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Introduction to Classical Chinese Philosophy By Masayuki Sato

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1 Introduction to Classical Chinese Philosophy By Masayuki Sato
Lecture Nine The Philosophy of Transformation and Oneness: The Book of Zhuangzi 【本著作除另有註明外,採取創用CC「姓名標示-非商業性-相同方式分享」台灣2.5版授權釋出】 The “Work” under the Creative Commons Taiwan 2.5 License of “BY-NC-SA”.

2 Contents of Today’s Lecture 1/2
(1) The Origin of Philosophical Daoism (2) On the text and its author(s) (3) The Main Arguments: a.) Original nothingness/oneness b.) Concept of Heaven (tian 天) and man (ren 人) c.) Qualities of different strata of human beings d.) Concept of Transformation (wuhua 物化)

3 Contents of Today’s Lecture 2/2
e.) The path for the mastery of the Way (4) A Comparison the Main Arguments in the Book of Laozi and the Book of Zhuangzi (5) Supplemental discussion: The Zhuangzi’s philosophy and the movie of Hayao Miyazaki (6) Questions for further discussion

4 A few introductory remarks
The Book of Zhuangzi exhibits a genius talent for its use of imaginary dialogue and allegory. It intends to destroy completely our understanding on standard and value orientation to see and think of our world. A main motif in these dialogue and allegory is that human beings is minute. Its content is “truly” philosophical exactly in the sense that Nietzsche’s work can be called so.

5 On the text and its author(s)
The life of the author 莊子者,蒙人也,名周。周嘗為蒙漆園吏,与梁惠王、齊宣王同時。其學無所不窺,然其要本歸于老子之言。故其著書十余万言,大抵率寓言也。作漁父、盜跖、胠篋,以詆訿孔子之徒,以明老子之術。 引自《史記‧老子韓非列傳》

6 Sima Qian’s description on Zhuangzi’s life and book
Zhuangzi lived in a town of Meng (in the state of Song). He has worked as a lacquer farm manager. He lived during the reign of King Hui of Liang and King Xuan of Qi. His argument covers almost all topics, yet they were written on the basis of the Laozi’s thought. His book consists of approximately a hundred thousand words are in general imaginary, metaphoric fables, which criticized doctrine of Confucianism. National Taiwan University Masayuki Sato

7 About the text Sima Qian 司馬遷 enumerates three chapters, i.e., “漁父 Yufu” “盜跖 Daozhi” and “胠篋 Quqie” as Zhuangzi’s own work. Later, Guo Xiang 郭象 (d. 312) compiled it into the present form, which consists of three groups, namely, “Inner Chapters”, “Outer Chapters” and “Mischellaneous Chapters.” Guo himself believed that the contents of “Inner Chapter” could represent Zhuangzi’s own thought.

8 Implication from the description of his life and the formation of the text
The life of Zhuangzi can be conjectured almost only from patchy descriptions in the Book of Zhuangzi. Yet, judging by a number of dialogues with a sophist thinker, Hui Shi 惠施, we can assume that he lived during the same age with Mencius. To the extent that the order of present text has been made by Guo Xiang, who lived six hundred years later, its present order cannot means the representation of its authorship. The last chapter (Tianxia 天下 Chapter) was obviously written by his follower, and is one of most well-written comprehensive critique on the Warring State thought.

9 Characteristics of Thought: original nothingness and chaos=oneness
Just as the Laozi, the Zhuangzi also exalts “original state” from which the universe came into being. Yet, in contrast with the Laozi’s which emphasizes the creativity, The Zhuangzi’s “original state” contains four level of meanings: “wu 無” (nothingness), “weiyou 未有” (pre-existence) “shi 始” (original chaos) “yi 一” (oneness). The Zhuangzi names it “ Hundun ” 渾沌 (Chaos)

10 Original nothingness 古之人,其知有所至矣。惡乎至?有以為未始有物者,至矣盡矣,不可以加矣。其次以為有物矣,而未始有封也。其次以為有封焉,而未始有是非也。 《齊物論》

11 Original nothingness Among the men of old their knowledge reached the extreme point. What was that extreme point? Some held that at first there was not anything. This is the extreme point, the utmost point to which nothing can be added. A second class held that there was something, but without any responsive recognition of it (on the part of men). A third class held that there was such recognition, but there had not begun to be any expression of different opinions about it.

