Presentation on theme: "Pavlovian Conditioning Just Reflexes? Does this work in Humans? Does classical conditioning go beyond basic responses?"— Presentation transcript:
Pavlovian Conditioning Just Reflexes? Does this work in Humans? Does classical conditioning go beyond basic responses?
VH1 “Behind the Science” John B. Watson ( ) Founder of Behaviorism -Born South Carolina -Wild & impulsive -Trouble with law -16 yrs – to college -21 yrs – masters -Supported himself totally through college -4 th year turned in a paper back to front – “F” -Grad school – Univ. of Chicago -Ph.D. in 3 years offered position - Johns Hopkins $ APA President (37 yrs) “Little Albert”
- “Little Hans” – White horses with black mouth - Father sent letters to Freud - “proud, very white, trotted away” - Dad away boy slept with Mom Oedipus Complex - Displacement (unconscious conflict) “Analysis of a Phobia in a Five Year Old Boy” S. Freud (1909) - Watson…I don’t think so! – Phobia due to conditioning - Watson set out to show for the first time emotion could undergo classical conditioning
“Little Albert” 9 mo old boy Watson & Rosalie Rayner UCS: Sound of steel bar & hammer = UCR: crying NS: RAT 1. 2 trials with NS + UCS = CRY (“Fretted”) 2. 2 days later NS alone = no touch 3. 5 more trials of NS+UCS = CRY CS
Watson & Rosalie Rayner (1920) Generalized: responding to a stimulus as a result of training with another (5 days later) - Rabbit - Dog - Seal Coat - Santa Claus (beard) “transfer or spread” “Little Albert”
Anybody have issues with his experiment… Watson Methodology? Ethics? Data?
One of the First American Psychologist to apply Pavlov’s work to humans (emotions) Brought the study of behavior (Psych) into a more “scientific” and observable discipline Little Albert in every Psych Textbook Convinced other Psychologist that there was an alternative to Freudian Psychoanalysis Neurotic symptoms (Phobias could be controlled via CC)…Major applied significance Watson’s Contributions
VH1 “Behind the Science” John B. Watson Physiological Aspects of Sexual Arousal Attach electrode on subjects during sex Wife – “NO” RA – “YES” Resigned from Johns Hopkins
Never Published again…
Real-Life Examples of Classical Conditioning -Child sleeps on a pad (a wire mesh that is connected to a bell - has been sewn) - Child wets the bed electrical circuit causes bell to ring (UCS) -Child wakes up (UCR) After several repetitions of this cycle (bed-wetting causes him to be awakened by the bell), the child begins to associate the sensation of pressure in his bladder (a previously neutral stimulus) with waking up -In a short time, the need to urinate (now a CS) becomes sufficient in itself to awaken the child (now a CR) so he or she can get up and go to the bathroom - no need for PAD with Bell Mowrer & Mowrer (1938) Treatment for enuresis (bed-wetting)
Real-Life Examples of Classical Conditioning Coyotes killing sheep – problem to sheep farmers Study conditioned coyotes not to eat the sheep Sheep meat (CS) sprinkled with a chemical (UCS) that would produce a stomachache (UCR) After coyotes ate the treated meat, they avoided the live sheep (CR) This humane application of conditioned taste aversion might be used to control other predators as well Gustavson and Gustavson (1985) – Conditioned Taste Aversion
Real-Life Examples of Classical Conditioning Injected Guinea Pigs with Foreign agents (non lethal) antibodies boost their immune system Then paired injections with Lights Lights + Injections = better immunity Lights alone = better immunity Later Injected Cholera: animals with prior conditioning better survival vs controls with no conditioning Metalmikov & Chorine (1926, 1928) – Immune System
In A Clockwork Orange, a brutal sociopath, a mass murderer, is strapped to a chair and forced to watch violent movies while he is injected with a drug that nauseates him. So he sits and gags and retches as he watches the movies. After hundreds of repetitions of this, he associates violence with nausea, and it limits his ability to be violent.
Real-Life Examples of Classical Conditioning Drug Tolerance -- Drug Overdose drug users become increasingly less responsive to the effects of the drug tolerance is specific to specific environments (e.g. bedroom) familiar environment becomes associated with a compensatory response (Physiology) taking drug in unfamiliar environment leads to lack of tolerance drug overdose