Presentation on theme: "Foster Care Fire Safety Medford Fire-Rescue Fire & Life Safety Division."— Presentation transcript:
Foster Care Fire Safety Medford Fire-Rescue Fire & Life Safety Division
Foster Care Fire Safety Training What Will You Learn From This? Case Studies of Fire Tragedies Fire Statistics Fire Behavior Challenges of Foster Homes OAR’s Emergency Planning Fire Prevention Purpose? To reduce the risk of tragedy
Challenges to Provider/Caregiver Huge Responsibility and Liability 3 minutes to evacuate all occupants3 minutes to evacuate all occupants 1:5 + caregiver to occupant ratio1:5 + caregiver to occupant ratio Increasing care needs of occupantsIncreasing care needs of occupants What About Fire? Discovering a fireDiscovering a fire Calling 911Calling 911 Deciding if you should fight the fireDeciding if you should fight the fire How to react to a fire emergencyHow to react to a fire emergency Who to evacuate firstWho to evacuate first Who to protect in placeWho to protect in place Getting through the smoke and heatGetting through the smoke and heat
Medford Foster Home Structure Fire History - Victims January 30, 1985
Medford Foster Home Structure Fire History - Victims January 30, elderly residents died2 elderly residents died Reported: 6:34 AMReported: 6:34 AM Single story wood framed houseSingle story wood framed house Husband and wife caretakers normally slept outside of the home at night in a travel trailerHusband and wife caretakers normally slept outside of the home at night in a travel trailer Smoke detectors awakened caretaker who that morning came in and fell asleep on the couch in the family roomSmoke detectors awakened caretaker who that morning came in and fell asleep on the couch in the family room She saw flames from the upper part of the kitchen/dining room area utility closetShe saw flames from the upper part of the kitchen/dining room area utility closet There was a delay in calling 911 (approx. 15 minutes)There was a delay in calling 911 (approx. 15 minutes) The cause of the fire was an electrical problem in a forced- air heating unitThe cause of the fire was an electrical problem in a forced- air heating unit The house contained two working smoke detectorsThe house contained two working smoke detectors
Medford Foster Home Structure Fire History - Victims January 12, 1995
Medford Foster Home Structure Fire History - Victims January 12, elderly residents died4 elderly residents died Reported: 11:34 PMReported: 11:34 PM Single story wood framed houseSingle story wood framed house Fire Department reported upon arrival 25% of the structure in flames and heavy smoke coming from all openingsFire Department reported upon arrival 25% of the structure in flames and heavy smoke coming from all openings Two people exited prior to FD arrival-one was the caregiverTwo people exited prior to FD arrival-one was the caregiver The fire originated in a chair of a smoking roomThe fire originated in a chair of a smoking room The caretaker admitted to drinking alcohol and falling asleep. She was awakened when she heard an “explosion”The caretaker admitted to drinking alcohol and falling asleep. She was awakened when she heard an “explosion” Oxygen cylinders ruptured accelerating the burningOxygen cylinders ruptured accelerating the burning The house contained 8 smoke detectors-all working except one with a missing batteryThe house contained 8 smoke detectors-all working except one with a missing battery
Medford Foster Home Structure Fire History - Victims For one week the daughter watched their mother slowly die because of complications from smoke inhalation. Their mother pleaded the day before she died: “I hurt so bad, please help me” Her daughter stated: “You cannot watch your mother going through the agony she did for a week and not be angry”
U.S. Statistics – Home Fires 2010 Statistics –384,000 home fires in the U.S. –2,665 lives lost not including firefighters »92% of structure fire deaths were in homes –13,800 injured not including firefighters »86% of civilian fire injuries were in home structure fires – $7.1 billion dollars lost in residential fires »68% of direct property losses due to fire were in homes –On average 100 firefighters die annually »92% of structure fire firefighter fire ground fatalities were associated with home fires Smoking is the Leading Cause of Fire-related Deaths Cooking is the Primary Cause of Residential Fires Purdue Fire
2010 Medford Structural Fire Statistics Structure Fires by Type: 80% Residential 20% Commercial
2010 Medford Structural Fire Statistics Residential Structure Fires by Type: 67% Single Family Residence 10% Duplex 18% Multi-Family