12 Original Chaos or oneness
南海之帝為儵,北海之帝為忽,中央之帝為渾沌。儵與忽時相與遇於渾沌之地,渾沌待之甚善。儵與忽謀報渾沌之德,曰:“人皆有七竅,以視聽食息,此獨無有,嘗試鑿之。”日鑿一竅,七日而渾沌死。 《應帝王》

13 Original Chaos or oneness
南海之帝為儵,北海之帝為忽,中央之帝為渾沌。儵與忽時相與遇於渾沌之地,渾沌待之甚善。儵與忽謀報渾沌之德,曰:“人皆有七竅,以視聽食息,此獨無有,嘗試鑿之。”日鑿一竅,七日而渾沌死。 《應帝王》

14 Original Chaos or oneness
南海之帝為儵,北海之帝為忽,中央之帝為渾沌。儵與忽時相與遇於渾沌之地,渾沌待之甚善。儵與忽謀報渾沌之德,曰:“人皆有七竅,以視聽食息,此獨無有,嘗試鑿之。”日鑿一竅,七日而渾沌死。 Terms shu 儵 and hu 忽 both meant “instantly” “for short”, “quick” Hundun (chaos) meant “whirlpool” or “vortex”

15 Original Chaos or oneness
The Ruler of the Southern Ocean was Shu, the Ruler of the Northern Ocean was Hu, and the Ruler of the Centre was Chaos. Shu and Hu were continually meeting in the land of Chaos, who treated them very well. They consulted together how they might repay his kindness, and said, 'Men all have seven orifices for the purpose of seeing, hearing, eating, and breathing, while this (poor) Ruler alone has not one. Let us try and make them for him.‘ Accordingly they dug one orifice in him every day; and at the end of seven days Chaos died.

16 Contrast between two worlds
Eternal, non-existent, infinite, chaotic character of ideal/ancient/ultimate world vs. Transcient, existing only in very limited time and space, articulated character of our world

17 Contrast between two worlds
Eternal, non-existent, infinite, chaotic character of ideal/ancient/ultimate world vs. Transcient, existing only in very limited time and space, articulated character of our world

18 The Worldview of the Zhuangzi
The Ruler of the Centre was Chaos…. Accordingly they dug one orifice in him every day; and at the end of seven days Chaos died. Chaos Beginning of the history of human being

19 The Worldview of the Zhuangzi Splitting into Heaven’s and human spheres
As historical “degradation” proceeded, chaos has splited into two spheres: Heaven and human Sphere of Heaven Infinite nature chaos history National Taiwan University Masayuki Sato

20 The Worldview of the Zhuangzi Splitting into Heaven’s and human spheres
Sphere of Heaven Natural and infinite Sphere of human Action and finite Chaos articulation National Taiwan University Masayuki Sato

21 The Worldview of the Zhuangzi
Sphere of Heaven 《莊子‧秋水》 :「何謂天?何謂人?」北海若曰:「牛馬四足,是謂天;落馬首,穿牛鼻,是謂人。故曰,无以人滅天,无以故滅命。」 《莊子‧在宥》:「何謂道?有天道,有人道。无為而尊者,天道也;有為而累者,人道也。」 Sphere of human Articulated world National Taiwan University Masayuki Sato

22 The Worldview of the Zhuangzi
The sphere of Heaven 《莊子‧秋水》 :「何謂天?何謂人?」北海若曰:「牛馬四足,是謂天;落馬首,穿牛鼻,是謂人。故曰,无以人滅天,无以故滅命。」 《莊子‧在宥》:「何謂道?有天道,有人道。无為而尊者,天道也;有為而累者,人道也。」 The sphere of Humans The articulated world National Taiwan University Masayuki Sato

23 The distinction between Heanvely and Human Spheres
「何謂天?何謂人?」北海若曰:「牛馬四足,是謂天;落馬首,穿牛鼻,是謂人。 “What is ‘heavenly’ and what is ‘human’s?” Beihairuo answered: “(All) cow and horse (naturally) have all four legs. That can be called ‘heavenly’. Human beings push horse head down, and pierce the nose of cows can be human’s deed.”

