Presentation on theme: "Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (7th Ed)"— Presentation transcript:
1Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (7th Ed) Chapter 7States of Consciousness
2Waking Consciousness Consciousness our awareness of ourselves and our environments
3Construct – a concept that requires a belief in something that can’t be seen or touched but does exist.What examples of constructs can you think of?
4Original definition of Psychology: –”the description and explanation of states of consciousness”Behaviorism felt psychology should be an objective science, without reference to mental processes…so new definition:“the science of behavior.” so psychology now becomes the study of observable behavior.
5In 1960, mental processes renter the picture. Neuroscience related brain activity to various mental states: waking, sleeping & dreaming.Researchers studied to study altered states of consciousness: hypnosis, drugs & alcohol.
6Levels of Consciousness Conscious-awareness of what is going on in ourselves & our environment.Non-conscious-bodily processes controlled by your mind that you are not aware of: heartbeat, respiration & digestion.Subconscious-consciousness that is just below our present level of awareness: Example: reaching for thinking without thinking, driving home and not remembering stopping at a red light.
7Unconscious mind contains information, thoughts & desires about which we have no direct knowledge. It contains the:Intuition-though that does not rely on logic or a rational evaluation of events. It is just a feeling.
8What is sleep?A state of consciousness because we are less aware of our environment & ourselves thane we are in our normal awake state. It is a natural, reversible loss of consciousness.Sleeps helps us to recuperate & restore body tissues.It plays a role in our growth process.
9All creatures are under the control of: Biological Rhythms periodic physiological fluctuationsInternal, chemical units that control regular cycles in parts of the body.The human body goes through a natural 25 hour sleep-wake cycle but earth runs on a 24 hour light-dark cycle. Humans have adapted.
10Circadian Rhythm the biological clock regular bodily rhythms that occur on a 24-hour cycle, such as of wakefulness and body temperatureSleep cycle: about every minutes we pass through a cycle of 5 distinct sleep stages
11BRAIN WAVESWhile we sleep our brain has electrical activity in which researchers record.Beta waves are awake brain waves.
12Stages of Sleep Twilight Stage or Sleep Onset -when we first lie down, electrical activity in our brains begins to slow down, brief transition stage when first falling asleep.-alpha waves are produced. It is the stage between wakefulness and sleep. We let our minds wander and totally relax.
13Stage 1 SleepLast about 5-10 minutes. We lose perception of time. Can experience hallucinations or a sensation of falling or floating.Alpha waves are produced. Waves get slower and higher in amplitude.
14STAGE 2 SLEEPLAST ABOUT 20 MINUTES. CAN BE AWAKENED WITHOUT DIFFFICULTY.BRAIN WAVES ARE CHARACTERIZED BY SLEEP SPINDLES.TALK IN SLEEP IN THIS STAGE.
15Stage 3 Sleep Often referred to as Delta sleep Delta brain waves are emitted.Last for just a few minutes and then moves on to Stage 4 sleep.
16STAGE 4 SLEEP Lasts for 30 minutes. Stages 3 & 4 together referred to as slow-wave sleep or Delta sleep, due to delta brain waves being emitted.The slower the brain wave, the deeper the sleep.Hard to awaken,become disoriented & groggy.Sleepwalking occurs in this stageWill be physically tired or ill if deprived of.Increasing amount of exercise, increase time in 3 & 4 sleep.
17Upon reaching stage 4 and after about 90 to 100 minutes of total sleep time, sleep lightens, returns through stages 3 and 2REM sleep emerges, characterized by EEG patterns that resemble beta waves of alert wakefulnessmuscles most relaxedrapid eye movements occurdreams occur
18Four or five sleep cycles occur in a typical night’s sleep - less time is spent in slow-wave, more is spent in REM
19Sleep and Dreams REM (Rapid Eye Movement) Sleep Sleep recurring sleep stagevivid dreams“paradoxical sleep”muscles are generally relaxed, but other body systems are activeSleepperiodic, natural, reversible loss of consciousness
21Brain Waves and Sleep Stages Alpha Wavesslow waves of a relaxed, awake brainDelta Waveslarge, slow waves of deep sleepHallucinationsfalse sensory experiences
22Stages in a Typical Night’s Sleep 1234567SleepstagesAwakeHours of sleepREM
23Stages in a Typical Night’s Sleep Hours of sleepMinutesofStage 4 andREM1234567810152025DecreasingStage 4Increasing
24Sleep Deprivation Effects of Sleep Loss fatigue impaired concentration & memorydepressed immune systemgreater vulnerability to accidents
25Sleep Deprivation Spring time change (hour sleep loss) 2,4002,7002,6002,5002,800Spring time change(hour sleep loss)3,6004,20040003,800Fall time change(hour sleep gained)Less sleep,more accidentsMore sleep,fewer accidentsMonday before time changeMonday after time changeAccidentfrequency
26Sleep Disorders Insomnia persistent problems in falling or staying asleep during the nightMost common/affects 10% of populationTreat with a change in habits
27Narcolepsyuncontrollable sleep attacks, suffer from intense periods of intense sleepinesswill fall asleep at unpredictable & inappropriate timesrare, occurs in 1 in 2000 peoplewill fall immediately into REM sleeptreat with medication & a change of sleep patterns.