2010 Residential Fire Statistics Time of Alarm: 5% between 12:00 AM and 3:59 AM 1.5% between 4:00 AM and 7:59 AM 17% between 8:00 AM and 11:59 AM 30% between 12:00 PM and 3:59 PM 35% between 4:00 PM and 7:59 PM 11.5% between 8:00 PM and 11:59 PM
2010 Residential Fire Statistics Areas of Origin: 33% kitchens 8% courtyard, patio, porch 7% bedrooms 7% common rooms (living room, den, family room) 6% laundry areas Causes: 80% unintentional 15% intentional 5% undetermined Initial Ignition Heat Sources: 12% radiated/conducted heat from operating equipment 12% from powered equipment 12% heat from hot ember or ash
2010 Residential Fire Statistics Smoke Alarms: 53% present and alerted the residents 35% did not alert or were not present
Medford Fire Deaths Medford Fire Deaths Most Fire Deaths: Are caused from smoke inhalation Are caused from smoke inhalation Occur between midnight and 8:00 AM Occur between midnight and 8:00 AM
National Residential Fire Statistics-Primary Victims Source: NFPA Young Children and Older Adults 2-4 times more likely to die in a fire than general population2-4 times more likely to die in a fire than general population
National Residential Fire Statistics-Primary Victims Young Children Often hide during firesOften hide during fires May sleep through a sounding smoke alarmMay sleep through a sounding smoke alarm Older Adults May suffer from reduced sensory abilities such as smell, touch, vision, and hearingMay suffer from reduced sensory abilities such as smell, touch, vision, and hearing - Inability to smell smoke - Inability to feel if something is hot - Inability to see fires or notice fire causes - Inability to hear smoke alarms or fire sounds May suffer from disabilitiesMay suffer from disabilities Have reduced reaction timesHave reduced reaction times Source: USFA
Fire Behavior Fire Behavior Why 3 minutes? Studies have shown that the average safe window of escape time has been reduced from 17 minutes in the 1970’s to as little as three minutes currently.Studies have shown that the average safe window of escape time has been reduced from 17 minutes in the 1970’s to as little as three minutes currently. This change is attributed to the widespread use of hydrocarbons in modern furniture, such as polyurethane foams and plastics.This change is attributed to the widespread use of hydrocarbons in modern furniture, such as polyurethane foams and plastics. These newer fuels cause more rapid fire growth.These newer fuels cause more rapid fire growth. Smoke and products of combustion from these fires become deadly in a matter of just a few minutes.Smoke and products of combustion from these fires become deadly in a matter of just a few minutes.
The Facts-Flashover Residents Do Not Survive Flashover Caused when the fire spreads very rapidly when all combustible items in a room reach their ignition temperatures simultaneouslyCaused when the fire spreads very rapidly when all combustible items in a room reach their ignition temperatures simultaneously Flashover can occur in as little as 3-4 minutes 1Flashover can occur in as little as 3-4 minutes 1 Post-flashover fires triple the number of victims 2Post-flashover fires triple the number of victims 2 Most victims in post-flashover fires are found remote from the room of origin 2Most victims in post-flashover fires are found remote from the room of origin 2 Flashover
Fire Behavior Fire Behavior
Side-by-Side Bedroom Burn Demonstration
Test Fire-Without Sprinklers Sources: National Fire Sprinkler Association
” Below Ceiling 60” Above Floor 36” Above Floor Temp. O F Time (sec.) Test Fire-Without Sprinklers Sources: National Fire Sprinkler Association
Test Fire-Without Sprinklers A concentration of as little as 0.04% (400 parts per million) carbon monoxide in the air can be fatal. A concentration of as little as 0.04% (400 parts per million) carbon monoxide in the air can be fatal. Sources: National Fire Sprinkler Association Carbon Monoxide Time (sec.) PPM
” Below Ceiling 60” Above Floor 36” Above Floor Time (sec.) Sources: National Fire Sprinkler Association Test Fire-With Sprinklers Temp. O F
Carbon Monoxide Time (sec.) PPM Test Fire-With Sprinklers Sources: National Fire Sprinkler Association
The Facts- Furnishings & Fuel Loads Heat Release Rates (HRR) (Btu/sec) –Small wastebasket –TV set –Cotton mattress –Polyurethane mattress ( %) –Cotton easy chair –Polyurethane easy chair ( %) –Polyurethane sofa 2960 –Armchair (modern) –Recliner(synthetic padding/covering) –Christmas tree, dry –Pool of gasoline (2 quarts on concrete) 949 –Living room or bedroom fully involved Sources: NFPA 921; Kirk’s Fire Investigation
