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Module 18: Sleep Unit 5: States of Consciousness.

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Presentation on theme: "Module 18: Sleep Unit 5: States of Consciousness."— Presentation transcript:

1 Module 18: Sleep Unit 5: States of Consciousness

2 Key Ideas: Levels of consciousness Sleep and dreaming Sleep disorders Hypnosis Meditation Psychoactive drugs – depressants, narcotics, stimulants, hallucinogens

3 States of Consciousness Consciousness – our awareness of ourselves and our environment. This includes: thoughts, feelings, and perceptions. (waking) Altered states of consciousness include sleep, dreaming, meditation, etc. Do not confuse with unconsciousness which is loss of responsiveness from disease, trauma, drugs, etc.

4 Levels of Consciousness Preconscious – Outside of your normal awareness. You can recall information if needed (what you had for dinner) Nonconscious – Not aware of at all. Blood flow, heartbeat, etc. Unconscious – Unacceptable feelings, wishes, desires that you “choose” not to share. Toe fetish, dressing in drag, homoeroticism, intuition, etc.

5 The Unconscious Unconscious aka subconscious. It operates with or without you being aware of what’s influencing you, whether it’s current situation or from your past. Sigmund Freud – Father of Psychoanalysis “The Unconscious” Dreams Psychosexual Development (Oedipus Complex)

6 States of Consciousness

7 Sleep and Dreams Biological rhythms – controlled by “biological clock” are periodic physiological fluctuations. There are 4 types: Annual cycles 28 day cycles 24 hour cycles 90 minute cycles

8 Biological Rhythms Annual cycles – things that are affected seasonally. Ex. We may sleep longer and eat more in the winter. Happier in summer. 28 Day Cycles – Monthly Ex. Female menstrual cycles = moods? 24 Hour Cycles – Bodily changes during the day. 90 Minute Cycles – Sleep stages

9 Sleep and Dreams Circadian Rhythm – cycles of change that recur approximately every 24 hours. “Biological Clock” Ex. Sleep, wakefulness, body temp, etc. Light effects melatonin (sleep hormone) production.

10 Sleep and Dreams Sleep Cycle – About every 90 – 100 minutes we pass through a cycle of 5 distinct sleep stages. Sleep onset occurs when we begin to lie down. Alpha waves are produced and we enter a stage between wakefulness and sleep. Beta waves are awake brain waves. Our minds wander and we relax.

11 Hypnagogic Sleep Hypnagogic Sleep - This is the very relaxed and drowsy state that you pass through before entering sleep. This is that feeling you get when you are watching a movie and your eyelids start to get heavy and you have trouble keeping your eyes open.

12 Sleep Stages

13 Sleep and Dreams – Stage 1 Stage 1 Sleep – quick sleep stage with gradual loss of responsiveness to outside, drifting thoughts, and images. Lasts about 5 – 10 minutes. We lose perception of time. We can experience hallucinations or a sensation of falling or floating.

14 Sleep and Dreams – Stage 2 Stage 2 Sleep – About 40 – 50% of your sleep time. Can be awakened without difficulty. Lasts about 20 minutes. Brain waves are characterized by sleep spindles. We can talk in our sleep in this stage.

15 Sleep and Dreams – Stage 3 Stage 3 Sleep – Beginning of deep sleep. Only lasts a few minutes. “Delta Sleep” begins (Stage 3 & 4) Delta brain waves are emitted.

16 Sleep and Dreams – Stage 4 Stage 4 Sleep – deepest sleep stage. Lasts about 30 minutes. Slowed heart rate and respiration, lowered temperature and lowered blood flow to the brain. Growth hormone is secreted. The slower the brain wave, the deeper the sleep. Hard to awaken, become disoriented and groggy.

17 Sleep and Dreams – Stage 4 If you are awaken during this stage, you will be physically tired. Increasing amount of exercise will increase time in stage 3 & 4 leading to better health. Bedwetting and sleepwalking occurs in this stage. After stage 4, you return to stages 3 & 2, before entering stage 5.

18 Sleep and Dreams – REM Stage REM Stage – REM sleep REM – Rapid Eye Movement – your eyes move rapidly back and forth behind closed lids. About 20 – 25% of your sleep time. Occurs 5 – 6 times during night. Hard to awaken. Dreams and nightmares occur.

