Presentation on theme: "PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATIONS & THEORIES OF EDUCATION"— Presentation transcript:
1PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATIONS & THEORIES OF EDUCATION
2Philosophy ? set of ideas about The nature of realityThe meaning of lifeDescribe your current personal philosophy of education
3THE PURPOSE OF EDUCATION What do you think the purpose of education is?To give knowledgeTo transmit cultureTo help people adapt to societyTo give religious educationTo provide practical/hands-on experience/trainingTo provide learner/human-centered education (self-realization)etc (your view) …Why do some parents choose or reject certain schools?Philosophy influences daily educational life in many ways (curriculum, teacher role, assessment, teaching methods..)
4FOUR PRIMARY EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHIES IDEALISM ( Plato) GENERIC NOTIONS:Reality is an unchanging world of perfect ideas and universal truths (metaphysics)Reality is made up of absolute truths. (religious education programs)To Plato, truth is perfect and eternal and not found in the world matter.Meaning is in the ideals of life itself.We can’t rely on our senses as they deceive us.(Criticism) a “truth” sometimes is only in the eye of the beholder.
5Knowledge is obtained when ideas are brought into consciousness through self-examination and discourse (epistemology)Searching for truth through Socratic questioning/ dialectic – questioning individual’s point of view (using inductive reasoning, authority lecturing)Wisdom of goodness; discipline, order, self-control; preservation of cultural heritage of the past (Axiology)
6Goal of EducationEducators are interested in the search for truth through ideas rather than through the examination of the false shadowy world of matter.They encourage students to search for truth as individuals.Education is transformation: ideas can change lives.
7Role of TeacherDealing with abstract notions through dialectic method & connecting analysis with actionActive, posing questions, selecting materials and establishing an environment to ensure the desired outcomes.A role model to be imitated by ss
8Methods of Instruction T active in ss’ learningLecturing but particularly using dialectic approachThrough questioning, ss encouraged to discuss, analyze, synthesize, and apply what whey have readSs encouraged to work in groups/ individually on research projects, both oral and written
9CurriculumExamining the roots of the contemporary problems in the past (great literature/classics etc)Education at any level should teach ss to thinkSubject-matter curriculumBack-to-basics approach in education
10REALISM (Chisholm, Whitehead) Generic Notions:Meaning comes through empirically proven facts.Reality is made up of natural laws, facts.The idea that reality is what it is and possesses an independent identity, regardless of the beliefs of the observer.We perceive the actually existing physical world.
11Goal of EducationDevelop intellectual abilitiesTo equip ss with information to understand current event (Tabula Rasa)Role of the Teacherhaving a solid grounding in science, maths, and the humanities.relying on test scores to place students (competency testing of students with various methods)readily adopting new technologyteacher’s responsibility to teach skill+disciplined knowledge
12T should be competent in a specific subject matter T presenting ideas in a clear & consistent manner & demonstrating that there are definite ways to judge works of art, music, poetry and literatureEnabling ss to learn objective methods of evaluating the works above
13lecture, question &answer (formal ways of teaching Methods of Instructionlecture, question &answer (formal ways of teachinginductive & scientific reasoningcompetency-based assessments as a way ensuring that ss learnt what they are being taughtemphasis on critical reason aided by observation (our experiences) & experimentationemphasizing realistic novels such as Oliver Twist, Great Expectations, For Whom the Bell Tolls etc. to give live’s laws and principles and such novels are the keys for ss to reach the ideal world through material worldstressing precision and accuracy in math, science, social studies and writing
14curriculum consists of the basics – maths, science, reading etc. attention is given to didactic & object studies in education (use of pictures, TV, videos in educational process)use of objects in education (Montessori)emphasis is on subject matter (highly organized & systematic in approach)CRITICISM: Empirical facts always subject to change.