The Facts- Furnishings & Fuel Loads Sources: NFPA 921; Kirk’s Fire Investigation Polyurethane Mattress Btu/sec 11-23’ flame height TV Btu/sec 5-10’ flame height Desk Chair Btu/sec 7-9’ flame height Wastebasket Btu/sec 1-7’ flame height Minimum Btu/sec HRR required for flashover in this typical bedroom
Fire Behavior Fire Behavior Video: UL Legacy vs. Modern Furnishings
Your Fire Scenario Time Line (minutes) You are awakened by the smoke detector A small fire starts in your home The fire dept. arrives, assesses the situation & applies 250 gpm to fire areas. Windows are broken and holes are cut in the roof to vent fire gases and smoke. Smoke reaches the smoke detector Ceiling temp. reaches 165 degrees. Smoke begins to layer down Ceiling temp. reaches 1,000 degrees, visibility is reduced to zero Ceiling temp reaches 1,400 degrees. Flashover occurs engulfing all contents of the fire room and extending fire throughout home You investigate and find a fire You awaken other family members and go to a neighbor to call 911 You give the 911 operator the information and she notifies the fire dept. The fire dept. responds The fire room and all contents are completely destroyed. Heat damage extends throughout the entire house, burning or melting all items within 5 feet of the ceiling. Smoke has blackened all contents of the house. Windows and roof vent holes must be boarded-up. All drywall will need to be replaced and all contents replaced or restored. Extensive water damage exists from firefighting efforts. Average time of displacement...6 months to a year. Source: Oregon Home Fire Sprinkler Coalition
Sprinkler System Fire Scenario Time Line (minutes) You are awakened by the smoke detector A small fire starts in your home The fire dept. arrives, assesses the situation and limits water damage by shutting down the water supply to the sprinkler system. The fire department then assists with initial clean-up operations. Smoke reaches the smoke detector You investigate and find a fire You awaken other family members and go to a neighbor to call 911 You give the 911 operator the information and she notifies the fire dept. The fire dept. responds Fire damage is limited to the objects in or near the initial fire. Heat damage is limited to the fire room. Heavy smoke damage is limited to the fire room. Water damage is limited to the sprinkler flow of 15 gpm (approx. 150 gal total). Average time of displacement from home days. Ceiling temp. reaches 165 degrees. The fire sprinkler head over the fire activates Fire is controlled or completely extinguished. Sprinkler head continues to spray water at 15 gpm. Source: Oregon Home Fire Sprinkler Coalition
DHS Rules and Fire Safety
DHS Rules for Fire Safety Orientation with 24 hours of arrival: Applies to any new resident or caregiver How to respond to a smoke alarm How to participate in an emergency evacuation drill Basic fire safety
Emergency Evacuation Plan Written Emergency Plan: An emergency evacuation plan must be developed, and revised as necessary to reflect the current condition of the residents in the home The plan must be rehearsed with all occupants
Escape Plan Required
Emergency Evacuation Drills Purpose of Fire Drills To be ready should an occurrence happen, increasing the chanced of survivalTo be ready should an occurrence happen, increasing the chanced of survival A disorganized evacuation can lead to confusion, injury, death and property damageA disorganized evacuation can lead to confusion, injury, death and property damage
DHS Rules for Fire Safety Emergency Evacuation Fire Drills: The foster provider must be able to demonstrate the ability to evacuate all residents in foster care from the home within 3 minutes Required unannounced at least once every 90 days Required at least one drill practice per year occurring during sleeping hours Drills must occur at different times of the day, evening and night, with exit routes being vartied based on the location of the simulated fire All residents must participate in the evacuation drills. A new resident placed in foster care must receive orientation to basic safety, be shown how to respond to a fire alarm, and shown how to exit in an emergency
DHS Rules for Fire Safety Emergency Evacuation Fire Drills: Alternate caregivers and other staff must be familiar with the emergency evacuation plan Fire drill records must be retained for at least two years. Records must contain the following information: Date and time Location of similated fire and exit route The last names of all individuals and providers present on the premises at the time of the drill The type of evacuation assistance provided The amount of time required by each individual to evacuate The signature of the provider conducting the drill.
