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Threads & Synchronization, Conclusion Vivek Pai Nov 20, 2001.

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Presentation on theme: "Threads & Synchronization, Conclusion Vivek Pai Nov 20, 2001."— Presentation transcript:

1 Threads & Synchronization, Conclusion Vivek Pai Nov 20, 2001

2 2 Mechanics  Read Birrell’s paper – future use I’ll send out a link via e-mail  Next time: basic networking, IPC Some readings already listed, maybe more in e-mail  Now: wrap up threads, critical sections  Also – quiz 3 graded, working on current grades

3 3 Big Picture on Synchronization  Why do we need it? We have multiple things running They perform read/write sharing of data  Can we avoid synchronization? Eliminate shared data Perform read-only sharing Eliminate parallel execution

4 4 Synchronization Primitives  Why so many? Different mechanisms for different situations Convenient for programmers  Can we have fewer? Most can be built from “first principles” Reinvention error-prone and time-consuming  How do you decide? Analysis or Idiom

5 5 Primitives and Purposes  Locks One holder, maybe lots of waiters  Semaphores Possibly lots of holders, lots of waiters  Barriers Wait until everyone catches up  Condition variables Waiters block, signal everyone when some condition occurs  Monitors Expresses synchronization at a high level

6 6 Continuing on Synchronization So far, we’ve seen  “Spinning” on lock during entire critical section  Disabling interrupts for critical section (bad)  Queue associated with each lock & blocking  System calls for locking – possibly blocking Since system calls exist, is everything solved? Assume shared variable “count” Lock(&mutex); count++; Unlock(&mutex);

7 7 Cost of Protecting a Shared Variable  Making lock system call Pushing parameter, sys call # onto stack Generating trap/interrupt to enter kernel  System call in kernel Jump to appropriate function in kernel Verify process passed in valid pointer to mutex Do locking operation, block process if needed  Actually change count – load/modify/store  System call again to release mutex

8 8 What is Lock Contention?  Competition for a lock Uncontended = rarely in use by someone else Contended = often used by someone else Held = currently in use by someone  Question: what do these combinations do? Spinning on low-contention lock Spinning on high-contention lock Blocking on low-contention lock Blocking on high-contention lock

9 9 Things to Ponder  If critical section is just “count++;”, what is the overhead of the synchronization  Is there some other way of doing this?  What if you don’t know how long the critical section will be?

10 10 What If You Have the Following  Test-and-set – works at either user or kernel  System calls for block/unblock Block takes some token and goes to sleep Unblock “wakes up” a waiter on token

11 11 User-Level Acquire/Release using Block and Unblock  In what scenarios is this scheme appropriate?  Where should it not be used?

12 12 Semaphores (Dijkstra, 1965)  Down or “P” Atomic Wait for semaphore to become positive and then decrement by 1 P(s) { if (--s < 0) Block(s); } V(s) { if (++s <= 0) Unblock(s); } Up or “V” –Atomic –Increment semaphore by 1 wake up a waiting P if any

13 13 Bounded Buffer (Consumer-Producer)  Example: grep vivek access.log | more ProducerConsumer

14 14 Bounded Buffer w/ Semaphores mutex = 1 emptyCount = N; fullCount = 0; producer() { while (1) { produce an item P(emptyCount); P(mutex); put the item in buffer V(mutex); V(fullCount); } consumer() { while (1) { P(fullCount); P(mutex); take an item from buffer V(mutex); V(emptyCount); consume the item }

15 15 Implementing General Semaphores  Need a mutex for each semaphore  Block and Unblock need to release mutex after entering their critical section P(s) { Acquire(s.mutex); if (--s.value < 0) Block(s); else Release(s.mutex) } V(s) { Acquire(s.mutex); if (++s.value <= 0) Unblock(s); else Release(s.mutex) }

16 16 Implement General Semaphores with Acquire/Release  Kotulski (1988) Two processes call P(s) (when s.value is 0) and preempted after Release(s.mutex) Two other processes call V(s) P(s) { Acquire(s.mutex); if (--s.value < 0) { Release(s.mutex); Acquire(s.delay); } else Release(s.mutex); } V(s) { Acquire(s.mutex); if (++s.value <= 0) Release(s.delay); Release(s.mutex); }

17 17 Hemmendinger’s Solution (1988)  The idea is not to release s.mutex and turn it over individually to the waiting process  P and V are executing in lockstep P(s) { Acquire(s.mutex); if (--s.value < 0) { Release(s.mutex); Acquire(s.delay); } Release(s.mutex); } V(s) { Acquire(s.mutex); if (++s.value <= 0) Release(s.delay); else Release(s.mutex); }

18 18 Kearns’s Solution (1988) P(s) { Acquire(s.mutex); if (--s.value < 0) { Release(s.mutex); Acquire(s.delay); Acquire(s.mutex); if (--s.wakecount > 0) Release(s.delay); } Release(s.mutex); } V(s) { Acquire(s.mutex); if (++s.value <= 0) { s.wakecount++; Release(s.delay); } Release(s.mutex); } Two Release( s.delay) calls are also possible