15EXISTENTIALISM (Kierkegaard, Jean-Paul Sartre, Nietzche) Generic NotionsExistentialists believe that individuals are placed on this earth alone & must make sense out of the chaos they encounter.Sartre believed “existence precedes essence” – that is people must create themselves, and they must create their own meaning.Thus, individuals are in a state of constantly becoming, creating chaos and order, creating good and evil. The choice is up to the individual.In short, existentialism teaches that each person must simply live his/her life & by doing so creates his/her own values, almost as an afterthought.Reality for individuals is eternal. Each individual’s point of view is significant. Aim is not to provide standard people.
16Goal of Education Existentialists believe that education should focus on the needs of individuals, both cognitively and affectively.also believe that education should stress individuality. (Education should include discussion of the nonrational and rational world)Education is an activity liberating the individual from a chaotic, absurd world.Individuals are responsible of consequences. Individuals should be given credit for the creation of concepts like peace, truth, and justice. So, focus is on humans and their ideas.
17So, good education is one that Good education would encourage individuals to ask such questions: “Who am I?”, “Where am I going?”, “Why am I here?”So, good education is one thatemphasizes individuality through intellectual journeys so that we can see and understand ourselves.helps individuals to examine the abnormal/corrupted side of life, the irrational as well as the good side. (life/death, wars, peace …)AIM: to make the world better
18Role of the Teacheremphasizes individual choices (there is no common way of viewing world)T should understand his/her own ‘lived world’ to help ss achieve their best ‘lived worlds’.Both T and ss learn from each other & their relation is more friend to friendTs must take risks; expose themselves to resistant ss; & work constantly to enable their students to become ‘wide awake’.
19Introspection is useful in order to enable ss to become in touch with their worlds and to empower them to choose and act on their choices.Thus the role of teacher is an intensely personal one that carries with it a tremendous responsibility.Due to the greater experience & knowledge, it is the T’s responsibility to develop an educational environment that promotes awareness of the past and present, and of the future possibilities.
20T helps ss become sensitive to human possibility and understand that they themselves are both necessarily and fully determined by the past (every present is conditioned by the past, but every present is pregnant with future possibilities for change and new direction – individuals can change future.Therefore, T should understand that the chief requirement is too help ss explore the world and open up new possibilities of the world for ss
21Methods of Instruction stressing individual freedomempowering ss to make choices about what and how they will learnBuber “I-thou approach” – S&T learn cooperatively from each other in an nontraditional, nonthreatening friendship. (posing questions, generating activities, and working together)Educational methods which help T in rediscovering the excitement of learning and opening up a whole new world of possibilities for ss.Ss become more articulate and capable of comprehension and self-expression with the help of teacher’s existentialist approach.
22Curriculumstressing arts an literature, little emphasis is given on maths an sciencethe humanities are considered in an existentialist curriculum because they deal with the essential aspects of human existence, such as the relations between people, the tragic side of human life as well as the happy, the absurdities as well as the meaningThrough humanities, the existentialists try to awaken modern individuals to the dangers of being swallowed up by the megalopolis and runaway technology (wide awaken)
23Existentialists do not have definite rules about what the curriculum should comprise. They believe that the S-in-situation making a choice should be the deciding factor. (Curriculum from the standpoint of the learner rather than as a collection of discrete subjects)
24PRAGMATISM (Dewey and James) Generic NotionsPragmatism is the philosophy that encourages people to find processes that work in order to achieve their desired ends.Reality is that everything changes. (Theme: the world is constantly changing and we have to adapt)They study the past but they are generally more interested in contemporary issues and in discovering solutions to problems in present-day termsThey are action-oriented, experientially grounded, and will generally pose questions such as
25“ What will work to achieve my desired ends?” problem speculative thought action results then Question: “Do the results achieved solve theproblem?” Then solution is valid.
26Goal of Education Primary goal of education is growth. Education is for life.Teaching ss how to live (standing on their feet)Education should not be locked upon merely as schooling and the acquisition of academic subject matter but as a part of life itself.Schools should balance the needs of the society and community on the one hand and the needs of the ss on the other.
