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Do Now When you are sleeping, do you: 1. Awaken easily at any noise 2. Fall asleep to music or TV 3. Sleep deeply through anything 4. Use the computer.

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Presentation on theme: "Do Now When you are sleeping, do you: 1. Awaken easily at any noise 2. Fall asleep to music or TV 3. Sleep deeply through anything 4. Use the computer."— Presentation transcript:

1 Do Now When you are sleeping, do you: 1. Awaken easily at any noise 2. Fall asleep to music or TV 3. Sleep deeply through anything 4. Use the computer or play video games an hour or less before going to sleep?

2 Do Now Reading: Sleep Deprivation May be Ruining Teen Health: (American Psychological Association)

3 Sleep Journal You will record your sleep patterns over the next two weeks. Starting tonight – write down: Activities before bed Computer/video game use before bed Caffeinated Drinks per day Time go to bed Time fell asleep Time woke up Any night time awakenings. How did you feel the next day.

4 States of Consciousness
What are the key ideas in this unit? Levels of Consciousness Sleep and Dreaming Sleep Disorders

5 Many states of consciousness
What is the difference between Conscious, Unconscious and Subconscious? Many states of consciousness Daydreaming, dozing, deep sleep, awareness – all different aspects of consciousness Unconscious – physically unable to awaken Subconscious – inner thoughts and feelings you are not totally aware of

6 What is Unconsciousness?
Physical loss of responsiveness to the environment Causes: disease, trauma, anesthesia Consciousness can be altered by: sleep, hypnosis, medication, meditation and injury

7 What is a Coma?  A Coma is a profound state of unconsciousness. A comatose person cannot be awakened, fails to respond normally to pain, light or sound, does not have sleep/wake cycles and does not initiate voluntary actions. (More than 6 days). The underlying cause of coma is bilateral damage to the Reticular Activating System in the midbrain which is important in regulating sleep Coma can result from: stroke, trauma, intoxication, hypoxia or induced as a form of preserving higher brain function during healing process

8 Glasgow Coma Scale Generally, brain injury is classified as:
Severe, with GCS less than 8 Moderate, GCS Minor, GCS greater than 13.

9 What is Sleep? Your body’s own circadian rhythm – biological clock
You don’t have to do anything to allow your normal sleep pattern to emerge…’s called a free running cycle When your parents brought you home from the hospital and trained you to sleep at night…that is called entrainment When you have sleep deprivation – you will make up for it by sleeping more in REM sleep days later. This is called REM Rebound.

10 What did we Learn? Many states of consciousness Unconscious –
physically unable to awaken Subconscious – inner thoughts and feelings you are not totally aware of A comatose person cannot be awakened, fails to respond normally to pain, light or sound

11 The severity of a coma is measured by the
Glasgow Coma Scale. Circadian rhythms are Your natural biological clock Entrainment is Training your body when to sleep When you don’t get enough sleep it’s called Sleep Deprivation Making up for lost sleep time by sleeping more for a few days is: REM Rebound

12 Do Now: Reading Changing School Start Times
Why do teens need more sleep? What is it like for a teen to be in school at 7 AM? What changes in their brains at this age to cause sleep changes?

13 What exactly happens during sleep?
You cycle through various stages when you are sleeping. Consciousness Awareness Responsiveness Physiological awakening

14 How does our body know when to sleep?
Hypothalamus Regulates temperature, blood pressure, pulse, blood sugar, throughout the day Your free running biological clock is 25 hours long Circadian rhythms Your natural biological clock – during light/dark turns into 24 Cycles all day and night Reticular Formation RAS (Reticular Activating System) – changes in wakefulness, arousal, attention, mood, energy level Night shift work, jetlag disrupt circadian rhythms

15 What is Sleep Deprivation
Sleep Deprivation makes you drowsy Unable to concentrate, impairs memory and concentration Impacts Immune System Sleep time seems to decrease from about 16 to 18 hours for a newborn to 7 or 8 for an adult

16 .

17 Types of Sleep: Non REM NREM is the first type of sleep you enter when you first nod off. Most of our time asleep is spent here, making up for 75% of an adults sleep. NREM is split into 4 stages, with each stage taking you deeper and deeper into sleep.

18 First 4 Sleep Stages – NREM (Non Rem)
Twilight Sleep: sensation of falling, peaceful, hazy, Melatonin triggered Fail to immediately respond to outside stimuli Stage 1: Sudden twitches and hynic jerks (myoclonus reactions) Lose most conscious awareness of the external environment. Stage 2: sleep spindles (bursts), lose all awareness of environment Stage 3: Slow wave sleep – sleep walking, bedwetting can be issues Stage 4: Heart beat drops, BP low, H.G.H secreted


20 What happens after stages 1-4?
You go backwards! Passing back through stages 3,2, and 1 – but THEN something else happens…. You begin REM Sleep (Rapid Eye Movement) Every 90 minutes after falling asleep your eyes jerk back and forth in various directions Your limbs become paralyzed B.P., heart rate increases Through the night you cycle through stages with REM increasing in length –then decreasing towards awakening.

