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Module 1 Infant Toddler Social Emotional Development within the Context of Relationships.

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1 Module 1 Infant Toddler Social Emotional Development within the Context of Relationships

2 Agenda I.Introduction and Logistics II.Social Emotional Development within the Context of Relationships III.Introduction to the Elements of Social Emotional Wellness in Infants and Toddlers IV.Experiencing, Expressing, and Regulating Emotions V.Temperament VI.The Balance of Close, Secure Relationships & Learning and Exploration VII.The Developmental Course of Social Emotional Wellness VIII.Children’s Social Emotional Development within the Context of Families IX.Using Your Relationship to Promote a Child’s Social Emotional Development X.Summary and Action Planning

3 Learner Objectives Participants will be able to describe the elements of social emotional wellness in infants and toddlers (precursors to preschool goals). Participants will be able to describe key developmental concepts that impact the social and emotional development of infants and toddlers. Participants will be able to describe the unique importance of families to the social emotional development of infants and toddlers. Participants will be able to describe the importance of caregiver self- awareness to the positive social emotional development of infants and toddlers and to supporting families rearing infants and toddlers. Participants will be able to describe key social emotional needs of infants and toddlers. Participants will be able to describe the importance of relationships to early social emotional development in infants and toddlers.

4 Activity Write down one thing that you would like to learn today about the social emotional development of infants and toddlers.

5 CSEFEL Pyramid Model

6 CSEFEL Definition of Social Emotional Development The term social emotional development refers to the developing capacity of the child from birth through five years of age to form close and secure adult and peer relationships; experience, regulate, and express emotions in socially and culturally appropriate ways; and explore the environment and learn - all in the context of family, community, and culture. Caregivers promote healthy development by working to support social emotional wellness in all young children, and make every effort to prevent the occurrence or escalation of social emotional problems in children at-risk, identifying and working to remediate problems that surface, and, when necessary, referring children and their families to appropriate services. Adapted from ZERO TO THREE, 2001

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8 Relationships are Different from Interactions Relationships: Have emotional connections Endure over time Have special meaning between the two people Create memories and expectations in the minds of the people involved

9 Activity Complete Reflective Inventory

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13 Research Findings on Early Social Emotional Development 1. Nature and nurture combine to define who we are as individuals. 2. Nature has provided humans with what some scientists call early infant competencies or motivations. 3. Babies are born to connect with other humans. 4. Babies discriminate sounds of language very early. 5. Babies recognize their parents’ voices. 6. Babies can match emotional voice tone to emotional facial expression. 7. Babies prefer looking at faces.

14 Research Findings (cont’d) 8.Babies seek physical and emotional equilibrium. 9.Babies are predisposed to signal their needs to someone who will help them survive. 10. Babies are an emotional trigger for adults. 11. Babies are born with the desire to master and explore their environment and are active participants in their own learning. 12. The infant’s early brain development is designed to connect the newborn with other human beings around him who will provide care. 13.The brain grows through the experiences the infant has with the world. Parents and other important adults are that world.

15 Research Findings (cont’d) 14. The family’s culture influences all areas of a baby’s development, including the social emotional realm. 15. Many factors can affect social emotional development, including developmental delays or serious health issues with the baby, or an environment with multiple risk factors (ex. poverty, substance abuse, adult mental health issues, domestic violence) 16. The baby’s communication of emotions and needs establishes the learning pathways in the brain that lead to all other physical, cognitive, and emotional learning. From Neurons to neighborhoods: The science of early childhood development (2000); Emotional connections: How relationships guide early learning (2004).

16 Early Social Emotional Development Early mental health or early social emotional wellness is the developing capacity of the child from birth to 3 to: experience, regulate, and express emotions: form close and secure interpersonal relationships; and explore the environment and learn- all in the context of family, community, and cultural expectations for young children. Developing capacity is a reminder of the extraordinarily rapid pace of growth and change in the first 3 years of life Infants and toddlers depend heavily on adults to help them experience, regulate, and express emotions Through close, nurturing interpersonal relationships with parents and other caregivers, infants and toddlers learn what people expect of them and what they can expect of other people

17 Early Social Emotional Development (Cont’d) The drive to explore and master one’s environment is inborn in humans. Infants’ and toddlers’ active participation in their own learning and development is an important aspect of their mental health. The context of family and community is where infants and toddlers learn to share and communicate their feelings and experience with significant caregivers and other children. They develop a sense of themselves as competent, effective, and valued individual. Culture influences every aspect of human development, including how infant mental health is understood, adults’ goals and expectations for young children’s development, and the child rearing practices used by parents and caregivers. ZERO TO THREE, 2001