24 The Worldview of the Zhuangzi
Sphere of Heaven 《莊子‧秋水》 :「何謂天?何謂人?」北海若曰:「牛馬四足,是謂天;落馬首,穿牛鼻,是謂人。故曰,无以人滅天,无以故滅命。」 《莊子‧在宥》:「何謂道?有天道,有人道。无為而尊者,天道也;有為而累者,人道也。」 Sphere of human The articulated world National Taiwan University Masayuki Sato

25 The Worldview of the Zhuangzi
The Sphere of Heaven 《莊子‧秋水》 :「何謂天?何謂人?」北海若曰:「牛馬四足,是謂天;落馬首,穿牛鼻,是謂人。故曰,无以人滅天,无以故滅命。」 《莊子‧在宥》:「何謂道?有天道,有人道。无為而尊者,天道也;有為而累者,人道也。」 The Sphere of Humans The articulated world National Taiwan University Masayuki Sato

26 The distinction between Heanvely and Human Spheres
无為而尊者,天道也;有為而累者,人道也。 Exhibiting its nature as “non-action” thus being reverent can be called the Way of Heaven; Exhibiting its nature as “doing” thus incurring troubles can be called the way of man

27 The Worldview of the Zhuangzi
The Sphere of Heaven 故曰,无以人滅天,无以故滅命。 《莊子‧大宗師》:「天與人不相勝也,是之謂真人。」 Mind practice The Sphere of humans Ideal Personality in the Zhuangzi National Taiwan University Masayuki Sato

28 The distinction between Heanvely and Human Spheres
故曰,无以人滅天,无以故滅命。 Thus, “Do not extinguish the sphere of heaven by expanding that of man; Do not disregard fate by speculating cause and reason.” 天與人不相勝也,是之謂真人。 Those who does not have the spheres of heaven and man confront with each other, e can be called “true man.”

29 The Worldview of the Zhuangzi
Sitting in forgetness Sphere of Heaven Mind practice Sphere of Humans Ideal personality in the Zhuangzi National Taiwan University Masayuki Sato

30 The Worldview of the Zhuangzi
Skill for protecting life Realm of Heaven SF MP Realm of Human Ideal personality in the Zhuangzi National Taiwan University Masayuki Sato

31 The Worldview of the Zhuangzi
Sphere of Heaven Maximization of realm of Heaven Minimization of the realm of Humans Realm of Human National Taiwan University Masayuki Sato

32 The Worldview of the Zhuangzi
Going out from the realm of humans to “roaming around” the realm of Heaven Minimization of the realm of Humans Maximization of realm of Heaven National Taiwan University Masayuki Sato

33 The Worldview of the Zhuangzi
Going out from the realm of humans to “roaming around” the realm of Heaven Minimization of the realm of Humans Maximization of realm of Heaven National Taiwan University Masayuki Sato

34 The Worldview of the Zhuangzi
Going out from the realm of humans to “roaming around” the realm of Heaven Minimization of the realm of Humans National Taiwan University Masayuki Sato

35 Going out of the sphere of human
The Worldview of the Zhuangzi 「萬物齊同」 (Everything constitutes One) 「逍遙遊」(Purposeless roaming) Going out of the sphere of human National Taiwan University Masayuki Sato

36 The Worldview of the Zhuangzi 「萬物齊同」 (Everything constitutes One) 「逍遙遊」(Purposeless roaming)
Going out from the realm of humans to “loaming around” the realm of Heaven National Taiwan University Masayuki Sato

37 The Worldview of the Zhuangzi 「萬物齊同」 (Everything constitutes One) 「逍遙遊」(Purposeless roaming)
Going out from the realm of humans to “loaming around” the realm of Heaven National Taiwan University Masayuki Sato

38 Characteristics of Thought: Division of [the sphere of] Heaven and human beings
Those characteristics which have been bestowed by nature called “Tian 天(heaven)” The meaning of Heaven has changed from anthropomorphic god into natural process or power which decides attributes of things and all creatures.

39 Human beings vs. heaven (河伯)曰:「何謂天?何謂人?」
北海若曰:「牛馬四足,是謂天;落馬首,穿牛鼻,是謂人。故曰,無以人滅天,無以故滅命,無以得殉名。謹守而勿失,是謂反其真。」(Qiushui 秋水)

40 “What do you mean,” pursued the earl, “by the Heavenly, and by the Human?”
Ruo replied, “Oxen and horses have four feet - that is what I call their Heavenly (constitution). When horses’ heads are haltered, and the noses of oxen are pierced, that is what I call (the doing of) Man. Hence it is said, ‘Do not by the Human (doing) extinguish the Heavenly (constitution); do not for your (Human) purpose extinguish the appointment (of Heaven); do not bury your (proper) fame in (such) a pursuit of it; carefully guard (the Way) and do not lose it: this is what I call reverting to your True (Nature).’”

