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The Brain and Cranial Nerves Largest organ in the body at almost 3 lb. Brain functions in sensations, memory, emotions, decision making, behavior.

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Presentation on theme: "The Brain and Cranial Nerves Largest organ in the body at almost 3 lb. Brain functions in sensations, memory, emotions, decision making, behavior."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Brain and Cranial Nerves Largest organ in the body at almost 3 lb. Brain functions in sensations, memory, emotions, decision making, behavior

2 Principal Parts of the Brain Cerebrum Diencephalon –thalamus & hypothalamus Cerebellum Brainstem –medulla, pons & midbrain

3 Protective Coverings of the Brain Bone, meninges & fluid Meninges same as around the spinal cord –dura mater –arachnoid mater –pia mater

4 Blood Supply to Brain Uses 20% of our bodies oxygen & glucose needs –blood flow to an area increases with activity in that area –deprivation of O2 for 4 min does permanent injury at that time, lysosome release enzymes Blood-brain barrier (BBB) –protects cells from some toxins and pathogens proteins & antibiotics can not pass but alcohol & anesthetics do –tight junctions seal together epithelial cells, continuous basement membrane, astrocyte processes covering capillaries

5 Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) ml (3-5oz) Clear liquid containing glucose, proteins, & ions Functions –mechanical protection floats brain & softens impact with bony walls –chemical protection optimal ionic concentrations for action potentials –circulation nutrients and waste products to and from bloodstream

6 Origin of CSF Choroid plexus = capillaries covered by ependymal cells –2 lateral ventricles, one within each cerebral hemisphere –3rd ventricle –4th ventricle

7 Brain Stem Medulla Oblongata Pons Midbrain

8 Ventral Surface of Medulla Oblongata Ventral surface bulge –pyramids –large motor tract –decussation of most fibers left cortex controls right muscles

9 Reticular Formation Scattered nuclei in medulla, pons & midbrain Reticular activating system –alerts cerebral cortex to sensory signals (sound of alarm, flash light, or intruder) to awaken from sleep –maintains consciousness & helps keep you awake with stimuli from ears, eyes, skin and muscles Motor function is involvement with maintaining muscle tone

10 Cerebellum 2 cerebellar hemispheres Function –correct voluntary muscle contraction and posture based on sensory data from body about actual movements –sense of equilibrium

11 Diencephalon Surrounds 3rd Ventricle Surrounds 3rd ventricle Superior part of walls is thalamus Inferior part of walls & floor is hypothalamus

12 Thalamus 1 inch long mass of gray mater in each half of brain Relay station for sensory information on way to cortex Crude perception of some sensations

13 Hypothalamus Mammillary bodies are relay station for olfactory reflexes; infundibulum suspends the pituitary gland Major regulator of homeostasis –receives somatic and visceral input, taste, smell & hearing information; monitors osmotic pressure, temperature of blood

14 Functions of Hypothalamus Controls and integrates activities of the ANS which regulates smooth, cardiac muscle and glands Synthesizes regulatory hormones that control the anterior pituitary Contains cell bodies of axons that end in posterior pituitary where they secrete hormones Regulates rage, aggression, pain, pleasure & arousal Feeding, thirst & satiety centers Controls body temperature Regulates daily patterns of sleep

15 Epithalamus Pineal gland –endocrine gland the size of small pea –secretes melatonin during darkness –promotes sleepiness & sets biological clock Habenular nuclei –emotional responses to odors

16 Cerebrum (Cerebral Hemispheres) Cerebral cortex is gray matter overlying white matter –2-4 mm thick containing billions of cells –grew so quickly formed folds (gyri) and grooves (sulci or fissures) Longitudinal fissure separates left & right cerebral hemispheres Each hemisphere is subdivided into 4 lobes

17 Limbic System Emotional brain--intense pleasure & intense pain Strong emotions increase efficiency of memory


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