What the Oregon Fire Code Says Self Preservation: The ability of building occupants to reach an approved predetermined point of safety without physical assistance from staff. Self preservation may be accomplished with the aid of technical devices or assistance animals. Assisted Self Preservation: The capability of a resident to evacuate to a point of safety with physical assistance. Point of Safety: Exterior to and away from the structure with access to a public sidewalk or street.
What the Oregon Fire Code Says Assisted Self Preservation: A Group R-3 residential occupancy, subject to licensure by the state, where personal care is administered for five or fewer persons, and whose occupants may require assisted self- preservation shall be classified as a Group SR-3 occupancy and shall comply with the provisions of Appendix SR. Group SR-3 occupancies require a residential sprinkler system.
Home Fire Escape Drills Plan Ahead and Practice! Establish a safe meeting place. Teach your children to crawl on the floor to avoid smoke and heat. Show them how to feel the door with the back of their hand and to not open the door if it is hot to the touch. Make sure you have two ways out of every sleeping room, and that the windows can be opened easily. If the primary route is blocked by smoke or fire, you may have to escape through a window. Conduct a fire drill at night to determine your child’s response, and practice until it becomes routine. Practice home escape drills with your family monthly. Sleep with bedroom doors closed to provide a barrier of protection from smoke and heat spreading into your bedrooms.
DHS Rules for Fire Safety Smoke Alarms: Must be installed in each bedroom, adjacent hallways leading to the bedrooms, common living areas, basements, and at the top of every stairway in multi-story homes. Must be equipped with a device that warns of low battery condition when battery operated. All smoke alarms are to be maintained in functional condition. Must contain a sounding device or be interconnected to other detectors to provide, when actuated, an alarm which is audible in all sleeping rooms. Bedrooms used by hearing-impaired occupants who may not hear the sound of a regular smoke alarm must be equipped with an additional smoke alarm that has visual or vibrating capacity.
Smoke Alarms are Essential Smoke Alarms: Provide an early warning of a fire developing in your home Should be on every level of the home, in the immediate area outside of the sleeping rooms, and in every bedroom Should be tested monthly Anyone that has a hearing disability should be provided with a visual smoke alarm If you discover your child will not wake to a traditional sounding alarm, consider installing a personalized parent voice alarm Properly placed and maintained smoke alarms increase your chances of surviving a fire by 50% Are missing or inoperable in 2/3 of deadly residential fires
DHS Rules for Fire Safety Carbon Monoxide Detector: Must install at least one carbon monoxide detector Statistics: Responsible annually for an average of: - Over 400 deaths per year - Over 20,000 emergency room visits
Carbon Monoxide Detectors Carbon Monoxide Detectors: Are required when you have fuel-fired appliances or any carbon monoxide source Includes door opening between living space and garage Provide an early warning of a dangerous CO concentrations developing in your home According to Oregon Administrative Rules, should be located within each bedroom or within 15 feet outside of each bedroom door. Bedrooms on separate floors in a structure containing two or more stories require separate carbon monoxide alarms. Should be installed according to manufacturer’s instructions
Carbon Monoxide Safety measures: Never use portable fueled/unvented heaters in your home. These will cause a CO buildup and may also deplete the oxygen to dangerously low levels. Never use a gas oven to heat your home Never use charcoal or propane fueled barbeques indoors Never idle the car in the garage for extended periods of time or with the garage door closed Never use a generator in your home Have your chimney checked or cleaned every year. Chimneys blocked by debris can cause CO to build up inside your home or cabin. Have your fuel-fired appliances inspected by a trained technician for proper venting
DHS Rules for Fire Safety Fire Extinguishers: At least one fire extinguisher, minimally rated 2:A:10:B:C, must be visible and readily accessible on each floor, including basements. A qualified professional who is well versed in fire extinguisher maintenance must inspect every fire extinguisher at least once per year. All recharging and hydrostatic testing must be completed by a qualified entity properly trained and equipped for this purpose.
How do I Use a Fire Extinguisher? Proper extinguisher use, think “PASS”: Pull trigger pin (Stand back several feet away from fire) Aim low, point the nozzle at the base of the fire Squeeze trigger Sweep from side to side until the fire appears to be out
DHS Rules for Fire Safety Bedrooms: Must be on ground level for individuals who are non-ambulatory or have impaired mobility Must have at least one window or exterior door that readily opens from the inside without special tools and that provides a clear opening of not less than 821 square inches (5.7 sq. ft.), with the least dimensions not less than 22 inches in height or 20 inches in width. Window sill height must not be more than 44 inches from the floor level or there must be approved steps or other aids to window egress that may be used by individuals. Windows with a clear opening of not less than 5.0 square feet or 720 square inches with sill heights of 48 inches may be accepted when approved by the State Fire Marshal or designee.
