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Changes in Europe Emerging from the Dark Ages The Crusades Began as early as 1095 with the 1 st Crusades to Jerusalem Tried to regain the holy sites for.

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Presentation on theme: "Changes in Europe Emerging from the Dark Ages The Crusades Began as early as 1095 with the 1 st Crusades to Jerusalem Tried to regain the holy sites for."— Presentation transcript:

1 Changes in Europe Emerging from the Dark Ages The Crusades Began as early as 1095 with the 1 st Crusades to Jerusalem Tried to regain the holy sites for the Catholic Church Put Europe in contact with Arab merchants & goods from the Far East Marco Polo ( ) Traveled 17,000 miles to China 1296 Wrote Travels to tell Europeans about what he saw

2 Why did Europeans begin exploring? 1. Growth of Trade European merchants could make greater profits selling eastern goods Perfumes, spices, silks, gems, etc. Arab merchants charged huge fees to ship goods through them Needed their own route to Asia 2. Growth of Ideas 1300 – In Italy and eventually all Europe an interest in classical society emerged (Greek/Roman works/ideas) Began to use science and reason to explain things instead of religion Art became more realistic, writing about man/universe 3. The Renaissance (Rebirth) A period of artistic and intellectual creativity Encouraged new ideas, and set new goals across Europe

3 Who Explored and why? Prior to this time power was divided among several small lords across Europe Europe was now divided into a handful of large nation-states Spain, Portugal, France, and England Strong monarchs - national laws, courts, taxes and armies These ambitious leaders wanted to make their countries the strongest and wealthiest

4 How did Technology affect exploration? Technology is the use of scientific knowledge for practical purposes 1. Printing Press (1450s)–more access to knowledge awaken the imagination 2. Map Improvements – more accurate accounts, added ocean currents, latitude lines 3. Navigation – astrolabe (measured star positions), magnetic compass (direction) 4. Ships – stern rudder & triangular sail (sail into wind) caravel (Portuguese) – this three-masted ship was faster and larger, able to float in shallow waters

5 African Kingdoms Had always been a center of trade along the Mediterranean Sea Expanded to south of the Sahara along the West Coast of Africa Portuguese used Africa because Spain wouldn’t allow access to the Mediterranean Sea Traded with the nations like the Ghana, Mali and Songhai in W. Africa Traded for gold, salt and slaves Great leaders like Mansa Musa turned cities like Timbuktu into Islamic centers of art and learning

6 Portuguese traders Enjoyed the access to W. African gold but wanted a route to Asia Prince Henry “the Navigator” set up a center for exploration Hired the best astronomers, geographers & mathematicians to help them find a route to Asia around Africa Made it as far west as the Canary and Azores islands King John II encouraged exploration down Gold Coast of Africa Bartholomeu Dias – 1488 – made it to Cape of Good Hope Vasco da Gama – 1497/8 – made it around Africa to India

7 Christopher Columbus Born in Italy became an explorer for the Portuguese Traveled from the Gold Coast to the Arctic Circle Heard stories of Vikings traveling west and reaching land Thought he could reach Asia by sailing west instead of around Africa The Portuguese weren’t interest so he went to Spain King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella were jealous of Portugal and agreed to sponsor Columbus’s expedition

8 Christopher Columbus His Voyages Aug. 3, 1492 – Columbus left Palos, Spain with 3 ships Nina, Pinta and Santa Maria He altered the ships log to keep the crew from turning back October 12, 1492 – reached San Salvador (thought it was the East Indies March 1493 returned to Spain He was given the title: Admiral of the Ocean Sea Made 3 more trips and claimed Hispaniola, Cuba, Jamaica, Central and South America for Spain

9 Treaty of Tordesillas The rivalry between Spain and Portugal only grew after Columbus’ discoveries 1493 – Pope Alexander VI est. the Line of Demarcation 1. Gave Spain control of all land west of the line 2. Gave Portugal all land east of the line Spain gained control of most of N. and S. America Portugal claimed Brazil for themselves

10 The Columbian Exchange The exchange of plants, animals, and diseases that changed both American and European society Changes from disease: Europe – smallpox, influenza, measles Caused the American pop. in Hispaniola to drop from 3 mil. to 500 Changes in diet:

