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ALCOHOL ABUSE. Alcohol Abuse Approx 14 million Americans are alcoholics Approx 100,000 death/yr associated with alcohol abuse 18.8% have lived with an.

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Presentation on theme: "ALCOHOL ABUSE. Alcohol Abuse Approx 14 million Americans are alcoholics Approx 100,000 death/yr associated with alcohol abuse 18.8% have lived with an."— Presentation transcript:

1 ALCOHOL ABUSE

2 Alcohol Abuse Approx 14 million Americans are alcoholics Approx 100,000 death/yr associated with alcohol abuse 18.8% have lived with an alcoholic some time during their childhood 9.2% have been married or cohabitated with an alcoholic 37.9% have a blood relative who is an alcoholic Approximately 1/3 of high school students report binge drinking once a month 1,400 college students a year die from accidents, violence or poisoning related to alcohol

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5 Alcohol Abuse Alcohol is a central nervous system depressant, not a stimulant Feel release of personal inhibitions Broken down by the liver at a rate of 2/3 to 3/4 of an ounce per hour If you drink more then this the alcohol level in your blood will rise

6 Factors that influence absorption Strength of the drink Number of drinks consumed Speed of consumption Presence of food in your stomach Body chemistry –Amount of time it takes for the stomach to empty depends on stress, anger, fear, nausea

7 Factors that influence absorption Gender –Women produce less of enzyme needed to breakdown alcohol –Women have greater fat content and alcohol is not fat soluble so it enters the blood stream faster –Women have less water so alcohol does not become diluted –Women absorb more alcohol during the premenstrual phase

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10 Blood Alcohol Levels Legal blood alcohol is less the 0.08 if you are over for below 18

11 Blood Alcohol Levels 0.02 – no effect – relaxed, slightly lightheaded, decreased inhibitions –Level reached by 160 pound man taking 2 drinks per hour 0.1 – loss of motor coordination and impaired judgment 0.15 – significant impairment of motor coordination and reaction time, slurred speech

12 Blood Alcohol Levels 0.2 – severely intoxicated, loud obnoxious drunk 0.3 – limited control of functions, may be unconscious 0.4 – comatose –suffocation and death, usually pass out before this point

13 Sobering Up Acute alcohol poisoning –Drank too much, too fast Call 911 if –Unable to awaken person –Shallow breathing –Fast heart rate –Cool skin –Bluish color to skin

14 Sobering Up Regurgitation and aspiration Lay person on their side and do not leave them alone

15 Alcohol Related Health Problems Hangover –Mild withdrawal from alcohol –Nerve cells become dehydrated by alcohol –No cure except time –“hair of the dog that bit you” means drinking again to avoid withdrawal symptoms

16 Alcohol Related Health Problems Alcohol and pregnancy do not mix Increased number of miscarriages Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) –Mental retardation –Slow growth –Facial abnormalities Small heads Widely spaced eyes Flattened noses 10 or more drinks/day 74% will have FAS

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21 Alcohol Related Health Problems Cardiovascular system –High blood pressure –Scar tissue formation on the heart –Fatty deposit increase the size of the heart –Death from heart failure

22 Alcohol Related Health Problems Liver metabolizes the alcohol Liver is the most vulnerable organ to alcohol Heavy drinking damages the liver causing cirrhosis and eventual death

23 Alcohol Related Health Problems Gastrointestinal system –GI bleeding –Esophageal varacies –Malnutrition –Esophageal cancer

24 Alcohol Related Health Problems Endocrine disorders –Decreased testosterone production –Second leading cause of impotence –May lead to early menopause in women –Alters the menstrual cycle

25 Alcohol Related Health Problems Central nervous system –Brain cell loss –Impaired nerve function Depression –Alcoholics 30 times more likely to commit suicide then the general population

26 Tolerance to Alcohol Develop a physical and psychological addiction to alcohol Develop a tolerance to alcohol –Takes more alcohol to get the relaxed feeling –As damage to liver increases unable to breakdown alcohol and it takes less alcohol to get drunk

27 Effect on Society Motor vehicle crashes –Every two minutes an alcohol related car crash injury happens –28% if all yr olds say they have driven while drunk –Do not drink and drive –If caught you will lose you license for one year

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37 Effect on Society Drownings –Alcohol is involved in 34% Fires and burns –Half of burn victims above legal BAL Crime and violence –Homicides have alcohol involved 67% of the time –50% of rapists are intoxicated and 30% of victims Suicide –Half of all suicides are committed by alcoholics –Alcohol is related to impulsive suicides vs premeditated ones

38 Hosting a Party Responsibly You are responsible for the health and safety of you guests and may be held liable if they drink and drive Don’t push drinks Don’t serve doubles Don’t keep the glasses full Have non-alcoholic beverages Serve non-salty snacks

39 Hosting a Party Responsibly Don’t make drinking the main activity at the party Do not let someone drive if they are intoxicated, take their keys or call 911

40 Keeping Yourself Sober Drink slowly Space your drinks Know your limits Designated driver Don’t drink before the party Don’t drink if you are mad or depressed Avoid drinking games Consume only a pre-planned number of drinks and stop drinking at a pre-planned hour

41 Stages of Alcohol Dependence Early –Escape drinking –Binge drinking –Guilt feelings –Sneaking drinks –Difficulty stopping after beginning to drink –Increased tolerance –Preoccupation with drinking –Occasional blackouts

42 Stages of Alcohol Dependence Middle –Loss of control –Self hate –Impaired social relationships –Changes in drinking patterns (more frequent binge drinking) –Dietary neglect –Increased blackouts

43 Stages of Alcohol Dependence Late –Prolonged binges –Alcohol used to control withdrawal symptoms –Alcohol psychosis –Nutritional disease –Frequent blackouts

44 Causes of Alcoholism Genetics –Strong family link –50% of fathers, sons, brothers of alcoholics are likely to become alcoholics –Children of alcoholics are more then 3-4 times more likely to become alcoholics Personality types –Low self esteem –Chronic anxiety –Antisocial personalities

45 Treatment Biggest barrier to treatment and recovery is denial Families delay treatment by enabling the alcoholic –Families deny the problem, delay treatment –Cover up for the alcoholic Codependence with a significant other –Dual addiction –Alcoholic is addicted to alcohol and the family member is addicted to them –Delays treatment

46 Treatment Detoxification is first –Go through physical withdrawal from alcohol –Inpatient medical treatment –Avoid DTs and seizures Psychological addiction is next –Changing long term behavior –Problem solving skills –Stress management 2/3 can recover with good emotional support

47 Treatment Alcohol Anonymous (AA) –Based on the belief that people have to admit they have lost control over alcohol and they are powerless to control their drinking –One of the most successful programs Alcoholics can not be social drinkers


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