Presentation on theme: "Participating in discussions"— Presentation transcript:
1 Participating in discussions StressParticipating in discussions
2 What is stress?It is a mental or physical tension that can result from different causesPeople are stressed when they find themselves in danger or in an unfamiliar environment.It is a condition which has both physical and emotional effects.
3 As a positive thing stress can... Force us to take actionAwaken you when you need to reactIt can open our eyes for new perspectivesIf in small amounts, it can improve our working performanceMake us better competitors
4 As a negative influence stress can... Increase our anger, depression, distrustCause headaches, upset stomach, cause insomnia, high blood pressure...Ruin our good working performancesIn extreme cases it can cause serious illness and even death (stroke)
5 We can learn how to manage stress and how to use it to help us: Positive stress adds excitement to life but too much can even kill usWe need to find optimal amount of stress in life (the amount is not equal for all people)What is distressing to one may be a positive stimulus to another, so we need to find out for ourselves
6 We must become aware of our stressors: Notice your stress, don’t ignore itDetermine what events distress youSee how your body reacts to stressIn what way do you become upset?
7 See what you can change: Can you change your stressors by avoiding them?Can you reduce their intensity?Can you shorten your exposure to stress?
8 Learn to control your physical reactions to stress: Slow, deep breathing will helpRelaxation techniques can reduce muscle tensionSome medications can help, but only in the short term
9 Build your physical reserves: Do some exercises (fitness) three to four times a week.Eat well-balanced, nutritious meals.Mantain your ideal weight.Avoid nicotine, too much caffeine and other stimulants.Mix leisure with work. Take breaks and get away when you can.
10 Maintain your emotional reserves: Develop some friendships and relationshipsHave goals which are meaningful to you.Always expect some frustrations, failures and sorrowsAlways be kind and gentle to yourself-be a friend to yourself
11 Stress at work: Can be caused by work overload Sometimes tough jobs can be stressfulSome people can cause stress (if your boss undermines you or makes unreasonable demands)Working environment: commuting can be frustrating just as badly organised work spaces
12 In the business world we often hear of rat race: It is an intense competitive struggle where many people compete for the same goalIt is also a terrible routine which leaves no time for relaxationVery often it is an endless pursuit which gives false hopes of achieving somethingRat race is also called treadmill
13 Workaholics are the most stressed people: They are people with a compulsive need to workWorkaholics are addicted to work without knowing itSometimes this addiction can be pleasurable to the victim or it may be a burden and a trouble
14 Deadline is a very frequent stress cause: It is a point in time at which some task must be completedIt is a time limit (due date) which must be respected at workIt is the last possible time in which to complete a taskThe deadline is often externally imposed
15 Some solutions to stress at work are: Flexitime (a variable work schedule which permits you to arrange your working hours as you like)Downshifting (working in less stressful ways, choosing a simple life away from the western consumerist lifestyle)Job satisfaction (how content you are with your job, your attitude towards your job)
16 People like work that is rewarding and gives them satisfaction: For this reason some amount of pressure might be necessaryMany employees want the work that stretches them, that is difficult because that is stimulating and challengingBut when the pressure builds up, it’s easy to feel overwhelmed by work and this can cause stress
17 Today a whole stress industry has grown up: There are stress counsellors and stress therapists to give you advice how to avoid stressOther experts say that stress levels today are lower than they used to be (they point out the difficult working conditions and long hours of our grandparents)Perhaps the materialism of the modern times gives you the illusion that we sould have control over our lives
18 An expert talks about stress: The major causes of stress at work today are job insecurity (many people feel they couls easily lose their job), long working hours (negative work-life balance)The typical family is a working family, with both members working which causes problems40 or 50 years ago none of these problems existed
19 Advice on how to cope with stress: First, find the cause of stress (it might be long working hours or not enough freedom in organising your own work)Each problem needs different solutionThe situation changes depending on whether the person is a man or a womanWomen are more flexible and men tend to become angry when stressed
20 An unusual story: Banker swaps rat race for bus lane A bank manager has given up his pound a year job with NatWest to realise his childhood ambition of becoming a bus driver.Despite the pound salary and anti-social hours, John Burgin, 48, has never been happier.“Banking was a career but in the end it became just a job. Once I knew I was leaving, I use to go outside at lunchtime and watch as the buses drove up and down. The time had come.”
