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What is consciousness?.  Fact or Falsehood?  T F 1. Consciousness has an unlimited capacity.  T F 2. Most university students are “evening” persons.

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Presentation on theme: "What is consciousness?.  Fact or Falsehood?  T F 1. Consciousness has an unlimited capacity.  T F 2. Most university students are “evening” persons."— Presentation transcript:

1 What is consciousness?

2  Fact or Falsehood?  T F 1. Consciousness has an unlimited capacity.  T F 2. Most university students are “evening” persons whose performance improves throughout the day.  T F 3. People who sleep seven to eight hours a night tend to outlive those who are chronically sleep-deprived.  T F 4. The most common dreams are those with sexual imagery.  T F 5. The majority of the characters in men’s dreams are female.  T F 6. Most psychologists believe that dreams provide a key to understanding our inner conflicts.  T F 7. Under hypnosis, people can be induced to perform feats they would otherwise find impossible.  T F 8. Under hypnosis, people can be induced to perform acts they would otherwise find immoral.  T F 9. Those given morphine to control pain often become addicted to the drug.  T F 10. In large amounts, alcohol is a depressant; in small amounts, it is a stimulant.

3 1. F (p. 272) 6. F (pp. 287–288) 2. T (p. 275) 7. F (p. 291) 3. T (p. 281) 8. F (p. 292) 4. F (p. 286) 9. F (p. 297) 5. F (p. 286) 10. F (p. 298)

4  Our level of awareness of ourselves and our environment  We are conscious to the degree we are aware of what is going on inside and outside ourselves.  Much of consciousness is outside our awareness ◦ Beginner driver ◦ Advanced driver

5  We are not conscious or unconscious!  There are different levels and different states of consciousness.  More sophisticated brain imaging tools and an increased emphasis on cognitive psychology = more study

6 1. Conscious – What are you focusing on right now? 2. Nonconscious – Heartbeat, respiration, digestion, etc 3. Preconscious – you are not currently thinking about it, but you could be ◦ Your favorite toy as a child ◦ Your first day of school

7 Cont’d 4. Subconscious level – Information that we are not consciously aware of but we know must exist due to behavior. ◦ Priming, mere exposure(we prefer stimuli we have been exposed to over novel stimuli ) and blindsight 5. Unconscious – Some events are unacceptable to our conscious mind are are repressed into the unconscious mind. DEBATEABLE!

8  Which level of consciousness does it fit?  Explain

9  While we are asleep, we are less aware of ourselves and our environment than when we are awake.  Other states of consciousness are drug- induced states, hypnosis,etc

10 Life has rhythmic tides. They include A. Annual cycles – geese migrate, bears hibernate and humans experience seasonal variations in appetite, sleep and mood.(seasonal affective disorder) B. 28 day menstrual cycles – check out mood score on p. 274 C. 24 hour cycles – varying alertness, body temp and growth hormone secretion D. 90 minute cycles – sleep stages


12  Circadian Rhythm ◦ Our bodies synchronize with the 24-hour cycle of the day ◦ Sharpest thinking, memory most accurate  At our circadian peak ◦ Most college students are owls ◦ Most older adults are larks ◦ guidAssetId=2AE63A7D-2DC7-408C-9A8D- 4DC34A4B57E8&blnFromSearch=1&productcode =US

13  Drink caffeine late in the day  Adjusting sleep schedule ◦ Pull an all-nighter ◦ Stay up late on weekends and sleep until noon or later!  Transcontinental Flights

14  181992n&tag=contentMain;contentBody 181992n&tag=contentMain;contentBody

15  Stage 1 sleep onset › Brain produces alpha waves › Drowsy but awake › Might experience hallucinations (falling) › We don’t know we are in sleep until we are out of it!  Stage 2 › EEG shows sleep spindles (short bursts of rapid brain waves › Relax more deeply and are clealry asleep › Sleeptalking can happen (garbled speech)

16  Stage 3 ◦ Delta waves (large, slow waves) ◦ Last about 30 min, you are hard to awaken, but still conscious:  Roll around without falling out of bed  Don’t crush infant sleeping with you, unless drunk ◦ Sleep through loud noises  Stage 4 ◦ Delta waves ◦ 30 minutes long ◦ Bedwetting, sleepwalking occur

17  Very difficult to awaken someone  Will be disoriented and groggy  Important in replenishing body’s chemical supplies (hormones)  Increased exercise increases time we spend in stages 3 & 4

18  After Delta sleep we go back through stages 3, 2, 1.  In stage 1, brain produces intense activity: Eyes dart back and forth, muscles twitch = REM  Sometimes called paradoxical sleep ◦ Brain waves appear awake!

19  Dreams usually occur  Deprivation of REM interferes with memory  More stress during day = more REM sleep that night

20  We cycle through these approx 90 minute stage 4-7 times each night  Closer to morning, more time in stage 1,2, and REM  Babies sleep more (18 hours) and have more  Functions of Sleep: Discovery Education 60-3D62-49FA-BEF9- 5EA2215CA8AF&blnFromSearch=1&productcode=US  B160-3D62-49FA-BEF9- 5EA2215CA8AF&blnFromSearch=1&productcode=US B160-3D62-49FA-BEF9- 5EA2215CA8AF&blnFromSearch=1&productcode=US

21  Insomnia- most common disorder ◦ Persistent getting to sleep or staying asleep ◦ Cure: reduce caffeine, exercise, maintain consistent sleep pattern  Narcolepsy ◦ Periods of intense sleepiness, can fall asleep at unpredictable times ◦ Treatment – medication and changing sleep patterns (naps)

22  Sleep Apnea ◦ Serious problem, may cause death ◦ Person stops breathing, wakes slightly, gasps for air, goes back to sleep ◦ Robs person of deep sleep = poor attention and poor memory ◦ Usually overweight men ◦ Treatment: respiration machine provides air

23  Night Terrors and Sleep walking ◦ Mostly in children ◦ Don’t remember episode ◦ Occur during stage 4 sleep ◦ Grow out of them

24  Lack of concentration, depression  Hunger and obesity  Fatal accidents  Irritability, mistakes  Slowed reaction times (20% of traffic accidents)  Suppresses immune system  Feelings of boredom

25  Am I Sleep Deprived?  Respond to each of the following items by circling “T” for true or “F” for false.  T F 1. I need an alarm clock in order to wake up at the appropriate time.  T F 2. It’s a struggle for me to get out of bed in the morning.  T F 3. Weekday mornings I hit the snooze button several times to get more sleep.  T F 4. I feel tired, irritable, and stressed-out during the week.  T F 5. I have trouble concentrating and remembering.  T F 6. I feel slow with critical thinking, problem solving, and being creative.  T F 7. I often fall asleep watching TV.  T F 8 I often fall asleep in boring meetings or lectures or in warm rooms.  T F 9. I often fall asleep after heavy meals or after a low dose of alcohol.  T F 10. I often fall asleep while relaxing after dinner.  T F 11. I often fall asleep within five minutes of getting into bed.  T F 12. I often feel drowsy while driving.  T F 13. I often sleep extra hours on weekend mornings.  T F 14. I often need a nap to get through the day.  T F 15. I have dark circles around my eyes.

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