18 Three Major Elements of Social Emotional Wellness in Infancy Forming close and secure relationships Experiencing, expressing, and regulating emotions Exploring the environment and learning

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20 Regulation and Stress in Young Babies Signs of RegulationSigns of Stress 1.Regular, even breathing; warm body temperature; even skin color. 1. Yawning, drooling, hiccupping; chilled or clammy; pale or blotchy skin. 2. Good muscle tone; can lift arms and legs against gravity. 2. Poor muscle tone; flails arms and legs loosely or cannot pull up against gravity; trembling. 3. Moves easily (with little comforting) between being awake and being asleep; when awake, is sometimes quiet and alert, sometimes active and alert; can become calm when crying. 3. Awakens screaming; cannot relax to fall asleep or falls asleep suddenly in the midst of noise and commotion; has trouble focusing when awake. 4. Startles briefly at loud noises but recovers; tolerates handling even during diaper changes. 4. Startles at noise, light, and touch, and cannot recover.

21 Strategies for Helping Babies Self-Regulate Containing their limbs with swaddling, cuddling, and bringing them close to your chest and heartbeat Providing something to suck: a pacifier, their own hand, their fingers Limiting the stimulation in the environment Helping baby to awaken or to fall asleep with rocking, cuddling, gentle patting, a quiet voice, singing, or a simple chant Using a firm, gentle touch

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23 Small Group Activity

24 Temperament Appears to be biologically based Fairly constant over time Affects a child’s reactions to other people and the environment (Wittmer & Petersen, 2006 based on Thomas, Chess, Birch, Hertzig & Korn, 1963)

25 Temperament Traits Activity level – always active or generally still Biological rhythms – predictability of hunger, sleep, elimination Approach/withdrawal – response to new situations Mood – tendency to react with positive or negative mood, serious, fussy Intensity of reaction – energy or strength of emotional reaction Sensitivity – comfort with levels of sensory information; sound, brightness of light, feel of clothing, new tastes Adaptability – ease of managing transitions or changes Distractibility – how easily a child’s attention is pulled from an activity Persistence – how long child continues with an activity he/she finds difficult Adapted with permission from Wittmer and Petersen, 2006

26 Temperament Types FlexibleFearfulFeisty Regular rhythmsAdapts slowlyActive Positive moodWithdrawsIntense AdaptabilityDistractible Low intensitySensitive Low sensitivityIrregular Moody

27 Temperament Types Flexible, Fearful, and Feisty istockphoto.com/LisaSvara

28 Temperament Traits Activity level – always active or generally still Biological rhythms – predictability of hunger, sleep, elimination Approach/withdrawal – response to new situations Mood – tendency to react with positive or negative mood, serious, fussy Intensity of reaction – energy or strength of emotional reaction Sensitivity – comfort with levels of sensory information; sound, brightness of light, feel of clothing, new tastes Adaptability – ease of managing transitions or changes Distractibility – how easily a child’s attention is pulled from an activity Persistence – how long child continues with an activity he/she finds difficult Adapted with permission from Wittmer and Petersen, 2006

29 Activity Considering Temperament Booklet

30 Early Social Emotional Development Early mental health or early social emotional wellness is the developing capacity of the child from birth to 3 to: experience, regulate, and express emotions: form close and secure interpersonal relationships; and explore the environment and learn- all in the context of family, community, and cultural expectations for young children. Developing capacity is a reminder of the extraordinarily rapid pace of growth and change in the first 3 years of life Infants and toddlers depend heavily on adults to help them experience, regulate, and express emotions Through close, nurturing interpersonal relationships with parents and other caregivers, infants and toddlers learn what people expect of them and what they can expect of other people

31 Early Social Emotional Development (cont’d) The drive to explore and master one’s environment is inborn in humans. Infants’ and toddlers’ active participation in their own learning and development is an important aspect of their mental health. The context of family and community is where infants and toddlers learn to share and communicate their feelings and experience with significant caregivers and other children. A developing sense of oneself as a competent, effective, and valued individual is an important aspect of infant mental health. Culture influences every aspect of human development, including how infant mental health is understood, adults’ goals and expectations for young children’s development, and the child rearing practices used by parents and caregivers. ZERO TO THREE, 2001

32 Attachment Attachment is a pattern of interaction that develops over time as the infant or toddler and caregiver engage.