21 His passion was awakened as a boy growing up in Sheffield, where he collected bus maps and timetables.But he went on to spend nearly 30 years working his way up through NatWest.“The levels of stress are totally different. At the bank, things were very political: I worked hard all day and then took work home, and it never really finished. There is stress in driving a bus around Bristol, but it’s a different kind and I don’t take it home.
22 Participating in discussions Some useful language and examples
23 Making suggestions: Giving opinions: We could offer staff a wider choice of food.Why don’t we change the menus?How about offering healthier meals?What about having a no-smoking policy?I think we should send out a questionnaire.I think that we should ask the staff.I feel that we have to consider the cost.I’m sure/convinced/positive that people would like it.
24 Agreeing: Disagreeing: Yes, that’s right.I think I agree with you.Exactly.Good/excellent idea.Yes, but what about the cost?I’m not sure I agree.I really don’t agree.
25 An example of discussion: I think we should do a lot more to improve our staff’s health and fitness. What do you think, Monica?I agree. For one thing we could offer them a free medical checkup every year.Right. That’s a good idea. A lot of firms do that. And how about having a no-smoking policy in the staff restaurant? What do you think about that, Tanya?
26 Mm, I don’t think I like the idea very much Mm, I don’t think I like the idea very much. A lot of our staff smoke-they’d be against it, I’m sure of that. I think we should improve the food. A lot of the dishes aren’t healthy.True. We could change the menus and offer healthier meals. I like the idea.What about setting up a counselling service, Vincent? Some staff are under a lot of stress.
27 I don’t know, Monica. It would be very expensive to set up a service like that. I’ve got another suggestion. We could talk to the manager of our local sports centre and arrange a company membership. What do you think, Tanya?Mm, I don’t know. It sounds interesting but it could be very expensive.What’s your opinion Monica?I think you’re right Tanya. It would cost a lot and I’m not sure how many staff would actually use the centre.
28 I can’t agree with you there. It’s got a very good pool and sauna. Yes, it’s worth checking out, I suppose. A lot of staff might enjoy having a swim at lunchtime or after work.Maybe, but there are so many other things we could do.
30 Put the following into a logical order: Look at the menuAsk for the bill/checkBook a table/ make a reservationLeave a tipHave the main courseHave a dessertOrder a starterHave an aperitif
31 Write the foods below under the correct headings: Lamb, broccoli, eggs, banana, beef, peas, crab, beans, melon, pasta, lemon, tomato, lobster, fish, potato, cheese, onion, veal, chicken, prawns, apple, mussels, orange, riceFRUIT: MEAT: VEGETABLE: SEAFOOD: OTHER FOODS:
32 Match the options to describe some drinks: Black/whiteStill/sparklingRed/whiteSingle/doubleBottled/draughtWith milk/lemonBeerWineWaterTeaCoffeewhisky
33 Multi word verbs (phrasal verbs): They are combinations of VERB + particles (at, away, down, in, on, up)There are different types:Without an object (Something has come up.)With an object-separable (Could you turn on the coffee machine? Could you turn the coffee machine on?)
34 3. Many phrasal verbs are informal (How did you find out?) 4. Many phrasal verbs are idiomatic; their meaning is difficult to interpret:away (creating distance)I’m going away next week.on (continuing)Carry on the good work.
35 over (considering)I need time to think it over.up (completing)Some urgent matters need clearing up.Drink up. We’ ve got to go.
36 Match these sentence halves: Last week, I had to lookFirst, I showed them aroundI certainly look forwardI hope I can takeOne of them did not turnThe food was deliciuos, and we all gotThen, I took them outThey said I shouldcome over and see them in Coimbrathe Old Townafter five clients from Portugalon really wellto a very good restaurantto seeing them all againup their invitation next summerup, unfortunately