2States of Consciousness Consciousness – the awareness of ourselves and our environmentSleepWakeAltered States
3Levels of Consciousness We know that various levels exists beyond the conscious level.Mere-exposure effectPrimingBlind sight
4Biological RhythmsAnnual Cycles: seasonal variations (bears hibernation, seasonal affective disorder)28 day cycles: menstrual cycle.24 hour cycle: circadian rhythm (biological clock) – regular bodily rhythms like temperature and wakefulness.90 minute cycle: sleep cycles.
5SleepCircadian Rhythm – pattern of biological functioning that occurs on a roughly 24-hour cycle.SleepTemperatureMelatonin - sleep hormone released by the pineal gland into the bloodstream.Suprachiasmatic nucleus – in hypothalamus causes pineal gland to produce melatoninWhen light strikes the retina the hypothalamus’ SCN lower production of melatonin by the Pineal GlandDecreasing light causes the SCN to increase production of melatonin, leading you to sleep
7Circadian RhythmBody Temp – rises in morning, peaks during the day, dips for time in early afternoons (siesta time), drops again before we go to sleepThinking sharpest, memory most accurate at peak of arousalCircadian rhythm is affected by staying up late, sleeping in late, travelling across time zones, shift work, electricityArtificial light and dark cave delays sleep and makes our 24 hr cycle a 25 hr cycle.
8Sleep Awake Sleep – periodic natural loss of consciousness Beta waves - alert stateAlpha waves - the relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake stateConsciousSleep – periodic natural loss of consciousness
9Sleep Cycle 5 Stages of Sleep Click to see an awake brain.5 Stages of SleepTakes about minutes to pass through the 5 stages.Brain’s waves will change according to the sleep stageNREM - The first four stagesREM - The fifth stage
10Stage 1 Stage 1: Slow breathing, irregular heart beat hallucinations – sensory experiences that occur without a sensory stimulusHypnagogic sensations - strange and extremely vivid sensationsFeeling like you’re fallingHear someone calling your nameAlpha & Theta waves
11Stage 2 Begins 20 min. into sleep Theta Waves that get progressively slower.sleep spindles…short bursts of rapid brain waves.Gets longer throughout the night
12Stages 3 Slow wave sleep. Theta & Delta waves. Lasts about 30 min Delta waves - large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleepLasts about 30 minDifficult to awakenVital for restoring body’s growth hormones and good overall health.
13Stage 4 Delta waves. Lasts about 30 min Difficult to awaken Bed Wetting and Sleep walking, sleep talking*,night terrors – sleep disorder, high arousal appear being terrifiedSeldom wakeup fullyNot nightmares (REM)Start to ascend back through stage 3, 2, 1, then…..*Sleep talking can occur at any stage of sleep
14REM Sleep Genital arousal Rapid Eye Movement – fast jerky eye movementsParadoxical sleep –internally aroused, externally calm.Brain waves resemble wakefulness, but body is at restBody is essentially paralyzed, relaxed muscles90 min. - Gets longer throughout the nightDreams occur during REMemotional, story-like, richly hallucinatory, including visual, auditory, and other sensory detailsGenital arousalREM Rebound
18Why Do We Sleep? Variations in sleeping patterns Cultural influences may be genetically influencedInfants and older adults have similar sleep patters2/3 of the dayAdults – 1/3 of the dayCultural influencesUS 8 hrs, but sleeping less than a century ago (lightbulb)Unhindered would sleep 9 hrsPeople in countries without electric lights generally sleep longer.Sleep debt – can’t be paid off
19The Effects of Sleep Loss US Navy and NIH studieshrs /night felt energized and happierAge and sleep lossTeens need 8-9 hrs if not, function below peakOlder adults and new borns have very similar sleep patternsChronic sleep lossMakes you fatter - Increases ghrelin (hunger arousing hormone) and decreases leptin (hunger-suppressing hormoneSuppresses immune cells that fight off infectionAlters metabolic and hormonal functioning that mimics aging, causes hypertension and memory impairmentIrritability, slow performance impaired, creativity, concentration and communication
20The Effects of Sleep Loss Spring and fall time changes – higher accidents and traffic fatalities
21Sleep Theories Sleep theories Sleep protects Sleep helps recuperation Memory storageSleep and creative thinkingSleep and growth
23Insomnia Persistent problems falling asleep Effects 10% of the populationPrimary versus Secondary Insomnia
24NarcolepsySuffer from sleeplessness and may fall asleep at unpredictable or inappropriate times.Directly into REM sleepLess than .001 % of population.Click above to see Skeeter the narcoleptic dog.
25Sleep Apnea A person stops breathing during their sleep. Wake up momentarily, gasps for air, then falls back asleep.Very common, especially in heavy males.Can be fatal.
26Night Terrors Wake up screaming and have no idea why. Not a nightmare. Most common in children (boys) between ages 2-8.
27Somnambulism Sleep Walking Most often occurs during the first few hours of sleeping and in stage 4 (deep sleep).If you have had night terrors, you are more likely to sleep walk when older.
28Dreams Theories Freud’s Theory of Dreams 2. Activation Synthesis Theory3. Information Process Theory4. Physiological Function5. Cognitive Development
29Freud’s Theory of Dreams Dreams are a roadway into our unconscious.Manifest Content (storyline)Latent Content (underlying meaning)
30Activation-Synthesis Theory Cerebral Cortex is trying to interpret random electrical activity we have while sleeping.Why dreams sometimes make no sense.Biological TheoryAreas that process visual images (not in visual cortex) and limbic system are active, but not the frontal lobe
31Information-Processing Theory Dreams are a way to deal with the stresses of everyday life.We tend to dream more when we are more stressed.
32Physiological Function Theory Brain stimulation from REM sleep may help develop and preserve neural networksNewborns neural networks develop rapidly & newborns spend much of sleep time in REM
34Cognitive Development Theory Dreams are part of brain maturation and cognitive developmentDreams draw on our concepts and knowledgeDreams get more complex as we ageBefore age 9 dreams like a slide show and less like an active story
35Critical Considerations: Does not address the neuroscience of dreams.
36REM ReboundREM Rebound - REM sleep increases following REM sleep deprivationDreaming serves a biological functionYOU need your REM SLEEP!
38HypnosisPosthypnotic suggestion – a suggestion made under hypnosis to be carried out laterRelieved Headaches, asthma skin stress related skin disorders,Useful in treating obesity
39Research on HypnosisHypnotically age-regressed people act as they believe children would, but outperform real children.Memories retrieved from hypnosis are combination of fact and fictionAuthoritative people can induce people to perform unlikely acts
40Hypnotic Theories 1. Role Theory 2. State Theory Hypnosis is NOT an altered state of consciousness.Different people have various state of hypnotic suggestibility.Social influence theory - A social phenomenon where people want to believeGood hypnotic subjectWork better on people with richer fantasy lives.Hypnosis is an altered state of consciousness.Dramatic health benefitsIt works for pain best.
41Divided Consciousness Theory 3. Divided Consciousness Theory/Dissociation Theory (Ernest Hilgard) - A split between different levels of consciousnessIce Water Experiment.Participant dissociates pain from emotional suffering people expect….orSocial Influence theory Participant just playing “good hypnotic” subject and ignored pain