19 19 Hemmendinger’s Correction (1989) P(s) { Acquire(s.mutex); if (--s.value < 0) { Release(s.mutex); Acquire(s.delay); Acquire(s.mutex); if (--s.wakecount > 0) Release(s.delay); } Release(s.mutex); } V(s) { Acquire(s.mutex); if (++s.value <= 0) { s.wakecount++; if (s.wakecount == 1) Release(s.delay); } Release(s.mutex); } Correct but a complex solution

20 20 Hsieh’s Solution (1989)  Use Acquire(s.delay) to block processes  Correct but still a constrained implementation P(s) { Acquire(s.delay); Acquire(s.mutex); if (--s.value > 0) Release(s.delay); Release(s.mutex); } V(s) { Acquire(s.mutex); if (++s.value == 1) Release(s.delay); Release(s.mutex); }

21 21 Definition Time  What’s a semaphore? OED says signaling mechanism using flags, especially used for rail and sea  What’s a monitor? Is it A device to watch a signal without disrupting it A person who watches, enforces, etc A programming-language construct for exclusion A giant lizard

22 22 Answer: All of the Above  Up to 6.5 feet long  Thought to alert for the presence of crocodiles

23 23 Natural Habitat of the Monitor  The Mesa system Xerox PARC (Palo Alto Research Center) –Cool place –Lots of neat stuff developed there  Digital SRC Exodus of people from PARC Language, parallelism focus

24 24 Motivation  What we want Dequeue(q) blocks until q is not empty  Semaphores are difficult to use: orders are important Enqueue(q, item) { Acquire(mutex); put item into q; Release(mutex); } Dequeue(q) { Acquire(mutex); take an item from q; Release(mutex); return item; }

25 25 Think About Critical Sections  What are they? Pieces of code in the parallel environment  What makes code a critical section? Correctness constraints, ultimately But really, what makes code a critical section?  Is there some way to take advantage of this? If so, when?

26 26 Answer – Push It To The Compiler  Easier on programmer  Compiler gets it right once Programmer gets it wrong often  Information available at compile-time  Small amount of programmer annotation

27 27 Monitor Hides Mutual Exclusion  Procedures are mutually exclusive Shared data... Queue of waiting processes trying to enter the monitor procedures

28 28 Condition Variables in A Monitor  Wait( condition ) Block on “condition”  Signal( condition ) Wakeup a blocked process on “condition”  Conditions are not “sticky” Shared data... Entry queue operations x y Queues associated with x, y condition s

29 29 Producer-Consumer with Monitors monitor ProdCons condition full, empty; procedure Enter; begin if (the queue is full) wait(full); put item into buffer; if (only one item) signal(empty); end; procedure Remove; begin if (buffer is empty) wait(empty); remove an item; if (buffer was full) signal(full); end; procedure Producer begin while true do begin produce an item ProdCons.Enter(); end; procedure Consumer begin while true do begin ProdCons.Remove(); consume an item; end;

30 30 Wow, This Looks Like Cake!  Well, the language/compiler has to support it  One problem – what happens on wakeup? Only one thing can be inside monitor Wakeup implies signaller, waiter in monitor

31 31 Options of the Signaler  Exit the monitor (Hansen)  Relinquishes control to the awaken process and suspend the current one (Hoare) Complex if the signaler has other work to to To make sure there is no work to do is difficult because the signal implementation is not aware how it is used It is easy to prove things  Continues its execution (Mesa) Easy to implement But, the condition may not be true when the awaken process actually gets a chance to run

32 32 Mesa Style “Monitor” (Birrell’s Paper)  Acquire and Release  Wait( lock, condition ) Atomically unlock the mutex and enqueued on the condition variable (block the thread) Re-lock the lock when it is awaken  Signal( condition ) Noop if there is no thread blocked on the condition variable Wake up at least one if there are threads blocked  Broadcast( condition ) Wake up all

33 33 Example  Add an item to the queue Acquire( mutex ); add an item to the queue; Signal( nonEmptyCond ); Release( mutex );  Remove an item from a queue Acquire( mutex ); while ( queue is empty ) Wait( mutex, nonEmptyCond ); remove an item; Release( mutex );  Question: Can “ while ” be replaced by “ if ”

34 34 Mesa-Style vs. Hoare-Style Monitor  Mesa-style Signaller keeps lock and CPU Waiter simply put on ready queue, with no special priority  Hoare-style Signaller gives up lock and waiter runs immediately Waiter gives lock and CPU back to signaller when it exits critical section or if it waits again

35 35 Condition Variables Primitives  Wait( mutex, cond ) Enter the critical section (min busy wait) Release mutex Put my PCB to cond’s queue Call scheduler Exit the critical section Acquire mutex Signal( cond ) –Enter the critical section (min busy wait) –Wake up one PCB in cond’s queue –Exit the critical section

36 36 Are Monitors Alive Today?  Actual monitors were fairly dead Java resurrected them  What killed the monitor? Man encroached on their environment – just kidding Language support a real dead weight C kills everything not-C  But they still exist, sort of Condition variables, etc., used heavily

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