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Chapter 14. Central and Eastern Europe  Prussia – Frederick William the Great Elector  The General War Commissariat – levy taxes, oversee growth… transformed.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 14. Central and Eastern Europe  Prussia – Frederick William the Great Elector  The General War Commissariat – levy taxes, oversee growth… transformed."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 14

2 Central and Eastern Europe  Prussia – Frederick William the Great Elector  The General War Commissariat – levy taxes, oversee growth… transformed into agency for civil government  Junkers – Prussian aristocracy who served as officials in the GWC and as officers in army.

3 Central and Eastern Europe…  The New Austrian Empire – originally a significant part of the Holy Roman Empire’s political domain.  Thirty Years War ended HRE political control.  Austrian monarchy, while gaining lands that included Hungary, Transylvania, Croatia and Slavonia – it never became a centralized, absolutist state (made up of too many nationalist groups)  Collection of territories held together by Hapsburg emperor but each with its own laws and political life (no common alliance).

4 Russia  Ivan IV first czar.  Expanded territories and crushed the nobility (boyars)  Ruthless deeds including the stabbing of own son led him to be called Ivan the Terrible.

5 Russia…  After Ivan’s death – anarchy – Time of Troubles- for 15 years.  National assembly selected Michael Romanov as new czar in  Romanov dynasty lasted until  Peter the Great (see previous notes)  Introduced western customs, practices and manners into Russia (including the shaving of men’s beards and the removal of women’s veils).  St. Petersburg – Baltic Sea port (ice free) – – capital of Russia.

6 World of European Culture  What are natural rights?

7 Who? This royal throne of kings, this sceptered isle, This earth of majesty, this seat of Mars This other Eden, demi-Paradise, This fortress built by Nature for herself Against infection and the hand of war, This happy breed of men, this little world, This precious stone set in the silver sea, Which serves it in the office of a wall Or as a moat defensive to a house Against the envy of less happier lands- This blessed plot, this earth, this realm… What?

8 Who? This royal throne of kings, this sceptered isle, This earth of majesty, this seat of Mars This other Eden, demi-Paradise, This fortress built by Nature for herself Against infection and the hand of war, This happy breed of men, this little world, This precious stone set in the silver sea, Which serves it in the office of a wall Or as a moat defensive to a house Against the envy of less happier lands- This blessed plot, this earth, this realm…this England Richard III, William Shakespeare What?

9 Literature  Literature in Spain  Creative form of expression  Lope de Vega – wrote to please the audience…wrote not for fame but…”I wrote them for money.”  Miguel de Cervantes  Don Quixote – dual nature of character – lofty ideals vs. reality Elizabethan Era Most famous dramatist of that era – William Shakespeare Showed remarkable understanding of the human condition.

10 Art Baroque Period  Mannerism – breaking down the High Renaissance principles of balance, harmony, moderation and rules of proportion.  Developed into baroque  Brought together and returned to classical ideals with spiritual feelings of the religious revival  Reflected the search for power (create awe)  Dramatic affects to arouse emotion Gian Lorenzo Bernini p.449

11 Caravaggio Caravaggio became renown for his use of chiaroscuro, his most effective device to awaken the deep recesses of the soul. Chiaroscuro was the use of contrasting light and dark colors and shadows.

12 Architecture

13

14 The Quire of St. Pauls W. Holman Hunt - artist

15 Political thought Thomas Hobbes  Human struggle for self preservation –ruthless and not guided by morals if left alone  Agreed to be governed by absolute ruler  Absolute power needed to preserve order, rebellions need to be suppressed  Leviathan wrote it to try and deal with the problems of disorder –creation of social contract with “the state” John Locke  Original state one of equality and freedom  Natural rights – rights with which a person was born with  Established government to protect rights – mutual obligation  If government breaks contract, people have the right to form a new government  Two Treatises of Government – argued against absolute power.  not an advocate of democracy – favored the aristocracy not commoners

16 Locke’s ideas were used to support demands for constitutional government, the rule of law and the protection of rights. Locke’s ideas can be found in the American Declaration of Independence and the United States Constitution


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