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True or False? T/F We act out our forbidden fantasies in our dreams. T/F Insomnia can be causes by trying too hard to fall asleep. T/F It is dangerous.

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Presentation on theme: "True or False? T/F We act out our forbidden fantasies in our dreams. T/F Insomnia can be causes by trying too hard to fall asleep. T/F It is dangerous."— Presentation transcript:


2 True or False? T/F We act out our forbidden fantasies in our dreams. T/F Insomnia can be causes by trying too hard to fall asleep. T/F It is dangerous to awaken a sleepwalker. T/F You can be hypnotized against your will. T/F You can teach a rat to raise or lower its heart rate.

3 Biological Rhythms and Mental States  Consciousness:  Awareness of oneself and the environment.  Biological Rhythm:  A periodic, more or less regular fluctuation in a biological system.  Altered states of consciousness: Sleep, daydreaming, dreaming, hypnosis, meditation, intoxication.

4 Biological Rhythms and Mental States Circadian rhythm:  A biological rhythm with a period of about 24 hours (Exists in all living things).  Regulated by external forces-  Air pressure, temperature (hibernation), rotation of the earth, presence or lack of sun light, even the moon. Suprachiasmatic Nucleus:  Located inside the hypothalamus.  Regulates our circadian rhythms.  Responds to changes in light. Melatonin:  Hormone that works in tandem with the SCN.  High levels are diagnostic of being tired.  Low levels are diagnostic of being alert.  Melatonin levels impacted by quantity of light. Zeitgeber:  Time-Giver.  For humans it is the sun.

5 Biological Rhythms and Mental States The daily rhythms of the body:  Metabolism  Stomach acidity  Alertness  Body temperature  Blood pressure  Level of most hormones

6 Biological Rhythms and Mental States  The body runs on a 25-hour day, thus biological clock must be reset daily (light is one way).  Light resets the biological clock by inhibiting the production of melatonin (involved in the onset of sleep).

7 Biological Rhythms and Mental States Types of Circadian rhythms:  Diurnal  Diurnal (Light-onset)  Nocturnal (Light-offset)  Crepuscular (Dusk/Dawn Onset) _____________________________________________________________ Internal desynchronization:  State in which biological rhythms are not in phase with one another.  Jet-lag  Graveyard Shift Seasonal Affective Disorder: (SAD)  Person experiences depression during the winter.  Use light therapy.  Decrease melatonin levels you will feel better.

8 Biological Rhythms and Mental States  Body temperature is related to one’s level of alertness and sleep/wake cycle.  An increase in body temperature = greater alertness.  A decrease in body temperature = reduced alertness & motivation.

9 Sleep Why do we sleep? If our system is built to keep the organism alive and safe then why do we all spend time each day in a completely vulnerable state? Fun facts:  If you live 75 years you will have spent 25 years of your life sleeping.  You dream in color.  Not all animals have dual-hemispheric sleeping-  Dolphins have unihemispheric sleeping.  Ducks can switch between dual and selective hemispheric sleeping.  Your sleep cycle is regulated by your body temperature.  Not by the time it says on your clock.  You dream less the older you get.  Longest a person has gone in total sleep deprivation has been 10 ½ days.

10 Sleep

11 Two main theories: I. Restorative Process-  Helps the animal recover from wakeful activities.  Essential for maintaining proper chemical levels in the body.  In humans sleep is regulated by three elements:  Circadian Clock  Adenosine levels increase each hour you are awake.  Melatonin levels increase as the day progresses.  Causes a gradual decrease in body temperature in diurnal animals.  Homeostasis  Individuals ideal makeup.  Willful Behavior (Motor Cortex) II. Adaptive Process-  Developed because of a need of animals to protect themselves.  Survival, protection of offspring, food gathering, and resource management all require energy that must be conserved.