27To integrate children into not just any type of society, but a democratic one where cooperation and community are desired ends.Helping people direct, control and guide personal and social experience (self-actualization)
28Schools should foster habits of thought, invention and initiative that will assist people in growing right direction toward democratic societyEducation should promote our true individualism (self-directed learning)Education has a moral influence and should pay a vital part in helping us become the kind of moral persons who are interested not only in promoting our own growth but also in promoting the growth of others.
29Role of the Teacher applies democratic methods classroom is a community of learnersT facilitator not authoritarianT encourages, offers suggestions, questions and helps plan and implements courses of studyT writes curriculum and must have a command of several disciplines to create and implement curriculum
30Methods of Instruction Problem solving, experiential learning, inquiry methods, field trips, projects (not all ss can learn in the same way – vary strategies)Learning in groups and individualityFormal instruction is abandoned (flexible methods are used) moveable chairs, freedom n class etc.Lockstep, rote memorization of traditional schools are replaced with individualized studies.Action-oriented education (activity-oriented approach to curriculum)
31Curriculum Learner-centered curriculum Pragmatist curriculum is composed of both process (experience) and content (knowledge)All academic and vocational disciplines in an integrated and connected way
32Problem-centered learning/project method: such approaches to curriculum start with a central question, core/problem. Ss attack the problem in diverse ways according to interest and need. They work independently or in groups. They evaluate their growth and development.Child interest to be considered in curriculum. Varied needs, interests different curricula
33ECLECTICISM There is a way of dealing with all various models Eclecticism is not a philosophical system or model, but rather is the synthesizing and personal interpretation of various models to draw out the best components for yourselfThus, you pull the best from various models in any effort to build your own statement of personal philosophy.
34Humanistic Schoolshow respect to ssconsideration of ss’ needs, expectations, feelings, valuesaccepting ss as they areactive learning strategiesconflict resolutionincorporating whole classMeaning: Intellect distinguishes humans from animalsWhat is Reality: Humans have potential and innate goodnessNature of Humanness: Autonomy, dignity, and freedom are sacred
35Educational Aim: Individual potentiality; self-actualization Educational Method: Facilitation; self-direction; team workEducational Content: Any curriculum is a vehicle for meeting needsMain Criticism: Important societal goals can be missedKey proponents: Maslow, Knowles, Elias/Merriam, Tough
37Humanistic Approaches to English Language Teaching Active Listeningletting s’s to express her/his feelings & then paraphrasing what s/he has saidNo advice is given during active listeningConflict Resolutionthe involved people talk how problems emerge and how they can get rid of those problems/negative attitudesproblem solving & meaningful learning strategies are used
38Invitational Learning communicating with the student by making her/him feel that s/he is ‘responsible, able and valuable’procedure:know your s’s namehave individual contact with each studentshow him you respect her/himbe honest with her/himnot take rejection by the s’s personalityrespect her/him as a human being
39technique that clients Values Clarificationtechnique that clientsidentify how they feel or what they believe about somethingvalue that feeling or belief and,if valued, act on itaim: to raise s’s consciousness and values and help them to act on it.Ex: Do you think using drugs should be banned?What can you do?
40related to character education & citizenship education Moral Educationrelated to character education & citizenship educationaim: to help clients to develop more responsible behaviourStrategies:serving as role models who are always respectful and caring to otherscreating a family or community atmosphere so that clients feel worthwhile and care about peopleencouraging students to hold high academic & behavioral standards
41THE PURPOSE OF SCHOOLS How can we solve the world’s problems? revolutionswarseducation…
42Education School-Broad Specific-Take place anywhere, -particular locationanytime, anyplace limited definition- behaviour change processes -place for educationcollective body of pupils-lack of formalization -formalized-no assessment processes - assessment-non-official official-lack of system -systemic-no need to certified person -certified person-no specific time limit for learning -compulsory periodfor attendance