DHS Rules for Fire Safety Egress: Hardware for all exit doors and interior doors used for exit purposes must have simple hardware that cannot be locked against exit and must have an obvious method of single action operation. Hasps, sliding bolts, hooks and eyes, and double key deadbolts are not permitted. Homes with one or more individuals who have impaired judgment and are known to wander away from their place of residence must have a functional and activated alarm system to alert a caregiver of an unsupervised exit by an individual.
DHS Rules for Fire Safety Egress: Foster homes must have two unrestricted exits in case of fire. A sliding door or window that may be used to evacuate a child may be considered a usable exit. Barred windows or doors used for possible exit in case of fire must be fitted with operable quick release mechanisms. Every bedroom used by a child in foster care must have at least one operable window, of a size that allows safe rescue, with safe and direct exit to the ground, or a door for secondary means of escape or rescue.
DHS Rules for Fire Safety Egress: All external and inside doors must have simple hardware with an obvious method of operation that allows for safe evacuation from the home. A home with a child that is known to leave their place of residence without permission must have a functional and activated alarm system to alert the foster provider.
DHS Rules for Fire Safety Flame Spread/Smoke Density: At least substantially comparable to wood lath and plaster or better Maximum flame spread may not exceed Class III (76-200) Maximum smoke density may not be greater than 450 If more than 10 percent of combined wall and ceiling areas in a sleeping room or exit way is composed of readily combustible material such as acoustical tile or wood paneling, such material must be treated with an approved flame retardant coating. Exception: Buildings supplied with an approved automatic sprinkler system.
Portable Space Heater Fires Statistics: Responsible annually for an average of: - 62,200 fires deaths - 1,550 civilian injuries - $909 million in property damage Primary cause = too close to combustibles
DHS Rules for Fire Safety Portable Space Heaters: Use of space heaters must be limited to only electric space heaters equipped with tip-over protection Space heaters must be plugged directly into the wall outlet No extension cords must be used with such heaters No freestanding kerosene, propane, or liquid fuel space heaters must be used in the foster home
Portable Space Heater Safety Safety measures: Keep heaters a minimum of 36” away from combustibles Plug directly into a wall outlet. Don’t use an extension cord Use only heaters with built-in high temperature and tip-over shutoff features Do not use un-vented fuel-fired heaters indoors Do not hang combustible items to dry over a heater Turn off portable heaters when family members are sleeping or leave the house Keep heaters out of high traffic areas and exit paths
Cooking Fires Statistics: Responsible annually for an average of: - 100,000 home fires deaths - 5,000 civilian injuries - $200 million in property damage Primary cause = unattended cooking
Cooking Safety Safety measures: Never leave cooking food unattended Keep combustible material and loose clothing away from open flames Keep the appliance and cooking area clean Use extra caution with cooking oils as they can ignite easily Always turn the pan handle sideways
Cooking Fires Statistics: Cooking is leading cause of burn injuries among older people Burns: Treat a burn immediately Cool a burn with cool water, never ice Cover a burn with a clean, dry cloth or bandage Don’t use ointment, spray, or butter If a burn is larger than your fist, get medical help. If you have questions about burn injuries, the Oregon Burn Center at For life threatening emergencies, call OSFM; USFA Source: OSFM; USFA
Candle Fires Statistics: Responsible annually for an average of: - 23,600 home fires deaths - 1,525 civilian injuries - $300 million in property damage Primary cause = unattended candles
Candle Safety Safety Measures: Consider a “no candle” policy Use LED candles instead If You Must Use Candles: Blow out candles before leaving the room Keep candles away from items that can burn Always use sturdy metal, glass or ceramic candle holders Place candles out of reach of small children and pets
Fireplace/Wood Stove Fires Statistics: Responsible annually for an average of: - 25,000 fires deaths - 90 civilian injuries - $126 million in property damage Primary causes = - Issue with flue - Igniting combustibles in room
DHS Rules for Fire Safety Fireplaces and Wood Stoves: Must include secure barriers to keep a child safe from potential injury and away from exposed heat sources. Chimneys must be inspected at the time of initial certification and if necessary the chimney must be cleaned. Chimneys must be inspected annually, unless the fireplace and or solid fuel- burning appliance was not used through the year of certification and may not be used in the future. A signed statement by the foster provider and certifier assuring that the fireplace and or solid fuel-burning appliance may not be in use must be submitted to the Division with the renewal application if a chimney inspection may not be completed.