41 Characteristics of Thought: Infinity and Non-distinction
The Zhuangzi argues that the realm of heaven exhibits its characteristics as infinite and non-distinctive, contrasted with the spheres of things and all creatures as trivial. Things (musical instruments): it stays in its unlimited state if it is not played. All creatures spring out from and vanish into the infinite process of natural providence.

42 Completeness of the Way
是非之彰也,道之所以虧也。道之所以虧,愛之所以成。果且有成與虧乎哉?果且無成與虧乎哉?有成與虧,故昭氏之鼓琴也;無成與虧,故昭氏之不鼓琴也。

43 Completeness of the Way
It was through the definite expression of different opinions about it that there ensued injury to (the perfection of) the Dao. It was this injury to the (perfection of) the Dao which led to the formation of (partial) preferences. […] Such formation and injure appears during the state when master Zhao play the lute. If master Zhao does not play, such formation and injury would not occur. The Qiwulun chapter

44 Zhuangzi’s view on human qualities
The strata of human society

45 Zhuangzi ’s view on Human qualities
不離於宗,謂之天人。不離於精,謂之神人。不離於真,謂之至人。以天為宗,以德為本,以道為門,兆於變化,謂之聖人。以仁為恩,以義為理,以禮為行,以樂為和,薰然慈仁,謂之君子。以法為分,以名為表,以參為驗,以稽為決,其數一二三四是也。百官以此相齒,以事為常,以衣食為主,蕃息畜藏,老弱孤寡為意,皆有以養,民之理也。(《天下》)

46 Levels of super human Not to be separate from his primal source constitutes what we call the Heavenly man; not to be separate from the essential nature thereof constitutes what we call the Miraculous man; not to be separate from its real truth constitutes what we call the Perfect man.

47 Levels of human/sage To regard Heaven as his primal Source, Its Attributes as the Root (of his nature), and the Dao as the Gate (by which he enters into this inheritance), (knowing also) the prognostics given in change and transformation, constitutes what we call the Sagely man. To regard benevolence as (the source of all) kindness, righteousness as (the source of all) distinctions, propriety as (the rule of) all conduct, and music as (the idea of) all harmony, thus diffusing a fragrance of gentleness and goodness, constitutes what we call the Superior man.

48 Level of ordinary man To regard laws as assigning the different (social) conditions, their names as the outward expression (of the social duties), the comparison of subjects as supplying the grounds of evidence, investigation as conducting to certainty, so that things can be numbered as first, second, third, fourth (and so on): (this is the basis of government). Its hundred offices are thus arranged; business has its regular course; the great matters of clothes and food are provided for; cattle are fattened and looked after; the (government) stores are filled; the old and weak, orphans and solitaries, receive anxious consideration: in all these ways is provision made for the nourishment of the people.

49 Zhuangzi ’s view on Human beings
天人 (heavenly man) 神人 (miraculous man) 至人 (perfect man) 聖人 (sagely man) 君子 (superior man) 百官 (minor government officials) 民 (multitude/ruled people)

50 Zhuangzi ’s view on Human beings
heavenly man miraculous man Perfect man Sagely man superior man minor officials ruled people heavenly man miraculous man perfect man sagely man superior man minor officials people

51 Zhuangzi ’s view on Human beings
heavenly man miraculous man perfect man sagely man superior man minor officials people

52 Zhuangzi ’s view on Human beings
heavenly man miraculous man perfect man sagely man superior man minor officials people

53 Zhuangzi ’s view on Human beings Hierarchy of human socieoty
Heavenly man 不離於宗,謂之天人。 Miraculous man 不離於真,謂之至人。 perfect man 不離於精,謂之神人。 sage 以天為宗,以德為本,以道為門,兆於變化,謂之聖人。 superior man 以仁為恩,以義為理,以禮為行,以樂為和,薰然慈仁,謂之君子。 minor officials ruled people National Taiwan University Masayuki Sato

54 Zhuangzi ’s view on Human beings Hierarchy of human socieoty
Ideal realm Heavenly man 不離於宗,謂之天人。 Miraculous man 不離於真,謂之至人。 perfect man 不離於精,謂之神人。 sage Middle realm 以天為宗,以德為本,以道為門,兆於變化,謂之聖人。 superior man 以仁為恩,以義為理,以禮為行,以樂為和,薰然慈仁,謂之君子。 minor officials The state of actual people ruled people National Taiwan University Masayuki Sato

