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 Consciousness – Awareness of internal and external stimuli ◦ “personal awareness” ◦ Example.

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Presentation on theme: " Consciousness – Awareness of internal and external stimuli ◦ “personal awareness” ◦ Example."— Presentation transcript:


2  Consciousness – Awareness of internal and external stimuli ◦ “personal awareness” ◦ Example

3  Consciousness is not all or none  We still have some level of awareness during sleep and even while under anesthesia during surgery  Examples

4  Electroencephalograph (EEG) –a device that monitors electrical activity of the brain over time ◦ Records electrodes attached to surface of scalp  This shows the rhythm of activity of brain (brain waves)


6  Circadian Rhythm – 24 hour biological cycles found in humans and other species ◦ Influential in sleep regulation  These rhythms prime us to fall asleep easily at a certain point in day ◦ “ideal” time

7  What happens when we ignore our biological clocks and sleep at an unusual time? ◦ Quality suffers ◦ Tired, sluggish, irritable for days, lower cognitive performance  Equates with “jet lag”  This is especially problematic for workers constantly switching and working odd shifts. ◦ What some studies show

8  Researchers have studied methods to get over this feeling of “jet lag”  Options ◦ Certain type of drug (melanonin) ◦ Carefully timed exposure to bright light ◦ Carefully plan rotation schedules at work  Problem with options

9  Former thoughts about sleep…  Now realize that much physical and mental activity happens during sleep  How did we form this understanding? ◦ Sleep Laboratories  Volunteer patients spend night  What happens in these labs?  Video clip

10  Sleep onset is gradual  Once we fall asleep, humans progress through different stages  Stages 1-4- Commonly referred to as non- REM sleep ◦ Respiration, heart rate, and body temperature decrease with each stage ◦ Brain waves increase as we progress

11  This is the fifth and final sleep stage  REM= Rapid eye movements ◦ How are these measured? ◦ How were they discovered?  REM is the deepest form of sleep ◦ Rapid eye movements ◦ High frequency brain waves ◦ Dreaming  Sleep cycle (Stages 1-5) repeat during night

12  Cultures mostly similar in terms of sleep experience and activity ◦ Differ on other matters  Co-sleeping- children and parents sleeping together ◦ More accepted in other cultures  Examples  Napping ◦ Some societies close shops and activities during day to permit naps for an hour or two  examples

13  Research has focused on sleep restriction – partial sleep deprivation  Seems that much of the U.S. are chronic sufferers ◦ Effects our attention, reaction time, decision making  Night time workers fall asleep on job  Numerous accidents are result of sleep deprivation ◦ Examples

14  Selective Deprivation ◦ Many lab studies awake participants whenever they begin to go into REM ◦ Selectively deprived of REM  As nights go by, need to awaken more and more ◦ REM begins to happen more spontaneously in these patients now  Following deprivation:  Rebound Effect- patients spend extra time in REM sleep for one to three nights

15  Insomnia- chronic problems getting adequate sleep ◦ 15-17% of adults suffer from severe insomnia  Narcolepsy- marked by sudden, irresistible onsets of sleep during normal waking periods. ◦ Awake directly to REM sleep ◦ Very rare  Sleep Apnea- frequent, reflexive gasping for air that awakens person and disrupts sleep ◦ Person literally stops breathing for 10 seconds ◦ Clips (if time)

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