Electrical Fires USFA Source: USFA Statistics: Responsible annually for an average of: - 28,600 fires deaths - 1,100 civilian injuries - $1.1 billion in property damage Homes more than 40 years old are 3 times more likely to catch fire from electrical causes than homes years old Primary causes = - Extension cords -Incorrectly installed wiring - Overloading circuits
DHS Rules for Fire Safety Extension Cords: Extension cords must not be used in place of permanent wiring.
Electrical Safety Safety measures: Replace electrical cords that show signs of damage, and never coil or walk on cords Avoid using extension cords. Use a power strip with a built-in circuit breaker instead Avoid overloading circuits Have an electrician check your house if fuses blow or breakers trip frequently Have an electrician check your house if you frequently experience dimming of lighting USFA Source: USFA
Smoking Statistics: The leading cause of fire-related deaths Accounts for nearly 1/3 of fire deaths in adults over age 70
DHS Rules for Fire Safety Smoking: No smoking allowed within the Foster Home Smoking may be allowed outside only Smoking must be a minimum 10’ away from doors & windows
Smoking Safety measures: Always discard smoldering and spent cigarettes properly Use large non-combustible deep and tip resistant ashtrays Never smoke in bed Never smoke while using oxygen. Warn visitors not to smoke near you. Douse cigarettes with water before throwing them in the trash Always keep matches/lighters out of reach of children
Clothes Dryer Fires Statistics: Responsible annually for an average of: - 15,500 home fires - 10 deaths injuries - $84.4 million in property damage.
Clothes Dryer Fires Safety measures: Clean the lint screen before every use Clean out exhaust vents regularly and check for proper airflow Use a smooth metal exhaust vent (avoid using foil or plastic venting) Use a cool-down cycle to prevent the possibility of spontaneous ignition Do not dry clothing/fabric on which there is anything flammable (alcohol, cooking oils, gasoline, spot removers, dry-cleaning solvents, etc.) Cotton fabrics are susceptible to spontaneous ignition if they have interacted with oils even if they have been laundered with detergent. Any fabric that has been exposed to oils should be stored in a covered metal container.
Holiday-Christmas Tree Fires Statistics: Responsible annually for an average of: home fires - 10 deaths - 80 injuries - $15 million in property damage.
Holiday-Christmas Tree Fires Safety Measures: Do not use open flames or candles near a Christmas tree. Do not place the tree near heating vents, fireplaces, or other heat sources. The tree should be removed from the house whenever the needles or leaves fall off readily when a tree branch is shaken or if the needles are brittle and break when bent between the thumb andindex finger. The tree should be checked daily for dryness. Check the water level daily. A 6’ tree will consume approximately 1 gallon of water every two days. If it is not consuming water, thenit is drying. Make sure the stand is secure and stable Do not place the tree near an exit Check the wiring and lights for defects before they are hung on the tree. Miniature lights are recommended, as they use less power and produce less heat
DHS Rules for Fire Safety Flammable/Combustible/Hazardous Materials: Must be stored in a safe area not accessible to residents Must be stored in original properly labeled containers Must be stored away from any heat source
How Will You React to a Fire?
What to Do in a Fire In case of fire, think “RACE”: –Rescue all persons in immediate area –Alarm: announce the fire- Pull alarm and dial 911 –Confine the fire by closing doors –Evacuate/Extinguish the fire if possible Do not: –Try to fight the fire unless it is very small –Attempt to re-enter a burning home Sources: Oregon Fire Code, NFPA, OSHA, and Numerous Business Emergency Plans.
What If I Am Unable to Get Out? Create an area of refuge for yourself Seal the roomSeal the room -Use wet cloth to stuff around cracks in doors and seal up vents to protect against smoke Do not break the windowsDo not break the windows -Flames and smoke can come back in from the outside. If you need air, open the window a crack Stay low under the smokeStay low under the smoke -The freshest air is near the floor. Keep a wet cloth over your nose and mouth and breath through your nose only Signal for helpSignal for help -Use the telephone, or hang something out the window Sources: Fire Safety for Older Persons, Seattle Fire Department.