Presentation on theme: "What Are The Characteristics of Quality Questions?"— Presentation transcript:
1What Are The Characteristics of Quality Questions? PresentersKeisha BecerraCarol Malone- CooperSusan McGinnis
2What are Quality Questions? Quality questions need to be “ Purposeful, engaging, and consequential. They are aligned with learning goals, awaken students curiosity and class participation, and result in desired learning outcomes.” ( Anderson & Krathwohl, 2001; Bloom, 1987)
3Four Identified Characteristics of Quality Questions The questions promote one or more carefully defined instructional purposes.The questions focus on important contentThe questions facilitate thinking at a stipulated cognitive level.The questions communicate clearly what is being asked.
4Quality Questions Are Purposeful The purpose of a question depends on the instructional objective.When teachers are clear about the purposes of questions, they can better assess student responses.The two typical classroom contexts for questioning are recitation and discussion.
5RecitationThe teacher poses a question, and after the student responds the teacher “ confirms the rightness or wrongness of the answer.”Recitation questions are usually low – level questions.These questions ask students to recall facts, provide definitions, or demonstrate comprehension.These questions rarely engage students in thinking deeply about an issue.
6When Should Teachers use Recitation Questions? To review before a testTo see if students have read and understood a passageTo check on completion and/or comprehension of homeworkTo assess what students know about a topicTo cue students on important contentTo provide opportunities for drill and practiceTo model good questioning for students
7DiscussionThe teacher might pose a single, provocative, open-ended question and ask other questions on for clarification. Students do not wait for the teacher’s permission to speak and they do not look to the teacher for assessment of responses; they engage in dialogue with one another, listen respectfully, and make their own evaluations.
8When Should Teachers use Discussion Questions? To give students practice in thinking out loudTo encourage students to hear and respect diverse points of viewTo provide an opportunity for students to speculate, formulate hypotheses, and offer evidence to support ideasTo encourage students to make connections that will help them move information to long- term memoryTo create opportunities for students to transfer learning to different contexts or situations
9Quality Questions Have a Clear Content Focus Once teachers have specified the purpose(s) for their question, they must wrestle with the question” On what specific content do I want to pose a question to students?”Teachers must consider the alignment of their content to standards.
10Understand by Design Frameworks Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe created the Understand by Design Framework. This model advocates the backward design process, which consists of three stages:Worth Being Familiar WithImportant to Know and DoEnduring Understanding
11Questioning Circle Framework The Questioning Circle framework was developed by Christenbury and Kelly in Teachers questions can fall into one, two or all three domains. The most powerful questions are found in the intersection of the three areas.External Reality( Other Subjects)Personal Knowledge( Student Experience)The Subject( Term Matter)
12Quality Questions engage students at varied and appropriate cognitive levels Questions are tools for both information seeking and information processing (Hunkins, 1995).A variety of tools exist for helping identify and distinguish different kinds of thinking or cognition.
14Bloom’s Taxonomy Revised The most significant change is the move from a one-dimensional to a two-dimensional scheme of classificationKnowledge ~ RememberComprehension ~ UnderstandApplication ~ ApplyAnalysis ~ AnalyzeSynthesis ~ EvaluateEvaluation ~ Create
15Differences between the Original and Revised Bloom’s New levels are expressed as verbs instead of nounsA number of the roots are changed(remember is distinguishable from knowledge)The order of the last two levels has been reversed – evaluate precedes createA new feature – each of the six cognitive dimensions also have two or more specific cognitive processes (p )
16Differences between the Original and Revised Bloom’s The majority of the categories relate to the ability to transfer knowledge, not just remember.
17Remember Recognize or recall information Students must be able to retrieve information if they are to use it in more cognitively complex operations.KEY – teachers must embed such questions within the “larger task of constructing new knowledge or solving new problems” (Anderson & Krathwohl, 2001, pp ).
18UnderstandA first step for teachers is to facilitate connections between new knowledge and prior knowledge and experiences.If a question is to move a student beyond the remember level, it must include information that the student did not encounter during initial instruction.Compare the circumstances surrounding the United States’ acquisition ofthe Louisiana Purchase to those surrounding its purchase of Alaska.
19Apply The taxonomy distinguishes between two types of application: Execution – applying a procedure to a familiar taskUsing the information provided on a U.S. map, estimate the length in milesof the Mississippi River.Implementation – (more difficult) applying a procedure to anunfamiliar taskIdentify the U.S. cities you believe developed after the advent of rail travel.
