adverbs, prepositional phrases add meaning to the nouns and verbs in sentences. A prepositional phrase has two basic parts: a preposition plus a noun or a pronoun that serves as the object of the preposition.A common way of expanding the basic sentence is with modifiers--words that add to the meanings of other words. The simplest modifiers are adjectives and adverbs. Adjectives modify nouns, while adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs.Phrases
56Omit the filler phrases "it is," "there is," and "there are" at the beginning of sentences; these often delay the sentence's true subject and verbIt is expensive to upgrade computer systemsUpgrading computer systems is expensiveOmit "this" from the beginning of a sentence by joining it to the preceding sentence with a commaChlorofluorocarbons have been banned from aerosols. This has lessened the ozone layer's depletionChlorofluorocarbons have been banned from aerosols, lessening the ozone layer's depletionWordiness
57Wordiness continued Omit "which" or "that" altogether when possible. Because the fluid, which was brown and poisonous, was dumped into the river, the company that was negligent had to shut downBecause the brown, poisonous fluid was dumped into t he river, the negligent company had to shut down.Replace prepositional phrases with one-word modifiers when possibleThe President of the Student Senate was in charge of the lobbying against the merger at the Minnesota Congress.The Student Senate President oversaw lobbying the Minnesota Congress against the mergerWordiness continued
58Wordiness continued Avoid the overuse of qualifiers. Use a colon after a statement preceding a sentence of explanation, and leave out the beginning of the next sentenceThe theater has three main technical areas. These areas are costumes, scenery, and lightingThe theater has three main technical areas: costumes, scenery, and lighting.Avoid the overuse of qualifiers.`Qualified words can often be replaced by a single, more potent wordSue is extremely angry” could be shortened to “Sue is furious”.Wordiness continued