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34 Activity Attachment Relationships

35 The Developmental Continuum from Birth to 15 months: Social and Emotional Indicators* Age Range Attachment Trust/Security Self-Awareness/ Identity Exploration Autonomy/Independence Infant (Birth to 15 months) Newborns recognize human language and prefer their own mother's voice Prefer human faces Early social interaction is a smile and mutual gazing Crawls away but checks back visually; calls, and gestures to ensure adult contact Stretches arms to be taken Prefers familiar adults Acts anxious around strangers Uses a blanket or stuffed toy for security and reassurance Goes from accidentally sucking own hands to carefully watching them Tries to make things happen Hits or kicks things to make a pleasing sight or sound continue Talks to self when alone Prefers to be held by familiar people Imitates adult behaviors Knows own name Understands simple directions Brings thumb or hand to mouth Tracks mother’s voice Observes own hands Babbles using all types of sounds Uses a few words mixed with babbling to form sentences Tries to keep a knee ride going by bouncing to get the adult started again Shows strong feelings (anger, anxiety, affection) *This list is a sampling of developmental indicators and is not intended to include all behaviors associated with early development. For infant, there is considerable overlap among areas of growth. The term “mother” is used to represent the primary attachment figure.

36 The Developmental Continuum from 12 months to 2 ½ years: Social and Emotional Indicators (cont’d) Age Range Attachment Trust/Security Self-Awareness/ Identity Exploration Autonomy/Independence Toddler (12 mos. to 2 1/2 years) Relates to others by exploring things with them Pulls up, stands holding furniture, then walks alone Goes through a phase of clinging to primary caregiver Experiences periods of intense feelings when separating or reuniting with a parent Sees others as a barrier to immediate gratification Knows can make things happen but is not sure of responsibility for actions Becomes bossy Uses the words me, you, and I Says "No" to adults Explores everything Is sensitive to others' judging behavior Keeps looking for a toy that is hidden from view Understands many more words than can say Has wide mood swings (for example, from stubborn to cooperative) Wants to do things by self Adapted with permission from J. Ronald Lally, Abbey Griffin, et al., Caring for Infants and Toddlers in Groups: Developmentally Appropriate Practice (Washington, DC: ZERO TO THREE/The National Center, 1995), pp

37 The Developmental Continuum from Age 2 ½ - 3 ½ : Social and Emotional Indicators (cont’d) Age RangeAttachment Trust/Security Self-Awareness/ Identity Exploration Autonomy/Independence Preschool (2½ to 3½ years) Is capable of dramatic play Has better control over all aspects of self Needs to practice Needs adult coaching to get along well with others Shows feelings with words and in symbolic play Is more aware that others have feelings Can plan ahead Is capable of self- evaluation (for example, good, bad, pretty, ugly) Tries to control self (for example, emotions and toileting) Is learning to take turns in conversations Knows a lot about communicating in the style of own culture Can play well with others if the setting is right Uses names of self and others Can tell others about what happened that day Has much larger vocabulary to express ideas Shows concern for others Classifies, labels, and sorts objects and experiences into groups Adapted with permission from J. Ronald Lally, Abbey Griffin, et al., Caring for Infants and Toddlers in Groups: Developmentally Appropriate Practice (Washington, DC: ZERO TO THREE/The National Center, 1995), pp

38 What should the caption for this photograph say?

39 Allison Silberber, 2007

40 What should the caption for this photograph say?

41 What should the caption for this photograph say? istockphoto.com/Grafissimo

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43 Each baby is born into a unique family that has its own culture and history, its own strengths, and its own way of coping with stress and adversity. (Parlakian & Seibel, 2002)

44 Families have the most continuous and emotionally charged relationship with the child. Infants and toddlers learn what people expect of them and what they can expect of other people through early experiences with parents and other caregivers. (Day & Parlakian, 2004)

45 Activity Learning About, Expressing, and Managing Emotions

46 Factors That Create Challenges for Families Poverty Nonflexible work situations No maternal or paternal leave Little support from other family members or neighbors Challenging relationships with their own families Substance abuse Domestic violence

47 Activity Working with Families Inventory

48 Activity Essential Positive Messages for Each Child

49 Major Messages to Take Home Early social emotional wellness develops within the context of relationships. Caregivers help babies express emotion; develop emotional regulation; and form close, secure relationships. It is within families that children learn to experience and communicate emotion. In order to support the social emotional wellness of infants and toddlers, as well as their families, we need to be aware of our own emotional history.


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