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The left image is a cholera bacteria available at Figure 4.1 - Hypothetical Alien Life.

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Presentation on theme: "The left image is a cholera bacteria available at Figure 4.1 - Hypothetical Alien Life."— Presentation transcript:

1 The left image is a cholera bacteria available at Figure 4.1 - Hypothetical Alien Life Form Resembling Bacteria (left) and Humans (right) Bailey drew the image

2 Figure 4.2 - Biologist Christof Koch’s thoughts on animal consciousness We take the magical gift of consciousness for granted. From the time I awaken until I fall into a deep, dreamless sleep, I am flooded with conscious sensations. And contrary to assertions made by philosophers, novelists, and other literati, by and large this stream of consciousness does not relate to quiet self-reflection and introspective thoughts. No, most of it is filled with raw sensations….Whether you are weaving on a motorbike through flowing traffic, running in the mountains, dancing to fast rock and roll, reading an engaging book, making love or debating with your friend, your eyes, ears, skin and body sensors paint an engrossing picture of the outside, including your own body, onto your mind’s canvas. I suspect this feeling is not that dissimilar to the way animals consciously experience their world. From What Is It Like to Be a Bee?, Scientific American Mind. Dec 08/Jan 09. Permission request made, but not received by, publisher

3 Figure 4.3 - Rene Descartes’ thoughts on animals For it is highly deserving of remark, that there are no men so dull and stupid, not even idiots, as to be incapable of joining together different words, and thereby constructing a declaration by which to make their thoughts understood; and that on the other hand, there is no other animal, however perfect or happily circumstanced, which can do the like. From A Discourse on the Method of Rightly Conducting the Reason and Seeking Truth in the Sciences, Chapter 5.


5 Figure 4.4 - Crows are adept at problem solving. Needing water and finding it in a pitcher, but at a level to low for the bird to sip, it will gather stones and place them in the jar, raising the water level until it is high enough for the bird to drink. Crows have even been observed fishing food out of a pitcher with a wire that the bird itself bent! Image in public domain, avilable at http://commons.wikim Crow_and_the_Pitcher _- _Project_Gutenberg_et ext_19994.jpg http://commons.wikim Crow_and_the_Pitcher _- _Project_Gutenberg_et ext_19994.jpg

6 Surgical ProcedureCortisol (n mol l -1 ) None (control group)87 Tail Docking136 Castration171 Mulesing and tail dock187* Mulesing, tail dock, and castration232* Note: mulesing is the surgical removal of wrinkled folds of skin, done to prevent maggot and fly infestation. Denotes animal experience high cortisol levels even after 24 hours. Source: Broom and Johnson, 1993. Figure 4.5 - Cortisol Levels and Surgical Procedures Performed in Sheep Without Anesthetic

7 Notes: Numbers denote plasma cortisol levels after ACTH challenge test, in ng ml -1. Source: Broom and Johnson, 1993. Figure 4.6 - Cortisol Levels For Pigs At Different Stocking Densities (floor area per pig in square meters) high density - 0.51 m 2 / pig Low density - 1.52 m 2 / pig Males158.987.7 Females107.190

8 Figure 4.7 – Dr. Marian Dawkins’ thoughts on animal consciousness We have seen that some animals behave in ways that are best explained on the hypothesis that they have an internal world of their own and manipulate it vicariously by “thinking” in ways that are at least partially like the ways we do it. Our near-certainty about shared experiences is based, amongst other things, on a mixture of the complexity of their behaviour, their ability to “think” intelligently and on their being able to demonstrate to us that they have a point of view in which what happens to them matters to them. We now know that these three attributes – complexity, thinking and minding about the world—are also present in other species. The conclusion that they, too, are consciously aware is therefore compelling. The balance of evidence (using Occam’s razor to cut down to the simplest hypothesis) is that they are and it seems positively unscientific to deny it. From Through Our Eyes Only?, pages 176-177. Permission request made, but not received by, publisher

9 Figure 4.8 - Result of a nationwide telephone survey of over 1,007 respondents. Do you agree with the following statement? Farm animals have roughly the same ability to feel pain and discomfort as humans. Strongly Agree57% Agree24% Neither Agree Nor Disagree 5% Disagree7% Strongly Disagree5% Don’t Know3%

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