55 Zhuangzi ’s view on Human beings Hierarchy of human socieoty
Ideal realm in the Zhuangzi Heavenly man 不離於宗,謂之天人。 Miraculous man 不離於真,謂之至人。 perfect man 不離於精,謂之神人。 sage Ideal realm in Confucianism 以天為宗,以德為本,以道為門,兆於變化,謂之聖人。 superior man 以仁為恩,以義為理,以禮為行,以樂為和,薰然慈仁,謂之君子。 The state of actual people minor officials ruled people National Taiwan University Masayuki Sato

56 Zhuangzi ’s view on Human beings Hierarchy of human socieoty
Recovery of the Assimilation into Heaven Zhuangzi ’s view on Human beings Hierarchy of human socieoty Ideal realm in the Zhuangzi Heavenly man 不離於宗,謂之天人。 Miraculous man 不離於真,謂之至人。 perfect man 不離於精,謂之神人。 sage Ideal realm in Confucianism 以天為宗,以德為本,以道為門,兆於變化,謂之聖人。 superior man 以仁為恩,以義為理,以禮為行,以樂為和,薰然慈仁,謂之君子。

57 Assimilation into Heaven
Recovery of the Assimilation into Heaven

58 Return to chaos / oneness

59 The Idea of “Transformation” in the Philosophy of the Zhuangzi
Zhuangzi ’s idea of “transformation” (wuhua 物化) is used in the following two senses: (1) The unlimited kinds of transformation which can be happened in the Idealistic realm in the philosophy of the Zhuangzi. (2) Various kinds of transformation among creatures in the actual world which consist the chain between life and death, and death and life.

60 The Idea of “Transformation” in the Philosophy of the Zhuangzi (1)
(1) The first and ultimate sense of Zhuangzi’s “transformation” This transformation can happan in the idealistic realm of Zhuangzi’s philosophy. It transpass the limitation of space and time, any form of existence.

61 The Idea of “Transformation” in the Philosophy of the Zhuangzi (1)
北冥有魚,其名為鯤。鯤之大,不知其幾千里也。化而為鳥,其名為鵬。 〈逍遙遊〉 In the Northern Ocean there is a fish, the name of which is Kun - I do not know how many li in size. It changes into a bird with the name of Peng, the back of which is (also) - I do not know how many li in extent. When this bird rouses itself and flies, its wings are like clouds all round the sky.

62 The Idea of “Transformation” in the Philosophy of the Zhuangzi (1)
北冥有魚,其名為鯤。鯤之大,不知其幾千里也。化而為鳥,其名為鵬。 〈逍遙遊〉 In the Northern Ocean there is a fish, the name of which is Kun - I do not know how many li in size. It changes into a bird with the name of Peng, the back of which is (also) - I do not know how many li in extent. When this bird rouses itself and flies, its wings are like clouds all round the sky.

63 The Idea of “Transformation” in the Philosophy of the Zhuangzi (1)
昔者莊周夢為胡蝶,栩栩然胡蝶也。自喻適志與!不知周也。俄然覺,則蘧蘧然周也。不知周之夢為胡蝶與?胡蝶之夢為周與?周與胡蝶,則必有分矣。此之謂物化。 〈齊物論〉

64 The Idea of “Transformation” in the Philosophy of the Zhuangzi (1)
昔者莊周夢為胡蝶,栩栩然胡蝶也。自喻適志與!不知周也。俄然覺,則蘧蘧然周也。不知周之夢為胡蝶與?胡蝶之夢為周與?周與胡蝶,則必有分矣。此之謂物化。 〈齊物論〉

65 Zhuang Zhou’s dream of butterfly
Formerly, I, Zhuang Zhou, dreamt that I was a butterfly, a butterfly flying about, feeling that it was enjoying itself. I did not know that it was Zhou. Suddenly I awoke, and was myself again, the veritable Zhou. I did not know whether it had formerly been Zhou dreaming that he was a butterfly, or it was now a butterfly dreaming that it was Zhou. But between Zhou and a butterfly there must be a difference. This is a case of what is called “the Transformation of Things.”