19 Sleep and Dreams – REM Stage Brain waves resemble beta waves of being awake. Body is very aroused, but all of your voluntary muscles are paralyzed. Also called “paradoxical sleep” because muscles are relaxed but your body is active, similar to being awake.

20 Sleep and Dreams – REM Stage REM sleep dreams are often emotional, story like, and hallucinatory. 37% of people report that they rarely or never dream…but everyone dreams. When REM starts, snoring stops! REM Rebound – An increased percentage of time spent in REM sleep when we are deprived of REM sleep during previous nights.

21 Brain Waves and Sleep Stages Alpha Waves  Relaxed Delta Waves  Deep sleep Beta Waves  Awake, also found in REM sleep.

22 Stages in a Typical Night’s Sleep 01234567 4 3 2 1 Sleep stages Awake Hours of sleep REM

23 Why Do We Sleep? Not everyone needs 8 hours of sleep. We sleep less than we did 60 yrs ago. Sleep Debt – the amount of sleep owed to your body for lack of sleep in previous nights. Without sleep, your body will not function normally.

24 Sleep Deprivation Sleep Deprivation impacts that body in a number of ways: 1. It suppresses immune cells that fight off infections and cancer. 2. It can alter your metabolism and hormonal functioning to mimic a much “older” person. – obviously contributing to obesity, high blood pressure, and memory problems. 3. It can make us irritable, slow our performance, and concentration.

25 Sleep Deprivation

26 Sleep Deprivation World Record: Stayed up for 276 hours = 11 days Played on the computer and read books Ate Vegan diet Saw “pixies” on day six Slept normally afterwards, but showed large increase in REM sleep

27 Sleep Theories Why do we sleep? 1. Protection – kept our ancestors from venturing around at night. 2. Recuperate – Repairs and restores brain tissues. 3. Remembering – Builds and restores our memories. 4. Growth – During deep sleep, growth hormones are released.

28 Sleep Disorders Insomnia: the inability to fall asleep and/or stay asleep. Treatments: Relax before bedtime Avoid caffeine Avoid naps Exercise regularly Do not check clock

29 Sleep Disorders Narcolepsy: sudden and uncontrollable lapse into sleep (usually REM and with paralysis). Rare, occurs in 1 in 2000 people Sleep apnea: temporary pauses of breathing that awaken the sufferer repeatedly during the night. Most common in overweight men. Snoring is a symptom of sleep apnea.

30 Sleep Disorders Night terrors: in children, characterized by bloodcurdling screams and intense fear during stage 4 sleep. Not nightmares! No memory of it. Sleepwalking: usually in children during stage 4 sleep. Diminishes as we get older.

31 Nightmares Nightmares: frightening dreams that occur during REM sleep. Occur during REM sleep 5% of population have them On average of once per week Usually happens when we miss REM sleep, don’t get enough sleep, drink too much alcohol, eat spicy foods, or see something that is scary.

32 Freud – Dreams are “the royal road to the unconscious” Dreams Clues to inner thoughts and forbidden impulses. He analyzed dreams to uncover patient’s unconscious desires. (Sex, Violence, Fears, etc.)

33 Dreams Lucid dreaming: awareness that we are dreaming and an ability to control the dream. Daydreaming: state with focus on inner, private realities, which can generate creative ideas.

34 Dreams Manifest content: according to Freud, the remembered story line of a dream. What you actually dreamed. Latent content: according to Freud, the underlying meaning of a dream. What your dream meant.

35 Why We Dream? 1. Wish Fulfillment – Dreams reveal our unconscious desires through manifest and latent content. (Freud) 2. Information Processing – dreams sift, sort, and fix the day’s experiences in our memories. 3. Brain Stimulation – dreams help develop/preserve neural pathways during by keeping it active during REM sleep.

36 Why We Dream? 4. Activation-Synthesis Theory – REM sleep triggers neural activity which results in random visual memories. 5. Cognitive Theory – To develop the brain. Dreams represent the dreamer’s level of knowledge and understanding.

37 Common Dream Themes Most dreams about ordinary events Involve our worries, fears, feelings, & arguments. Falling, being chased, flying, losing or finding something, finding yourself naked, teeth falling out are all common dream themes 50% of us dream in color and 50% in black & white. Researchers don’t know why.


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