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Please contact me if you have any questions about my lecture. Leslie Vosshall April 3, 2006.

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Presentation on theme: "Please contact me if you have any questions about my lecture. Leslie Vosshall April 3, 2006."— Presentation transcript:

1 Please contact me if you have any questions about my lecture. Leslie Vosshall April 3, 2006

2 Leslie B. Vosshall Pheromones & Animal Behavior

3 Adria Le BoeufJoanna Spencer April 10: Presentations (PDFs available April 4) April 3: Lecture (PPT available this afternoon)

4 $50 Tristram Wyatt Pheromones and Animal Behaviour Suggested Reading David Michael Stoddart The Scented Ape : The Biology and Culture of Human Odour $37

5 Social Cues

6 Formula for the perfect social signal: 1.Cheap to transmit 2.Cheap to receive 3.Discreet 4.Selective 5.Effective in the dark/barriers 6.Long-range 7.Long-lasting 8.Easy homing/identification

7 VISUAL

8 AUDIO

9 CHEMICAL cockroach sex pheromone Brennan & Keverne, Curr. Biol. 14:R81–R89 (2004)

10 What is a Pheromone? ”defined chemical signal between members of the same species, eliciting a particular behavior or physiological change...”

11 Broader Definition: Pheromones ”any chemical signal conveying information between members of the same species” Recognition of Individuals or Kin: Differences between signals essential

12 Pheromones Health and Fitness Mate Choice/ Sexual Selection Mate Selection to Avoid Incest/Genetic Relatedness Sexual Maturation Successful Fertilization (Aquatic Animals) Kin Recognition Caste and Reproductive Status (Social Animals) Menstrual Synchrony Maternal-Infant Bonding Infant Suckling—Nipple Recognition Dominance Hierarchy Aggression Territory and Trail Marking Deception (Plant->Animal) Deception (Animal->Animal) Aggregation Intruder Alarm

13 Semiochemicals: Infochemicals Pheromones: Within species Allelochemicals: Between species Sender + Receiver + Kairomones: Sender - Receiver + Synomones: Sender + Receiver + Allomones: Sender + Receiver -

14 Primer Pheromones Wyatt Book

15 Evolution of Pheromones Wyatt Book

16 Pheromones – Odor Imprinting Wyatt Book

17 Pheromones and behavior (phenomenology)

18 Silkmoth Bombyx mori

19

20 Sex (Releaser) Pheromones

21 Mate Quality: Courtship Pheromones hydroxydanaidal monocrotaline pyrrolizidine alkaloids Wyatt Book

22 Pheromones-Dominance Hierarchy

23 Aggregation pheromone — Desert Locust

24 Aggregation Pheromones: Barnacles Wyatt Book

25 Ant caste determination

26 Primer pheromones-Termites Wyatt Book

27 Dauer pheromones-C.elegans High Density/Limiting Food

28 Alarm Pheromones

29 Marking Behavior-Mara rodent Wyatt Book

30 Marking Behavior-desert ant

31 Trail Marking-leaf cutter ant

32 Marking, Territorial Behavior- Badger Wyatt Book

33 Mimicry: Pheromones Subverted for Deception Australian orchid D. glyptodon traps male Z.Trilobatus wasps Bolas spiders vs. moths

34 Mate Quality: MHC

35 Models for the MHC Effect 1. The MHC molecule hypothesis (MHC fragments in urine and sweat) 2. The peptide hypothesis (MHC peptide metabolites in urine) 3. The microflora hypothesis (MHC shapes allele-specific populations of commensal microbes) 4. The carrier hypothesis (MHC carries volatile aromatics, including those produced by bacteria) 5. The peptide-microbe hypothesis (MHC alters odor by restricting peptides available to commensal bacteria)

36 Coolidge Effect (Remating with arrival of new potential mate) Bruce Effect (Pregnancy block when exposed to foreign male) Vandenbergh Effect (Males accelerate puberty in young females) Whitten Effect (Males induce oestrus in adult females) Lee-Boot Effect (Group-housed females show suppressed oestrus; oestrus synchronized by contact with males)

37 One day President and Mrs. Coolidge were visiting a government farm. Soon after their arrival they were taken off on separate tours. When Mrs. Coolidge passed the chicken pens she paused to ask the man in charge if the rooster copulates more than once each day. "Dozens of times" was the reply. "Please tell that to the President," Mrs. Coolidge requested. When the President passed the pens and was told about the rooster, he asked "Same hen everytime?" "Oh no, Mr. President, a different one each time." The President nodded slowly, then said "Tell that to Mrs. Coolidge." The Coolidge Effect

38 Vandenbergh Effect (Males accelerate puberty in young females) Whitten Effect (Males induce oestrus in adult females) Lee-Boot Effect (Group-housed females show suppressed oestrus; oestrus synchronized by contact with males)

39 Pheromone chemistry

40 Where do pheromones come from? Urine Sweat Tears Other glands…

41 Pheromone-Producing Glands-Insects Wyatt Book

42 Pheromone-Producing Glands-Mammals Wyatt Book

43 Manduca sexta female pheromone blend

44 Sex Pheromones Wyatt Book

45 Schaal et al., Nature 424, 68-72, 2003

46 Lin et al., Nature 434, , 2005

47 bombykol bombykal

48 Jeong et al., Nature 433:541, (- )-6R-(3'R, 5'R-dihydroxy-6'S-methyltetrahydro-pyran-2'R-yloxy) heptanoic acid C. elegans dauer pheromone

49 Pheromone reception (neural circuitry)

50 Olfaction vs. Pheromone Perception (vertebrates)

51 Vomeronasal or Jacobson’s Organ (VNO)

52 VNO Pathways

53 Brennan & Keverne, Curr. Biol. 14:R81–R89 (2004)

54

55

56

57

58 Olfaction vs. Pheromone Perception (invertebrates)

59 Male Insect Antennae: Specialized to Detect Female Pheromones

60

61 Pheromone receptors

62 Odorant Receptors (vertebrate)

63

64

65 Pheromone Receptors (vertebrate)

66 V1R: expressed with G α i and TRP2

67 V2R: expressed with G α o and TRP2 (and MHC M10)

68 Pheromone Receptors (invertebrate)

69 bombykol bombykal =come to me =go away

70 Nakagawa et al., Science 2005

71

72 Pheromone reception (humans)

73

74 Sequential Sensory Decisions in Sexual Courtship: Correct Species? Correct Gender? Sexually Receptive? Other Quality Control Criteria (usually monitored by Females) Size? Strength? Other indicators of good “gene pool”?

75 PHEROMONES IN HUMANS? Kin recognition-family member vs. partner

76 PHEROMONES IN HUMANS? Kin recognition-partner vs. stranger

77 PHEROMONES IN HUMANS? Kin recognition-mother/child

78 PHEROMONES IN HUMANS? Menstrual synchrony

79 Stern & McClintock Nature :177

80 ”Realm, the fragrances with human pheromones. Only Realm adds this extra dimension of human Pleasure. Awaken your sixth sense. Experience REALM. Contains human pheromones.” Realm Men by Realm Pheromone for Men Realm Pheromones Women by Realm Pheromone for Women Active Ingredient: androstenone (pig pheromone)


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