2Fact or Falsehood?T F 1. Consciousness has an unlimited capacity.T F 2. Most university students are “evening” persons whose performance improves throughout the day.T F 3. People who sleep seven to eight hours a night tend to outlive those who are chronically sleep-deprived.T F 4. The most common dreams are those with sexual imagery.T F 5. The majority of the characters in men’s dreams are female.T F 6. Most psychologists believe that dreams provide a key to understanding our inner conflicts.T F 7. Under hypnosis, people can be induced to perform feats they would otherwise find impossible.T F 8. Under hypnosis, people can be induced to perform acts they would otherwise find immoral.T F 9. Those given morphine to control pain often become addicted to the drug.T F 10. In large amounts, alcohol is a depressant; in small amounts, it is a stimulant.
31. F (p. 272) 6. F (pp. 287–288)2. T (p. 275) 7. F (p. 291)3. T (p. 281) 8. F (p. 292)4. F (p. 286) 9. F (p. 297)5. F (p. 286) 10. F (p. 298)
4Consciousness Our level of awareness of ourselves and our environment We are conscious to the degree we are aware of what is going on inside and outside ourselves.Much of consciousness is outside our awarenessBeginner driverAdvanced driver
5Consciousness is Not an on/off switch! We are not conscious or unconscious!There are different levels and different states of consciousness.More sophisticated brain imaging tools and an increased emphasis on cognitive psychology = more study
6Levels of Consciousness Conscious – What are you focusing on right now?Nonconscious – Heartbeat, respiration, digestion, etcPreconscious – you are not currently thinking about it, but you could beYour favorite toy as a childYour first day of school
7Cont’d4. Subconscious level – Information that we are not consciously aware of but we know must exist due to behavior.Priming, mere exposure(we prefer stimuli we have been exposed to over novel stimuli ) and blindsightUnconscious – Some events are unacceptable to our conscious mind are are repressed into the unconscious mind. DEBATEABLE!
8SLEEPWhich level of consciousness does it fit?Explain
9Conscious level!!!While we are asleep, we are less aware of ourselves and our environment than when we are awake.Other states of consciousness are drug- induced states, hypnosis,etc
10Biological Rhythms: Distinguish 4 types and give an example of each Life has rhythmic tides. They includeAnnual cycles – geese migrate, bears hibernate and humans experience seasonal variations in appetite, sleep and mood.(seasonal affective disorder)28 day menstrual cycles – check out mood score on p. 27424 hour cycles – varying alertness, body temp and growth hormone secretion90 minute cycles – sleep stages
12Rhythm of Sleep: our 24 hour biological clock and biological clock Circadian RhythmOur bodies synchronize with the 24-hour cycle of the daySharpest thinking, memory most accurateAt our circadian peakMost college students are owlsMost older adults are larksguidAssetId=2AE63A7D-2DC7-408C-9A8D- 4DC34A4B57E8&blnFromSearch=1&productcode =US
13How to mess up your circadian clock Drink caffeine late in the dayAdjusting sleep schedulePull an all-nighterStay up late on weekends and sleep until noon or later!Transcontinental Flights
14Why do we sleep? 60 minutes part 1 n&tag=contentMain;contentBody
15Sleep Stages List the stages of the sleep cycle and how they differ Stage 1 sleep onsetBrain produces alpha wavesDrowsy but awakeMight experience hallucinations (falling)We don’t know we are in sleep until we are out of it!Stage 2EEG shows sleep spindles (short bursts of rapid brain wavesRelax more deeply and are clealry asleepSleeptalking can happen (garbled speech)
16Stage 3 Stage 4 Delta waves (large, slow waves) Last about 30 min, you are hard to awaken, but still conscious:Roll around without falling out of bedDon’t crush infant sleeping with you, unless drunkSleep through loud noisesStage 4Delta waves30 minutes longBedwetting, sleepwalking occur
17Delta Sleep Very difficult to awaken someone Will be disoriented and groggyImportant in replenishing body’s chemical supplies (hormones)Increased exercise increases time we spend in stages 3 & 4
18REM Sleep After Delta sleep we go back through stages 3, 2, 1. In stage 1, brain produces intense activity: Eyes dart back and forth, muscles twitch = REMSometimes called paradoxical sleepBrain waves appear awake!
19Purpose of REM - ??? Dreams usually occur Deprivation of REM interferes with memoryMore stress during day = more REM sleep that night
20We cycle through these approx 90 minute stage 4-7 times each night Closer to morning, more time in stage 1,2, and REMBabies sleep more (18 hours) and have moreFunctions of Sleep: Discovery Education60-3D62-49FA-BEF9- 5EA2215CA8AF&blnFromSearch=1&productcode=USB160-3D62-49FA-BEF9- 5EA2215CA8AF&blnFromSearch=1&productcode=US
21Sleep Disorders Insomnia- most common disorder Narcolepsy Persistent getting to sleep or staying asleepCure: reduce caffeine, exercise, maintain consistent sleep patternNarcolepsyPeriods of intense sleepiness, can fall asleep at unpredictable timesTreatment – medication and changing sleep patterns (naps)
22Sleep Apnea Serious problem, may cause death Person stops breathing, wakes slightly, gasps for air, goes back to sleepRobs person of deep sleep = poor attention and poor memoryUsually overweight menTreatment: respiration machine provides air
23Night Terrors and Sleep walking Mostly in childrenDon’t remember episodeOccur during stage 4 sleepGrow out of them
24Effects of Sleep Deprivation Lack of concentration, depressionHunger and obesityFatal accidentsIrritability, mistakesSlowed reaction times (20% of traffic accidents)Suppresses immune systemFeelings of boredom
25Am I Sleep Deprived?Respond to each of the following items by circling “T” for true or “F” for false.T F 1. I need an alarm clock in order to wake up at the appropriate time.T F 2. It’s a struggle for me to get out of bed in the morning.T F 3. Weekday mornings I hit the snooze button several times to get more sleep.T F 4. I feel tired, irritable, and stressed-out during the week.T F 5. I have trouble concentrating and remembering.T F 6. I feel slow with critical thinking, problem solving, and being creative.T F 7. I often fall asleep watching TV.T F 8 I often fall asleep in boring meetings or lectures or in warm rooms.T F 9. I often fall asleep after heavy meals or after a low dose of alcohol.T F 10. I often fall asleep while relaxing after dinner.T F 11. I often fall asleep within five minutes of getting into bed.T F 12. I often feel drowsy while driving.T F 13. I often sleep extra hours on weekend mornings.T F 14. I often need a nap to get through the day.T F 15. I have dark circles around my eyes.