66 Zhuang Zhou’s dream of butterfly
Formerly, I, Zhuang Zhou, dreamt that I was a butterfly, a butterfly flying about, feeling that it was enjoying itself. I did not know that it was Zhou. Suddenly I awoke, and was myself again, the veritable Zhou. I did not know whether it had formerly been Zhou dreaming that he was a butterfly, or it was now a butterfly dreaming that it was Zhou. But between Zhou and a butterfly there must be a difference. This is a case of what is called “the Transformation of Things.”

67 The Idea of “Transformation” in the Philosophy of the Zhuangzi
(2) The other kind of the “transformation” denotes the process of death and life among different kinds of creatures in the actual world. This actual world is conceived of as the articulated world which has been degenerated from the original state of chaos.

68 Transformation in the actual world
…久竹生青寧;青寧生程,程生馬,馬生人,人又反入於機。萬物皆出於機,皆入於機。 〈至樂〉 The yang-xi uniting with a bamboo, which has long ceased to put forth sprouts, produces the qing-ning; the qing-ning, the panther; the panther, the horse; and the horse, the man. Man then again enters into the great Machinery (of Evolution), from which all things come forth (at birth), and which they enter at death.

69 The Idea of “Transformation” in the Philosophy of the Zhuangzi
Transformation through death and life death life chaos Human beings other creatures death life The actual world after chaos has degenerated and articulated. National Taiwan University Masayuki Sato

70 The Idea of “Transformation” in the Philosophy of the Zhuangzi
Human being cannot control transformation Transformation through death and life death life chaos Human beings other creatures death life The actual world after chaos has degenerated and articulated. National Taiwan University Masayuki Sato

71 The Idea of “Transformation” in the Philosophy of the Zhuangzi
Human being cannot control transformation 生物死生之間的「物化」 Human being only live and die in this process death life 其他生物 人 類 death life National Taiwan University Masayuki Sato

72 The Idea of “Transformation” in the Philosophy of the Zhuangzi
知天樂者,其生也天行,其死也物化。 〈天道〉 Those who know the happiness by heaven, live according to the process of heaven, and die in that of transformation. 聖人之生也天行,其死也物化。〈刻意〉 The life of sagely man live in natural process, and die in that of transformation.

73 Heavenly process and transformation
The sphere of heaven Life in the process of heaven National Taiwan University Masayuki Sato

74 Heavenly process and transformation
The sphere of heaven Human beings Other creatures The life in the process of heaven The death in the transformation National Taiwan University Masayuki Sato

75 Heavenly process and transformation
The sphere of heaven Let all the process be in natural process Other creatures Human beings Let all the process be in natural process The life in the process of heaven The death in the transformation National Taiwan University Masayuki Sato

76 Transformation and Interchangeability: “Wuhua 物化”
Zhuangzi’s idea of “Wanwu qitong (All things and creatures exist in oneness)” suggests his two worldviews: (1) All things and creatures are in their process of transformation. (2) All things can be interchangeable beyond between time and space; awaken and dreamed states; among different creatures; death and life….

77 The path for the mastery of the Way
Then, how can a person participate in this process and “transform” her/himself into the part of it? Theoretically speaking, minute human being must not have such an ablity. However, the Zhuangzi’s answer is ambivalent between his intuitive advocacy for “non-action and a number of descriptive manual of “deliberate training.”

78 Xinzhai 心齋 (Fast of mind/heart)
回曰:「敢問心齋。」仲尼曰:「一若志,無聽之以耳而聽之以心,無聽之以心而聽之以氣。聽止於耳,心止於符。氣也者,虛而待物者也。唯道集虛。虛者,心齋也。」顏回曰:「回之未始得使,實自回也;得使之也,未始有回也。可謂虛乎?」夫子曰:「盡矣。」

79 The fasting of mind “I venture to ask what that fasting of the mind is?” said Hui, and Zhongni (i.e., Confucius) answered, “Maintain a perfect unity in every movement of your will, You will not wait for the hearing of your ears about it, but for the hearing of your mind. You will not wait even for the hearing of your mind, but for the hearing of the spirit. Let the hearing (of the ears) rest with the ears. Let the mind rest in the verification (of the rightness of what is in the will).”

80 The fasting of mind “But the spirit is free from all pre-occupation and so waits for (the appearance of) things. Where the (proper) course is, there is freedom from all pre-occupation; such freedom is the fasting of the mind.” Hui said, “Before it was possible for me to employ (this method), there I was, the Hui that I am; now, that I can employ it, the Hui that I was has passed away. Can I be said to have obtained this freedom from pre-occupation?” The Master replied, “Entirely.”