28Sleep Apnea almost as common as insomnia (1 in 25) temporary cessation of breathing for short periods of time during the nightThis causes person to wake up slightly, gasp for air & return to sleep, robbing a person of deep sleep, causing fatigue, attention & memory problems
29Night Terrors and Nightmares 1234567SleepstagesAwakeHours of sleepREMNight Terrorsoccur within 2 or 3 hours of falling asleep, usually during Stage 4high arousal—sit up in bed appearance of being terrifiedhappens to children only
30Nightmares Occur during REM sleep 5% of population have them On average pf 1X per weekUsually happens when we miss REM sleep, don’t get enough sleep, drink too much alcohol, eat spicy foods, or see something that is scary.
31SomnambulismAlso known as sleepwalkingOccurs during Stage 4 sleep
32Dreams: FreudDreamssequence of story like images, emotions, & thoughts passing through a sleeping person’s mindhallucinatory imagerydiscontinuitiesincongruitiesdelusional acceptance of the contentdifficulties remembering
33Lucid DreamsWe are aware that we are dreaming and can control the dream.A very difficult area to research
34Dreams: Freud Sigmund Freud--The Interpretation of Dreams (1900) Symbolic expressions of our unconscious conflicts or wish fulfillmentclues to inner thoughts & forbidden impulsesdischarge otherwise unacceptable feelingsManifest Contentremembered story lineLatent Contentunderlying meaning
35Theories about why we dream 1. Information Processing Perspective-dreams help us sort out the day’s experiences and fix them in memory.2. Activation-synthesis explanation states that REM sleep triggers impulses in the visual cortex, evoking random visual images that our brain tries to weave into a storyline.
363. The brain-maturation/cognitive development perspective believes dreams represent the dreamer’s level of development, knowledge & understanding4. Dreaming serves as a physiological function and REM induced regular stimulation helps develop & preserves neural pathways in the brain
37Most sleep theorists agree that REM sleep and dreams serve an important function, as evidenced by REM rebound that occurs following sleep deprivation.
38Common dream themes Most dreams about ordinary events Involve our worries, fears, feelings,& arguments.Falling, being chased, flying, losing or finding something, finding yourself naked, teeth falling out are all common dream themes50% of us dream in color and 50% in black & white. Researchers don’t know why.
40Hypnosis Hypnosis Posthypnotic Amnesia a social interaction in which one person (the hypnotist) suggests to another (the subject) that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occurUsed to cure ailments, bring back memoriesGreek god of sleep-HypnosPosthypnotic Amnesiasupposed inability to recall what one experienced during hypnosisinduced by the hypnotist’s suggestion
41Hypnosis Orne & Evans (1965) Posthypnotic Suggestion control group instructed to “pretend”unhypnotized subjects performed the same acts as the hypnotized onesPosthypnotic Suggestionsuggestion to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotizedused by some clinicians to control undesired symptoms and behaviors
42Hypnosis Dissociation Hidden Observer a split in consciousness allows some thoughts and behaviors to occur simultaneously with othersHidden ObserverErnest Hilgard’s ( )term describing a hypnotized subject’s awareness of experiences, such as pain, that go unreported during hypnosis
44Drugs and Consciousness Psychoactive Druga chemical substance that alters perceptions and mood,changes the chemistry of the brainChanges our perceptions, mood or behaviorMolecules pass through the blood-brain barrierLead to Physical Dependencephysiological need for a drug,to take moremarked by unpleasant withdrawal symptomsPsychological Dependencea psychological need to use a drugfor example, to relieve negative emotions
45Dependence and Addiction SmallLargeDrug doseLittleeffectBigDrugResponse tofirst exposureAfter repeatedexposure, moredrug is neededto producesame effectTolerancediminishing effect with regular useWithdrawaldiscomfort and distress that follow discontinued use
46Psychoactive Drugs Depressants Stimulants drugs that reduce neural activityslow body functionsalcohol, barbiturates, opiatesStimulantsdrugs that excite neural activityspeed up body functionscaffeine, nicotine, amphetamines, cocaine
47Psychoactive Drugs Hallucinogens psychedelic (mind-manifesting) drugs that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory inputDoes not slow or speed up the bodyLSD, peyote, mushrooms, ecstasy
48Psychoactive Drugs Barbiturates drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgment
49Psychoactive Drugs Opiates opium and its derivatives (morphine and heroin, methadone)opiates depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxietyElevate endorphins, mood elevators
50Psychoactive Drugs Amphetamines drugs that stimulate neural activity, causing speeded-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes
52Psychoactive Drugs Ecstasy (MDMA) LSD THC synthetic stimulant and mild hallucinogenboth short-term and long-term health risksLSDlysergic acid diethylamidea powerful hallucinogenic drugalso known as acidTHCthe major active ingredient in marijuanatriggers a variety of effects, including mild hallucinations
54Trends in Drug Use Year 80% 70 60 50 High school seniors 40 reporting ‘77 ‘79 ‘81 ‘83 ‘85 ‘87 ‘89 ‘91 ‘93 ‘95 ‘97 ‘99Year80%70605040302010High schoolseniorsreportingdrug useAlcoholMarijuana/hashishCocaine