12 Sleep Sleeping Stages  Defined by EEG recordings and consists of five stages which can include alpha, beta, delta, and theta waves. Divided into two broad stages: I. Non-REM Sleep Stage 1 (transitional) Stage 2 Stage 3 (transitional) Stage 4 II. REM Sleep Stage 5

13 Sleeping Stages I. Non-REM Sleep: (Accounts for 75-80% of total sleep time)  Stage 1: (TRANSITIONAL)  Near disappearance of alpha waves and presentation of theta waves  Sudden twitches and jerks will begin (somnolence).  Subject looses muscle tone and conscious awareness of the external environment.  Gateway state between wake and sleep  Stage 2: (45-55% of total sleep time)  Onset of Sleep Spindles (12-16 Hz) and K-Complexes  Conscious awareness of the external environment disappears.  Stage 3: (TRANSITIONAL)  Delta waves (.5-4 Hz)  Considered part of Slow-wave Sleep  Occupies 3-8% of total sleep time  Stage 4: (10-15% of total sleep time)  True Delta Sleep  Predominates the first third of the night  Deepest stage of sleep  Clinical Anesthesia  Night Terrors, Bed Wetting, Sleep Walking

14 Sleeping Stages II. REM Sleep (Accounts for 20% of total sleep time)  Rapid Eye Movement:  Lots of activity throughout the CNS and PNS.  Dreaming:  Dreams can occur at any other stage as well (Hypnogogia).  Predominant in the final third of a sleep period.  Timing linked to body temperature (Fever).  Alpha and Beta waves present.  List of the five most common dreams: (Wieten, 1992)  83% Falling  77% Being attacked or pursued  71% Trying repeatedly to do something  71% Working, studying, or practicing something  66% Sexual experiences  What function does dreaming serve?  Can you analyze a dream?

15 Sleep Stages

16 Sleeping Stages


18 Dreams  Hobson & McCarley: Dreams are generated by random bursts of nerve-cell activity.  Crick & Mitchison: Dreams are a way of freeing the mind of irrelevant, repetitious thoughts.

19 Dyssomnias Defined:  Disturbance in normal rhythm or pattern of sleep.  Cognitive functioning declines rapidly without daily sleep.  Eventually you will hallucinate and show signs typical of schizophrenia.

20 Dyssomnias Sleep Apnea:  Breathing briefly stops during sleep.  Caused by an obstruction in the breathing process.  The obstruction causes carbon dioxide to build up.  Person may choke, gasp, or momentarily awaken.  Treatment-  Forced air mask  For infants under one year this is lethal-  They are too young for their brain to detect carbon dioxide levels in the body.  Coca-Cola during first year to keep them alive. Narcolepsy  Involves sudden attacks of sleepiness.  Involves boring, tedious, and repetitive tasks.

21 Dyssomnias Cataplexy:  Collapsing and passing out due to increased anxiety levels.  Caused by excitable and sensitive autonomic nervous system. (Myotonic goats-chloride imbalance) Pavor Nocturnus: “Night Terrors”  Most common in children going through the early stages of puberty.  The individual will not remember the episode.  This does not typically happen in adults.  Caused by massive brain changes.

22 Dyssomnias Somnambulism:  Sleepwalking  Typically happens in children.  Maturation  Almost never happens in adults.  Stress Hypnagogic Hallucinations:  Waking up at the end of a REM cycle.  Sometimes in stage 1.  Sleep Paralysis-  You are completely paralyzed.  Can occur in REM sleep.  Muscle rigidity, visual and auditory hallucinations.  Everyone has them.

23 Dyssomnias Nocturnal Emission:  Spontaneously climaxing during REM sleep.  Dream content does not have to be sexual.  Typically during puberty. Enuresis:  Urinating in bed. Encopresis:  Defecating in bed.

24 Dyssomnias  Insomnia: Difficulty falling asleep or remaining asleep.

25 Hypnosis Hypnosis:  Procedure in which the practitioner suggests changes in the sensations, perceptions, thoughts, feelings, or behavior of the subject.

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