81 Training for mastery When Confucius was on his way to Chu, as he issued from a forest, he saw a hunchback receiving cicadas (on the point of a rod), as if he were picking them up with his hand. “You are clever!” said he to the man. “Is there any method in it?” The hunchback replied, “There is. For five or six months, I practised with two pellets, till they never fell down, and then I only failed with a small fraction of the cicadas (which I tried to catch). Having succeeded in the same way with three (pellets), I missed only one cicada in ten. Having succeeded with five, I caught the cicadas as if I were gathering them.”

82 Training for mastery When Confucius was on his way to Chu, as he issued from a forest, he saw a hunchback receiving cicadas (on the point of a rod), as if he were picking them up with his hand. “You are clever!” said he to the man. “Is there any method in it?” The hunchback replied, “There is. For five or six months, I practised with two pellets, till they never fell down, and then I only failed with a small fraction of the cicadas (which I tried to catch). Having succeeded in the same way with three (pellets), I missed only one cicada in ten. Having succeeded with five, I caught the cicadas as if I were gathering them”.

83 The state of mastery My body is to me no more than the stump of a broken trunk, and my shoulder no more than the branch of a rotten tree. Great as heaven and earth are, and multitudinous as things are, I take no notice of them, but only of the wings of my cicadas; neither turning nor inclining to one side. I would not for them all exchange the wings of my cicadas - how should I not succeed in taking them?” Confucius looked round, and said to his disciples, “ ‘Where the will is not diverted from its object, the spirit is concentrated’ - this might have been spoken of this hunchback gentleman.”

84 The main arguments in the Philosophy in the The Laozi and The Zhuangzi

85 The main arguments in the Philosophy in the The Laozi and The Zhuangzi
(1) Both presents the Concept of Dao : The origin of universe and the master of the world, which cannot be known, nor be spoken by any language (2) Both presuppose that the world should be in the process of “change (bianhua 變化)” and all living creatures are transient in such process. (3) The Zhuangzi attempts to demonstrate the sheer contrast between infinite and omnipotent power of Heaven (tian 天) and minute and vain existence of human beings. (4) The articulation of the concept of nothingness (wu 無) and non-action (wuwei 無為)

86 The main arguments in the Philosophy in the The Laozi and The Zhuangzi
(5) The Laozi admires maternal power as the source of procreation and the condition of the existence of things. (6) The Zhuangzi argues that everything including human beings constitute the inseparable oneness. (7) The Zhuangzi cherishes life, yet does not cling to it. (8) The Zhuangzi claims that in order to reach the aforementioned realm, a person should involve him/herself into body/mind training.

87 The condition for ruling the world in the philosophy of the Laozi
The level of principle The person who can reach the power of generating The person who can follow the rule of revolution of Heaven and providence of earth The person who can control the change of the world The level of adoption The person who can nourish one own body and heart/mind The person who can stand at the position of humble part. The person who can rule without verbal ordinance.

88 The condition for ruling the world in the philosophy of the Laozi
The level of principle The person who can reach the power of generating The person who can follow the rule of revolution of Heaven and providence of earth The person who can control the change of the world The level of adoption The person who can nourish one own body and heart/mind The person who can stand at the position of humble part. The person who can rule without verbal ordinance. Does the philosophy of Zhuangzi not have any implication for becoming ruler in the sphere of human world ? The condition for the ruling the world

89 Zhuangzi’s philosophy and the movie of Hayao Miyazaki
1. A sheer contrast between extravagant power of natural world and triviality of bdevices produced by human civilization or “science” 2. Interchangeablity/transformation of different objects and spheres (e.g. god/human ⇄ animal/evil spirit; beauty⇄ugry; good character ⇄ harmful) 3. nostagia for the past: original / naïve vs. degradation 4. virtue and wisdom in ugliness or in the stage of ending of life (e.g. old lady) 5. metaphor of “big tree” Wiki Rror

90 Questions for further discussion
1. Is the philosophy of the Zhuangzi skeptical against all issues or affirmative for something “absolute (e.g. creator)”? 2. Does it present for method for longevity or preach our reconciliation with death? 3. Does it request us to do nothing or to engage oneself with deliberate training for attaining the mastery of the Way?