11 Spanish Exploration Beyond the Americas Vasco Nunez de Balboa – 1513 Explored across Central America and claimed the Pacific Ocean for Spain Spain still wanted a sea route to Asia Ferdinand Magellan – 1519 He found a passage around South America in 1520 (Straits of Magellan) He thought his crew would reach Asia in a few weeks based upon calculations of the size of the earth Four months later they reached the Philippines where he was killed Only 18 crew members made it to Spain 1 st to circumnavigate the globe

12 Spanish Empire in the Americas Spanish conquistadors received grants from Spain for 1/5 of all treasures found Spain in South and Central America Had better weapons and war tactics Took advantage of the Native American Empires cruelty Brought diseases that killed off the native population Cortes ( ) Landed in Mexico and learned of the Aztecs Formed alliances with their neighbors Captured and killed Montezuma and destroyed Tenochtitlan Pizarro ( ) Sailed for Peru to find the wealthy Incan Empire Captured and eventually killed their leader Controlled the Incan Empire by 1535

13 Spain in North America Came looking for gold and silver like they found in the South PonceDe Leon – explored Florida, found Fountain of Youth Cabeza de Vaca & others searched for Cibola (7 Cities of Gold) – they didn’t exist Hernando de Soto searched southeast – found Miss. River De Coronado & Onate explored the southwest

14 “... After nine days' march I reached some plains, so vast that I did not find their limit anywhere that I went, although I traveled over them for more than 300 leagues. And I found such a quantity of cows in these, of the kind that I wrote Your Majesty about, which they have in this country, that it is impossible to number them, for while I was journeying through these plains, until I returned to where I first found them, there was not a day that I lost sight of them. And after seventeen days' march I came to a settlement of Indians who are called Querechos, who travel around with these cows, who do not plant, and who eat the raw flesh and drink the blood of the cows they kill, and they tan the skins of the cows, with which all the people of this country dress themselves here....” “... [The province of Quivira] is the best I have ever seen for producing all the products of Spain... the land itself being very fat and black and being very well watered by the rivulets and springs and rivers,... I have treated the natives of this province, and all the others whom I found wherever I went, as well as was possible, agreeably to what Your Majesty had commanded,... [T]here is not any gold nor any other metal in all that country, and the other things of which they had told me are nothing but little villages,...” –Francisco Vásquez de Coronado, Letter to Charles I of Spain

15 Spanish society in America Spain controlled their colonies through the viceroy (governor) Had 3 types of settlements Pueblos – towns, trade centers Missions – religious communities for conversion Presidios – forts, protected missions and pueblos Had a detailed social class structure Peninsulares – born in Spain, control land & govt. Creoles – born in America to Spanish parents Mestizos – mix of Spanish and American parents Native Americans – lived in poverty Africans – brought as slaves

16 Spanish society in America (continued) Economic effect on Native people Encomienda – taxation of natives – forced many into slavery Bartolome de las Casas – Spanish priest Wrote Spain and demanded change 1542 made illegal to enslave natives Spain had no way to enforce the law Plantation system – farming crops for cash not use Sugar and Tobacco were the exported crops Switched from native to African slaves after 1542 caused fewer problems and worked better in climate

17 Other Reasons for Exploration in North America 1. Protestant Reformation The religious and historical movement when people began to break with the Catholic church in Europe Began in Germany (Luther), spread to France (Calvin) and England (Henry VIII) These rivalries between religions carried into America Spanish and French – Catholics Dutch and English – Protestants 2. Mercantilism The power of a nation is based upon its wealth Spain was becoming more powerful because of the gold & silver from America Colonies in America were great resources and also great markets

18 Other Reasons for Exploration in North America (continued) 3. Northwest Passage A water route through the Americas to Asia Mostly French & English explorers Cabot (Eng.) – claimed present day Newfoundland Da Verrazano (fr.) – eastern coast looking for a route Cartier (Fr.) – explored St. Lawrence River & Montreal Hudson (Dutch) – explored Hudson River & Hudson Bay 4. Traders French had many conflicts at home and didn’t build colonies Instead concentrated on the fishing & fur resources De Champlain – set up a trading post in Quebec Trade spread throughout Canada & down the Mississippi River Valley


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