21 REM sleep in adult humans typically occupies 20–25% of total sleep about 90–120 minutes of a night's sleep. During a normal night of sleep, humans usually experience about four or five periods of REM sleep; they are quite short at the beginning of the night and longer toward the end. Many animals and some people tend to wake, or experience a period of very light sleep, for a short time immediately after a bout of REM. The relative amount of REM sleep varies considerably with age. A newborn baby spends more than 80% of total sleep time in REM During REM, the activity of the brain is quite similar to that during waking hours; for this reason, the REM-sleep stage may be called paradoxical sleep Vividly recalled dreams mostly occur during REM sleep


23 Living with Cataplexy

24 Overview

25 REM Behavior Disorder

26 DO NOW Reading: “Rough Night: How do you know whether someone was asleep when he strangled his wife?” Due: Psychology Semester Project Sleep Journals EXAM: Friday Dec. 9th – Sleep & Consciousness

27 Night Terrors

28 What are some Sleep Disorders
Sleep apnea is a condition in which a person has episodes of blocked breathing during sleep Insomnia: inability to fall/maintain sleep Narcolepsy : a sleep disorder that causes excessive sleepiness and frequent daytime sleep attacks Cataplexy: rare sleep disorder that causes immediate REM sleep when excited or emotional Restless Leg Syndrome is a disorder in which there is an urge or need to move the legs to stop unpleasant sensation

29 Sleep & Neurological Disorders
Cataplexy Myoconia Congenita (Fainting Goats)

30 When do you have nightmares?
Occur during REM Sleep – most dreams occur during this phase Dreams remembered from other stages are less emotional and sensible Lucid Dreaming: training to be aware of and direct one’s dreams to help cure people of nightmares. Incubus: Night Terrors – wake during REM – happens to young children often after disruption of sleep cycle, (holidays, guests, vacations, etc.)

31 Sleep and Dreaming The theory of why we dream is a Construct.
A Construct is to create something in your mind: such as a theory as a result of systematic thought

32 What do dreams mean? Some popular theories
Freud: “Royal road to the unconscious” “Manifest Content” – remembered parts “Latent Content” - underlying meaning McCarley and Hobson: Activation Synthesis Theory: during dreams the pons generates bursts of action potentials to the brain You try to create a story line out of it (synthesize) Origins of dreams are either psychological or physiological depending on what theory you follow Most of your dreams happen between 4 and 7 am.

33 What do I need to know about sleep?
There are different phases of sleep from just being drowsy to awakening 4 phases in non rem (NREM) and 4 in REM (rapid eye movement) REM is a very active period in your brain, but you are physically paralyzed. Teens need 9 plus hours a night for optimum health – but often don’t get it Adults need less as they age Dreams – most occur between 4-7 am Theories: repressed desires, spindle bursts in brain, reorganization of thoughts Disorders: Isomnia, Narcolepsy, Night Terrors, Apnea, Restless Leg Syndrome.

34 Tomorrow: Friday Dec. 9th 2011
Test on Sleep & Consciousness You will NOT be able to use your notes…today you will create a study guide that you may use if you remember to bring it! Sleep Journals Due: Tomorrow at latest Projects Due: (Unless we already have an agreement), due latest by Friday. Vocabulary Worksheet: Work on today – hand in for extra 10 points on test for tomorrow !

35 Things you need to know Difference between consciousness, subconscious, unconscious Stage 1 or Twilight sleep – knee jerk reflex, Stage 2 – sleep talking, Stage 3 – sleep walking Other terms for Sleep Walking, Bedwetting Difference between NREM and REM Types of Sleep Disorders Circadian Rhythm, Free Running Cycle Average need for sleep for adults – 8 ours, teens more Term for lack of sleep When do you dream? Content of Dreams? Manifest, (me) and Latent (underlying) (Freud) What part of your brain controls circadian rhythms? What part of your brain controls temperature, respiration while sleeping, (at other times too) Disorders of sleep common in children

36 Sleep Day! You can wear pajama bottoms/sweats – appropriate please.
Bring: pillow, blanket, yoga mat, sleeping bag, stuffed animal….you can drop it off here in the morning and pick up later if you like. iPod with headphones is okay – just play it low so you don’t bother anyone trying to sleep

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