91 Introduction to Classical Chinese Philosophy
Thank you very much ! Lecture Nine The Philosophy of Transformation and Oneness: The Book of Zhuangzi

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Work Licensing Author/ Source Wiki user: Mladifilozof 2011/11/16 visited 莊子者…以明老子之術 司馬遷《史記‧老子韓非列傳》 頁6 National Taiwan University Masayuki Sato 古之人…而未始有是非也 莊子《莊子‧齊物論》 頁11 This work comes from Chinese Text Project, edited by Donald Sturgeon, English translated by James Legge, and used in accordance with the FAQ of Chinese Text Project by GET 南海之帝為儵…七日而渾沌死 莊子《莊子‧應帝王》

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Work Licensing Author/ Source 「何謂天?何謂人?」…无以故滅命,無以得殉名。謹守而勿失,是謂反其真。」 莊子《莊子‧秋水》 「何謂道?…人道也。」 莊子《莊子‧在宥》 頁23 This work comes from Chinese Text Project, edited by Donald Sturgeon, English translated by James Legge, and used in accordance with the FAQ of Chinese Text Project by GET National Taiwan University Masayuki Sato 无為而尊者,天道也;有為而累者,人道也。

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Work Licensing Author/ Source 頁26 This work comes from Chinese Text Project, edited by Donald Sturgeon, English translated by James Legge, and used in accordance with the FAQ of Chinese Text Project by GET National Taiwan University Masayuki Sato 頁27 莊子《莊子‧大宗師》 頁28 This work comes from Chinese Text Project, edited by Donald Sturgeon, English translated by James Legge, and used in accordance with the FAQ of Chinese Text Project by GET

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Work Licensing Author/ Source National Taiwan University Masayuki Sato

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Work Licensing Author/ Source National Taiwan University Masayuki Sato 頁40 This work comes from Chinese Text Project, edited by Donald Sturgeon, English translated by James Legge, and used in accordance with the FAQ of Chinese Text Project by GET 是非之彰也…故昭氏之不鼓琴也。 莊子《莊子‧齊物論》 頁43 This work comes from Chinese Text Project, edited by Donald Sturgeon, English translated by James Legge, and used in accordance with the FAQ of Chinese Text Project by GET Going out of the sphere of human Going out from the realm of humans to “loaming around” the realm of Heaven

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Work Licensing Author/ Source 不離於宗…民之理也。 莊子《莊子‧天下》 頁46-48 This work comes from Chinese Text Project, edited by Donald Sturgeon, English translated by James Legge, and used in accordance with the FAQ of Chinese Text Project by GET National Taiwan University Masayuki Sato

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Work Licensing Author/ Source 北冥有魚…其名為鵬。 莊子《莊子‧逍遙遊》 頁61-62 This work comes from Chinese Text Project, edited by Donald Sturgeon, English translated by James Legge, and used in accordance with the FAQ of Chinese Text Project by GET 昔者莊周夢為胡蝶…此之謂物化。 莊子《莊子‧齊物論》 頁65-66 This work comes from Chinese Text Project, edited by Donald Sturgeon, English translated by James Legge, and used in accordance with the FAQ of Chinese Text Project by GET …久竹生青寧…皆入於機。 莊子《莊子‧至樂》

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Work Licensing Author/ Source 頁68 This work comes from Chinese Text Project, edited by Donald Sturgeon, English translated by James Legge, and used in accordance with the FAQ of Chinese Text Project by GET National Taiwan University Masayuki Sato 知天樂者,其生也天行,其死也物化。 莊子《莊子‧天道》

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Work Licensing Author/ Source 聖人之生也天行,其死也物化。 莊子《莊子‧刻意》 頁72 This work comes from Chinese Text Project, edited by Donald Sturgeon, English translated by James Legge, and used in accordance with the FAQ of Chinese Text Project by GET This work comes from Chinese Text Project, edited by Donald Sturgeon, English translated by James Legge, and used in accordance with the FAQ of Chinese Text Project by GET National Taiwan University Masayuki Sato

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Work Licensing Author/ Source National Taiwan University Masayuki Sato 回曰:“敢問心齋。…夫子曰:“盡矣。 莊子《莊子‧人間世》 頁79-80 This work comes from Chinese Text Project, edited by Donald Sturgeon, English translated by James Legge, and used in accordance with the FAQ of Chinese Text Project by GET Wiki Zhang Lu (張路) 2011/11/17 visited Wiki Rror 2011/02/09 visited


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