20AnalyzeInvolves breaking down a whole (idea or problem) into its component parts and determining how the parts are related one to another~ Fact vs. Opinion, Reality vs. Fantasy~ Connecting conclusions with supportive statements~ Relevant vs. Extraneous Information~ Determining the relationship between and among ideasWhat are some of the primary themes in Lewis and Clark’s journals?
21EvaluateInvolves making a judgment based upon the application of a set of standards or criteria.The KEY– Identification and use of standards and criteria.~ Quality~ Effectiveness~ Efficiency~ Consistency
22Evaluate Checking – making judgments about internal consistency Were the social policies of President Johnson’s administration consistentwith his voting record as a U.S. senator?Critiquing – making judgments based upon external criteriaWhich of these two paintings best represent impressionist art?
23CreateEngages students in putting together disparate parts to form a new whole“Create results in a new product that is something that can be observed and that is more than the students’ beginning materials”(Anderson & Krathwohl, 2001, p. 65).Design a security system that would protect the safety of all students in our school with minimal infringement on individual rights.
24The Knowledge Dimension Factual knowledge – “bits of information”, terminology, specific details and elementsConceptual knowledge – more complex, organized information (classifications, categories, principles and generalizations, etc…)Procedural knowledge – how to do something – skills and algorithms, techniques, methods, “when to do what” in specific domainsMetacognitive knowledge – knowledge about cognition in general as well as an awareness of and knowledge about one’s own cognition
25Marzano’s TaxonomyRecitation questions – simply retrieve information previously learnedWhat factors contributed to the stock market crash of 1929?Construction questions – require students to construct new knowledge that has not been previously learnedHow did the public reaction to the fall of the stock market followingSeptember 11, 2001, compare to the Crash of 1929?
26Gallagher and Aschner’s Taxonomy Recall – equivalent with the remember levelin Bloom’sConvergent questions – one correct response, a narrowing or focusing of the thought processDivergent questions – no one right answer; must think of new and different possibilities that are justifiable
27Reading Teacher’s Taxonomy Reading the lines – the answer is in the textReading between the lines – inferenceReading beyond the lines – bring your perspective to the text (Evaluate/Create in Bloom’s)
28Walsh and Satte’s Taxonomy Recall questions = remember in Bloom’s~ Simply recall what they have learnedUse questions = understand, apply and analyzein Bloom’s~ Do something with what they have learnedCreate questions = create / evaluate~Use their imaginations to go beyond what they have learned orbeen told
29Considerations in Choosing a Taxonomy The developmental levels of your studentsThe content areas you teachYour own personal preferences and professional strengthsThe school faculty choosing one taxonomy (beneficial)
30Caveats regarding the use of Bloom’s The cognitive level of the response is dependent on the context in which a question is posed and the student’s experiential and knowledge background50% of answers to oral questions do not match the cognitive level of the questionsMost textbook questions are at the lowest level of Bloom’sALL students can think at higher level if given adequate support and instruction!
31Quality questions are clear and concise Write the questionFlaws are easier to see whenprintedReread to check for a clearmeaning
32Quality questions are clear and concise Wording is critical to the ultimate quality of the questionConsider the students’ perspectiveCan students translate the question into their own words?
33Quality questions are clear and concise Common understandingof the kind of response thequestion is seekingWording and gender are important considerationsAppropriate to students’ age, grade, achievement level, cultural background, etc.
34Quality questions are clear and concise Syntax – “the structure of the sentence and the manner in which words are put together”Grammatically correctAddress only one issue for response– single barreledSufficient contextual informationto arrive at an appropriate answer
35Quality questions are clear and concise Acid test of a quality questionDoes it feel right?Does it sound right?Is it easy to say?Is it easy to understand?
36Quality questions are clear and concise Quality questions are seldom asked by chance.Carefully crafted pivotal questionsMove class into the heart of the lessonMove student thinking to higher levelsCan be time consuming and difficult,but well worth the effortStockpile questions and sharewith others
37Quality questions are clear and concise From the asking/answering of pivotal questions other questions emergeClarifyExtend understandingsExtend the frontier ofstudent learning
38Quality questions are clear and concise “Muscles of Classroom Questions” must be crafted according to:Instructional purposeContent focusDesired cognitive levelLearner needs and interests